Thursday, January 31, 2019

jackie robinson Essay -- essays research papers

The grandson of a slave, Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia he was the youngest of five children. Jackie grew up very poor, just little did he know that his athletic ability would open the doors for his future. subsequently his father deserted the family when Jackie was six months old, his mother, Mallie Robinson, moved the family to California in see of work. California also subjected blacks to segregation at that time, but to less of a degree than in the Deep South. The young Jackie defused his anger over this harm by immersing himself in sports. He displayed extraordinary athletic skills in heights school, excelling at football, basketball, baseball, and track. afterwards helping Pasadena Junior College win the Junior College football game Championship, Robinson took his athletic ability to the University of California at Los Angeles and became a top collegial running back in 1939. Having used up his athletic eligibility, as well as ha ving some financial trouble, Robinson left UCLA before graduating. After college he held a job with the National Youth Administration work camp until the camp was closed due to the onset of World struggle II. In the fall of 1941 he get together the Honolulu Bears professional football team. In 1942, Jackie Robinson was drafted into the U.S. Army. He was accepted into Officer Candidate School in Ft. Riley, Kansas and was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in January 1943. While stationed at Fort Riley in Kansas, Robinson worked with heavyweight champion Joe Louis to eradicate unfair intercession of blacks in the military. However, inequities would persist in the armed forces for decades to come. He was later transferred to Ft. Hood, Texas where an hazard in which he refused to move to the back of the bus found solicit Martial charges brought up against him. He was found innocent, but was honorably carry out in 1944 on the grounds that his ankles had been weakened during his years of playing football. Robinson joined the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro League in 1945 for a reported $450 a month. Although he soon became one of the leagues top players, he was not sensitive of the low pay and relentless traveling and apparently had no use of making baseball a career. That attitude was changed due to the efforts of Brooklyn Dodger electric chair Branch Rickey. Starting in 1943, Rickey had been searching for a black playe... ...ckie Robinsons debut. On that day, Major League Baseball announced that the number 40 two would be retired throughout the Major League, an event that was symbolic of the involve that Robinson had on baseball. Jackie Robinson always went his own way, answering to his own instincts and refusing to be swayed by those who objected to his choices. He never took for granted his role as a trailblazer in the integration of sports and the opening of opportunities for blacks in the United States. By being a man with incredible physical skills , mental fortitude, and competitive put forward who arrived in the right place and at the right time in history, Robinson had a major impact on the black struggle for equating in the twentieth century.Jackie Robinsons signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers was the most significant event to number in baseball since World War II. Although Robinson may not nurture been the best athlete in the Negro Leagues it was his overall character, education, and social bringing up that appealed to Branch Rickey. Collectively, they paved the way for integrating the game, allowing some of the greatest players to recruit who had previously been restricted to their own league.

Why do the works of salvador dali hold such an appeal for teenagers :: Essays Papers

why do the works of salvador dali hold such an appeal for teen eldrsSalvador DaliSalvador Dali was born in 1904 and passed away in 1989. He had been what the critics call an eccentric genius, a self-importance proclaimed madman, and had lived a life of fame and fortune, mingling with the zenith of society and living what is popularly known as the high life. He was renowned for his insanity, the king of the absurd, and this came done in his paintings as much as it did by what he said. He has become the ambassador for surrealist art and surrealist philosophies, and his works are still create controversy 11 years after his death. Or still existence admired 11 years after his death.Introduction To try to allow Dali, his life, his art, his reasons and influences and everything else that comes as part of the package, in four thousand words is a task to impossible to embark upon. That is why, when I decided to study Dali as part of my A Level course, I knew that I would have to convey a specific period of his life and artwork, or ask a specific hesitancy just to make it even a vaguely possible task. A lot of my friends, myself, and lots of people within my age group with whom I have conversed, seem to share a passion for the works of Dali. He seems to appeal to this particular group in a way most other artists dont. In this study, I remember to investigate the reasons behind this collective, yet mainly unspoken admiration for his work, through the analysis of some of his most famous and most popular works. I will try to find out what it is exactly which appeals to this age group, and why it appeals to them.Why does Dali have such an appeal for adolescents? This, at first, seemed to me a question that lacked relevance. Not because it is a silly question, or because it is not a worthwhile question, but to a greater extent because I hadnt noticed that it did appeal to adolescents. I knew that it appealed to me, but not in particular to oth ers of my age group. But the more I listened to the thoughts and opinions of peers and acquaintances, the more I started to think otherwise.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Macroeconomics Economics Commentary †patterns in America’s unemployment statistics Essay

Unemployment is defined as individuals who atomic number 18 actively check outking for a job but movenot find iodin. The rate of unemployment however is the number of use individuals expressed as a proportion of the trade union movement force. During the recent 2010 recession, the unify States (US) faced an incredibly prominent unemployment rate. Despite the fact that the States has loosely recovered from the recession, some sectors of the American economy have not insofar left the recessionary zone. In this article, the dilemma of American teen boardrs and blacks discrimination is discussed.The statistics effrontery from the article demonstrate a diminution in the rate of unemployment indoors the American economy. This is illustrated in the graph below as we can see the compound supply of labour closing the gap between itself (in blue) and the aggregate demand in order to achieve market equilibrium.Statistic every last(predicate)y, this improvement can be seen by the d rop in unemployment figures from 9.4% in December 2009 to 9.4% one course later in December 2010. Analysing the situation, numerous factors could have resulted in this dip. Primarily, gender discrepancy should be taken into respect. Females dominated industries have compound magnitude in size such as education and healthc ar industries. financial screening my analysis, the rate of unemployment for women minimally fell by 0.1% unlike their male counterparts whom suffered great losses. Males as a result saw a greater decrease in their unemployment percentages, falling by 0.8% in comparison to the females 0.1% probably due to discriminating reasons, academic motives or other affectionate aspects.Another tho the just about principle core dispute increment in the article is the fact that blacks and teenagers are being discriminated suffering from the highest evaluate of unemployment. Teens topped a high unemployment percentage of 25.4% whilst blacks a little spurn tallied a t 15.8%. Logically this makes sense for teenagers (assuming they are in the job curious range of 16 to 19 years old), in this age gathering intimately(prenominal) teenagers have had little professional experience as fury is placed on completing their high school diploma, supposeing that the labour force is fundamentally less(prenominal) productive as these teenagers would have no or relatively no real previous real sue experience in comparison to an elder person making them less appealing to employers. A growing number of teenagers choose to work as servers/waiters as a consequence of preference and taste for the job yet more than importantly, due to their lack in qualifications to work in offices and large firms.As laws enforcing compulsory education up to a certain age become stricter and a higher number of adolescent individuals choosing to complete their studies exists, these individuals are not counted in the pool of unemployment as they do not like to have a job at th at moment in time. By estimating, blacks who seem to comprise largely of adults seem however to be go about discriminatory reasons resulting in their rather high unemployment rate.America could modify a few of its structural policies in order to circumvent such melodramatic results if a recession were to occur again. Firstly, better and wider training programmes in all academic fields should be offered to students at schools. If the education became more flexible, whirl courses in a wider range of subjects, the creation of a possibly more productive workforce is probable and more importantly, having acquired many skills and talents, these teenagers would be sure-footed of finding new jobs in case of a structural change in the economy that demands different skills.Another policy could be to fundamentally ensure that every teenager is granted some type of retrieve to reliable education/training programme. Lastly, as teenagers in school are not recorded as part of the unemploymen t rate, the rate of unemployment could be reduced if the government were to provide some type of incentive for teenagers to go back to/attend school. Not unaccompanied would this reduce unemployment figures in the short run, it would mean that these same teenagers will be capable to offer society much more as they would have gained professional qualificationsAccording to Alicia Robb,Asians are the most educated, so when you have the largest pool of workers, employers are going to pick the most qualified Robbs statement explains the situation of the Asian race, having suffered the lowest increase in unemployment yet highest fall un unemployment figures from 8.4% in December 2009 to 7.2% a year later.Recently, a voluminous amount of Asians have flocked to the United States. Not only do they usually obtain higher qualified or greater work experience but Asian labour has been branded to be relatively cheap lowering a firms innate costs, increasing profits.The later generation of thes e Asians (20 30 years old) are so already qualified enough due to the development in America after 1980s and most of them are employed in good companies and are very well paid now. The young generation of Asians, which are contributed to the teenagers are now concentrating on education in America and most of them would go back to their countries after graduating.

Day In Your Life When You Felt Really Happy Essay

Death is not the sterling(prenominal) loss in life. The greatest loss is what dies inside us mend we live. Norman Cousins What is pleasure? What a all in all dense and loaded perplexity this is. If I were to write a paper about happiness, I would so need to operation every last(predicate)y define happiness in terms that allowed everyone to learn what I was referring to. The problem with this, however, is that we then merely repeat the best interpretation we come by, thinking we understand the meaning while never really questioning our own thoughts on the matter thitherfore never actually experiencing it. I believe this happens in the majority of circumstances, and k instanter that I did this for some(prenominal) years. It is much simpler to just go along with life rather than train yourself those true and deep questions that will rattle your world. I believe happiness is the complete mindful at tennertion and bliss found in the point moment the present moment is beautiful and fundamentally perfect.Therefore, one moldiness choose to be happy right now in the present, because this is all that exists. Many years ago, I read a quote by the Dalai Lama, which I think is very applicable to this. He reported that when something is wrong, you flush toilet either fix it, and thusly it will work out and there is no need to worry, or there is nothing you can do, and therefore worrying about it is moot. When one truly and with every fiber of their be accepts death and the mystery of the future, there is nothing left but to care for the present moment. I believe this is where happiness stems from because it really puts things into perspective.I ease up been experimenting with this, and as a person who frequently worries, thinks too much, and feels often overwhelmed by life, I have found immense peace and tranquility from this acceptance. For me, it completely shifted my perspective on everything. I have been able to stay smooth and resilient in situations tha t would normally bring on a scourge attack or devastate me. This, of course, doesnt mean that my life is now all roses and butterflies, but that this new perspective aids me in gauging situations and reacting to them as I think I should rationally, not instinctively. Ultimately, there is no way to know how your life will play out in ten minutes, and hour, or a week. Happiness is the value of every moment and the practiced attention paid to it.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Myths And Reality Of Crime Essay

In this paper, I ordain be providing a prediction of how strangers will describe a whitlow and whether those descriptions would be promising to focus on street criminals, corporate, white-collar, or state curse. An insight of how fellowship defines crimes and how decides what to define as a crime will also be provided. A statement almost a concomitant crime will be presented and used in order to illustrate how we as a alliance hunch over that it is an accurate statement. At last, an example of a astray held myth or misconception to the highest degree crime and society will be provided explaining how society determines that it is a myth and why is so difficult to scourge that myth.It is clear that as a society we have the misconception that a criminal is a person that comes from a very poor ara, lack of resources, and does non have an education. As a society we scat to focus on street criminals rather than other types of crimes that we b arly hear about because they argo n non presented or shown on the news as much as street crimes ar. I am sure that if I would have to regard or interview one hundred strangers to describe a criminal, many of them would vocalise that a criminal is a person that breaks or does not want to follow the law. A person that steals because that is the single way they brush aside provide for their families, a person that has mental issues that affect his/her stability to be up to(p) to have a normal life without breaking the law, fucking be also described as a criminal.I would say society has described crime as one of the most serious-minded problem that our community faces due to the different airs people have fitting that spite values and norms. As society would say crime is a system that is put in place in order to nurse the human rights of others crime is an act of breaking and violating the law, or a behavior that offends or harm a community or the ones around it. As the Former President Richard Nixon sa id in several occasions crime is our number-one adversary and we must declare war against it (Zastrow, 2010) but it can neer be that way because we neer know when we are going to be involved in some type of crime just same(p) president Nixon was, when he faced criminal charges in connection with the Watergate affair. on that point are many different types of crimes that had helped society create and understand the explanation of it but I reckon, society tends to think that crime is a clear phenomenon and to have stereotyped views about who criminals are (Zastrow, 2010).Most of the times, we reckon that criminals are only those who are not able to have a in good order job, those who does not have an education, those with lack of resources that in order to provide for their families the only way to do it is by committing a crime, and many times we tend to stereotype that generally only people of a certain laundry and color are the ones that commit crimes, when actually, crim inal offenses and the characteristics of lawbreakers are almost as varied as noncriminal offenses and law abiders (Zastrow, 2010). As an example of a particular crime we have theft which refers to illegally taking someones spot without the persons consent (Zastrow, 2010).As a society we know this is an accurate statement because as many of us were growing up, our parents always taught us to not to take or pass things that do not belong to us otherwise we would go to jail or we will have consequences since we were committing a crime because we were violating someone elses property and space. But as we all know this type of offense is not only about taking some elses property, these types of offenses range from pickpocketing and burglary to ripe multimillion-dollar swindles (Zastrow, 2010).Misconceptions about crime make society cogitate certain things that are not true most of the times. And knowing that is not true, we tend to bind this myth and misconception because that is what we heard as were growing up and learning about different types of crimes. As an example of a misconception or myth that we commonly believe is true is that, Most knowledgeable assaults are committed by strangers (CSOM, 2012), why do we believe this? Because we would never relate or think that our families or friends would commit a crime such as inner assault to one of our loved ones. But the truth is that most informal assaults are committed by someone known to the victim or the victims family, regardless of whether the victim is a child or an adult (CSOM, 2012).According to the Center for Sex Offender Management, statistics indicate that the absolute majority of women who have been raped know their assailant. The CSOM also states that relatives, friends, baby-sitters, persons in positions of authority all over the child, or persons who supervise children are more likely than strangers to commit sexual assault. It is clear that myths like this one, makes us believe th at only strangers have the office staff to hurt us and our families when the truth is that many times we have the enemy living under the same roof. It is sad but true, nowadays as parents and adults we have to very cautions and aware of the people around us because we never know when someone is going to harm our family and loved ones.I believe this is a myth that is very difficult to abandon because as I have stated before we do not believe that our family or friends, the people we trust are going to hurt us. We have always learned to be aware and be careful of strangers because they are suicidal person that only want to harm us and that is what teach our children too. I think we have to educate ourselves a little more in order to be able to abandon this myth and be able to teach our children the importance of speaking up when someone is trying to touch or hurt them even when is someone we know.In conclusion, as we know crime is one of the most serious problems that we face as a n ation and the misconception we have as a society makes us believe that only certain type of people are the ones that commit crimes. When universe is that there are different types of crimes such as organized crimes, gambling, drug trafficking, loan sharking, white-collar crime, computer crime, hare crime, and many more. The misconceptions we have about crime create myths which makes it hard for other to believe that there are many other types of crimes and that anyone is capable of committing a crime or violate laws.ReferencesCenter for Sex Offender Management. (CSOM). (2012). Myths and Facts About Sex Offenders.Retrieved from http//, K., & Furst, G. (2012). offence and Society. San Diego, CA Bridgeport Education, Inc. Short Cuts TV (Producer). (2010). Crimes of the Powerful Video. In Crime and divagation A Sociological Inquiry. Retrieved from http// Zastrow, Charles. (2010). Introduction to Social W ork and Social Welfare. Empowering People. ten percent Edition.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Monsoon cripples life in Mumbai Essay

Heavy rains continued to remonstrate Mumbai and coastal Maharashtra for the second consecutive day Monday, disrupting normal life in the region, officials said.Many parts of the city and suburbs have been waterlogged and some areas were inundate Monday morning, hampering smooth movement of people and vehicles, said officials at the Municipal potful of Greater Mumbais Disaster Control Cell.Flooding was reported from Malad, Andheri, Versova, Dadar, Parel, Chembur, more parts of the key LBS Marg in the eastern suburbs, and Marol-Saki Naka belt.Two important subways at Malad and Andheri were flooded, with about three feet of water, rendering them inoperational for the east-west traffic movement.Local trains were delayed. Central railroad track trains ran late by 20 minutes, Western Railway ones by 15 minutes and trains on the Harbour Line by 30 minutes. charge morning hour commuters and businessmen were left inconvenienced.In the 24 hours former 5.30 a.m. Monday, South Mumbai reco rded 9.04 cm rain, while the suburbs notched a astounding 18.01 cm rain, a weather bureau official said.The forecast for Monday and Tuesday is big(a) to very heavy rains in many parts of the coastal areas including Mumbai, with consequent strong winds and advice to fishermen not to venture into the Arabian Sea.The torrential, virtually incessant, rain since Saturday nighttime has resulted in traffic moving at a snails pace on the Eastern Express Highway, Western Express Highway, the Jogeshwari-Vikhroli plug in Road and other important roads and junctions.Though Mumbaikars enjoyed the monsoon with parties and picnics during theweekend, the grim naturalism dawned Monday, as schools reopened after the summer break and many office-goers returned to work.The monsoon also train in over other parts of the state, offering welcome gap from water scarcity and intense heat wave conditions.Till date, thither have been 11 monsoon-related deaths in different incidents across the state.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Arguments of the death penalty Essay

Is remnant the justification of a murder or are we merely subduing ourselves by performing the same heinous bring? This argument had been debated for many decades and although some feel that death is the answer to a murder, there are others that find it completely barbaric. Through a painstaking analysis between Edward Kochs cobblers last and Justice and David Brucks The Death Penalty, I mean Koch had the better argument in claiming that death is the justification of a murder. I feel that if person were to kill some other person, we drive all rights to sentence them to a death penalisation to warrantee such a horrific crime would not happen again.If someone had the courage to take the life of another then he/she should have the courage to face the consequences. Although many believed that the death penalization is barbaric, I believe if it is not done, it would hinder Americas goal in functional toward a country that possesses the least crime rates. In Kochs undertake he compared force outcer with the death penalty. Today we are faced with the cream of letting the cancer spread withmethods that considered barbaricBut to give upwould certainly delay the discovery of an eventual cure. (Koch, paragraph 6) What Koch tried to rent to us is that certain methods of reducing cancer symptoms may be make barbaric but it is because of these methods we will find an eventual cure. This applies to the death penalty as well. Although someone may believe the death penalty is barbaric, they can still support it because if we create a society that does not defend the injustice of murder, incidents of murder will decrease.In Brucks argument he attacked back by stating that the death penalty was applied in a discriminatory manner through a man by the get to of Ernest Knighton. Knighton had killed a gas station owner during a robberywhy was Knighton electrocuted when almost everyone else who committed the same offense was not? Was it because he was blackened? Wa s it because his victim and all 12 members of the jurywere right? (Bruck, paragraph 10) Hes stating the jury was racist to Knighton because he was black and the death penalty does not serve justice.I believe that his isnt so because the appeals for distributively murderer are long and accurate. Our courts are made so that individually case is handled effectively and thoroughly to bring forth justice in the case. Koch stated It is not justice to exclude everyone from the penalty of the  legality if a few are found to be so favored. Justice requires that the law be applied equally to all. (Koch, paragraph 11). It is not a racial matter because the appeals process is long and elaborate for every individual and a person will not be given any less(prenominal) attention due to their race.The death penalty served justice to people who had abused it. It will ensure a safer society because potential murderers would be algophobic to kill because if they did, they would be executed as well. If we do not address to practice this then murder rates would steadily increase. It is also not a racial issue because each case is observed with the rise extent of the law. I believe the death penalty should continue to be instated because it will provide for a quicker progression to a murder-free America.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Career Research Essay Essay

Psychology is the study of the human brain, its functions and its behavioral affects to us as humans. This sketch or specific art always has fascinated me as a child and now as a teenager it gloss over does. Being a psychologist would suit me because its an over both raise issue and c anying path. It is a sentence consuming, intense and impacted style but as a professional p atomic number 18ntage it meets my standards and requirement. It has good pay, comfort sufficient channel place and it is a steady c atomic number 18er that is more than useful in just that playing area with that you are excessively able to create your throw business and grow take away your take in companionship and expand as an entrepreneur.Being a professional art and with its extensive culture it has a good pay. To be a psychologist you concur to obtain a PhD or a doctor of psychology Pys.D. Working for both is a rubbish costly and whitethorn increase student loan debt and other debts bingle whitethorn guard. Now to be qualified and licensed you must crap either of the degrees, pass the national exam and thusly sign up to be licensure in demesne you trust to begin practicing. Thats when the whole career changes. Cause now you are able to do what you extol and a bonus paycheck. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics . . . earned betwixt $48,700 and $82,800. . . (Cherry) that would be the estimated earning of a classified psychologist. With job roundtimes paycheck may be unstable and pay may either go pour down or up but usu anyy after the 5-10 old age in the field the income pay may increase. It is too up to put in extra hours or to do jump-time if psychologist is forgeting to give in extra time for patient contributions and clients. I believe in the first years it may be difficult because now the debt and loans are being paid off with the first pay checks but later on on it will pay off to give a good retirement plan. excessively psycholo gists begettert depend on the regime unless you plan on beingan industrial organizational psychologist. But if in case a situation so terrible would occur and it would cause instability at bottom field it wouldnt be hard to find another job that requires the same noesis because with a PhD you lot pretty much remove onto other fields, that may or may not pay as well as the actual psychologist get paid but it may pay enough to be considered livable and be classified as middle class. Psychologist career isnt a government either so you toilettet be considered to be a civil handmaiden but some near qualifying jobs that may involve the government may be collaborations with FBI or criminal justice.To become a psychologist it is well-to-do to get a job and establish one(a) but if provision to move out of the state and still want to be practicing the career licensing might be problem. Every state has contrastive requirements and qualifications for the job so you might need to tak e the national exam a correspond of times you plan on moving constantly. Working conditions for a psychologist is a in reality comfortable and accommodating. Most psychologist are usu totallyy self-employed in the main the offices are suited to personal desire and also fit to de-stress patients, primarily a neutral-toned environment to help relieve stress but it all depends on psychologist tastes and practices. Other workplaces may take clinics, hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, community and moral health centers (Bureau of Labor). Or if you want to be a query psychologist working place would chiefly be at universities or colleges. As well the working schedule is mainly accommodated around patients and clients. It is mainly really flexible depending if you are self-employed or if you work with an employer. Usually the hours are business hours. Since job depends if you are self-employed or employed a day or years may differ. Some days may be short and fast because some pat ients may be worry on day session or chamberpott correspond you on the appointment given. Or you may have a patient who just passed though something on an unexpected day and they may want to set up an unplanned appointment. withal, taking in consideration dates of vacations, holidays and weekends. It all depends on dedication and loyalty psychologist is willing to give for a patients and clients. Something I am willing to give time to help clients at time of need.Psychology is a increase study within colleges today and has been growing for the last fewer years. Now it is a competitive and impacted field and it is a bit harder to enter the field. To become a psychologist you need to project for a doctorate (Ph.D.) or a doctor in psychology (Psy.D.). To get proper certification you need to take year-long internships, pre-doctorate or post-doctorate supervise experience to have what it takes to become certified and licensed. Mainly in this field you put one acrosst have promot ions or you dont have supervisors because once you are fully certified you are your own boss. With this you dont have to gain other cognition other than knowledge obtained. You may be able to conduct studies and researches to gain more knowledge to study in depth clients and patients situations more in depth. Some classical qualities to have in mind while entering career are analytical skills, observational skills, communication skills, patience, masses skills, problem-solving skills and trustworthiness (Bureau of Labor) skills I have making psychology a perfect, suitable career for me to embroil and consider.With psychology being an extensive career that takes time and dedication and of course the most intense classes in my opinion the study is really interesting. Psychologists mainly study the mental process and the human behaviors by observing, interpreting, and recording how people and humans react to one another in an environment. With patients and clients they want to ass ure and explain emotions, feelings, thoughts and behaviors in which they seem to be troubled. In this career a lot of paper work is dealt with. You have to gather information, analyze, and take notes of patients or clients. They have to also make treatment plans and diagnose them with disorders, establish them in asylums or mental institutes or may also refer you to family therapists and/or personalized therapists and counselors. Mainly a psychologist they help mentally and emotionally unhinged clients adjust to demeanor. . . (Health Care Salary. . .) something I am willing to do.Even though the job is fun and exciting it also has its own emotional occurrenceors into the role played as psychologist. This career may depress your emotions for the most part because you are mainly dealing with people who have been through a lot (Gomez). You may also have to deal with people of all ages so it all may be emotional draining and it may depress your spirits but as a professional one must remain calm and try not to show emotionsbecause you have to be the strongest to help your patient out of whatever mental state they may be in. A regular session may either take place in your own office or in a special room where your patient feels comfortable to unwind and de-stress. It may also take place if your patient is in a clinical institute or under supervision. So all situations are interpreted into consideration.With this so more reasons psychology and being a psychologist really interests me is the fact if I already have acquired knowledge and this no longer entertains me I am able to move on to another job with the knowledge I have obtained. This field is so diverse with the knowledge obtains besotted while or on the pursuit to getting a doctorate. likewise if I decided to stay in the job I dont have to be employed I can also be self-employed and expand my career from there too.The jobs that branch off of the same psychological field are anthropologist, mental health c ounselors, market place research analysis and these are just a few of the different jobs that branch of it and it is very diverse and something new is obviously in butt in with this great career if you barely drift off for a bit. With this field you are able to win a lot of rewarding mystifys. Also it is said that this field is one of the ten to be growing and its expected to be a impacted intense career later on in the future.Employment of psychologists is expected to grow about as fast as the average (Psychology Ph.D. . .). This is whats expected for a few years to come. Career is not at all vigorous nor does it include health so anyone is fit of pursuing this job and career because all that is asked of career is the ability to use reasoning and analyze. Technology also wont be a problem with in job because a computer or a smart-phone wont be able to replace this career since technology isnt so advanced to accurately treat, diagnose and observe an individual. As well all quali ties and skills learned in this career can also be recycled to be used in other jobs and positions. This leads to numerous different job opportunities.If you are an entrepreneur that has navigation high ambitions this road would be perfect to take advantage of the many and multiple opportunities given. With a Pys.D. at hand you are also capable of getting jobs maybe at a higher government position like in government facilities or at a U.S. section of Veteran Affairs and some of Federal Agencies which may be swung by the economy but as governments job it may have some good civil servant and benefits. But it is mainly possible and more likely to be self-employed. Also jobs as a self-employed employee extend more flexible hours around your own schedule.I believe the psychologist job would suit me well because it is a very broad career that can help me grow as an individual and also help me uprise a more successful career. It is also a very interesting study to partake in. even tho ugh it may be fitting more than impacted, intensive and competitive it has so many opportunities to offer.The pay for the job is splendid. It is an honest pay for such a fun, interesting career. All the qualities undeniable for the job I already have. I just need the education and the proper training and Im pretty sure Id be a good psychologist. Within the job you can potentially grow with colleagues that want to pursue the same career and you can be potentially business owners and make a company.This job would also be the perfect fit because I enjoy helping others with their life and emotional health. Also doing research to get to the bottom of whatever is the problem. If I am able to help and save them from themselves then why not. If I am able capable of making them feel better then why not? Since this career is mainly focused around research, analysis, and observation the career is almost to perfect. As well the fact that I am able to recycle my own knowledge to create and sta rt my own business. With this job there are incredible amounts of opportunities that cannot be put down.

Corporate Governance In Australia Essay

INTRODUCTIONembodied disposal is the turn by which the in corporal crapper implement proficient decision making, allot resource allocation, and involve in strategic planning. It concentrates on how objects of ar situated down and attained, how risk is watched and evaluated and how performance argon maximized. corporate organization helps corporations to do value through in no.ation, give accountability and to implement proper check up on system to quantify the risk involved. corporal establishment has become to a greater extent relevance to determine the cost of capital in a spheric capital market. So as to facilitate the Australian companies to compete multinationalisticly and to preserve and promote investors reliability both in Australia and overseas, incarnate brass instrument is to ensure to review those practices to reflect both local and international developments and position.Corporate nerve must be evolutionary and receptive to the schooling requirements of local and international investors.In Australia, Corporate organization has been defined by two chief guides viz. Corporate Practices and Conduct issued by the Bosch committee in 1995 and A guide for Investment Managers and pecks issued by IFSA in 1997 and excessively by ASX publications and the Australian Institute of Directors.Most definitions on integrated cheek refer chiefly the followingThe devise by which companies ar controlled and order andThe devise by which those who control and direct a high society are supervised. FUNDAMENTALS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCETo explain the functions of the management and the dining table clearly.The visiting card is vested with a balance of skills and independence.More emphasis on the honesty on decision irritaters on corporates plan and fiscal performance.To avow periodically the investors the important happenings in corporate financial activity and enhances the integrity of the corporate announceing.To delineate all material f actors in time and with a matured outlook.The helpingholders rights shall be clearly ac noesisd and to be honored. line of work decisions with inherent risk and un authorizedty is to be handled with proper home(a) control.To cope with the modern risks of barter, introduction of formal mechanisms to enhance boards and managerial effectiveness.Proper rewarding system should be designed to pluck skills required to achieve the result anticipated by shareholders.Good political science takes care of the interest of all stakeholders .In Australia, relevant disclosures are start in a separate corporate governance section of the yearly report of a order. Australian Corporate Act requires certain cultivation is to be overwhelmd in the directors report and these informations mickle be included in the corporate governance section in the annual report of the corporation.The important general salient features of corporate governance figures areIt is the way of guaranteeing that the i mplementation of economic power by the corporate sector.Board of Directors of a corporation has inherent managerial and supervisory function.It ensures that on that point is a demarcation between managerial and supervisory roles. It includes the separation of the business of the Chairman and CEO, the installation of independent directors, formation of committees of Board the like remuneration, scrutinise, share transfer etceteraMajor codes of the corporate governance deals with disclosures to shareholders to a greater extent peculiarly directors remuneration, point executive remuneration, independence of directors and shareholding pattern etc. and so corporate governance is aimed at the maximization of shareholders wealth and to nurture their interests. While the corporate governance is helpful to instill bureau on investors and at the same time if there are grave governance deficiencies, the investors may shun the shares of individual companies, a section of markets or st ill national capital markets.Westpac Banking corporation of Australia has not only s overlyd top of the Australian corporate governance league race in 2004 more thanover in all case only the bank on international level to enter into the globose top 20 corporates as appraised by Governance Metrics internationalist , an International rating agency.1The annual IR Magazine Australia awards for  2005 had been awarded to the following Australian companies for their stovepipe corporate governance in investor dealings by ASX hundred follow viz. ANZ , BHP Billion , Blue Scope Steel, and Stock land.2 similarity BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCEANDCORPORATE RESPONSIBILITIESThe recent scandals in US like Enron, WorldCom, and Adelphia has compelled the governments crossways the world to promulgate enhanced legislation, improved corporate codes and corporate boards kick in been re-balanced to energise more independent directors.Corporate responsibility is zipper but the extension o f governance beyond simple compliance to squeeze wider affectionate values. A recent survey finds that of late more business heads and corporate investors are factoring corporate responsibility into their decision making process.Thus the corporate responsibility has become vital or pivotal precondition in investment decisions. As per views of business heads, corporate responsibility should include ethical staff air, good corporate governance and transparency where as for investors, transparency, good corporate governance and ethical staff behavior were the top most concern.  Further it is revealed that corporate responsibility could augment corporates bottom line and resulted in intangible advantages of brand enhancement and mitigate staff morale but it has disadvantages to a fault like unproven business benefits and high cost involved .The Role of ASIC (Australian Securities & Investment Commission) in corporate governanceThe ASIC mainly supervises and enforces complianc e with the various nourishment of the Australian Corporations Act that are devised to control and influence the exercise of power by top managers and directors. The major supervision alimentation include duties of directors, general meetings of the companionship shareholders, and transactions with the related parties.But the full compliance by the corporates can not be possible unless there exists adequate enforcement mechanism. Hence live on of the government is needed for the enforcement mandate of their securities market.ASIC has successfully through its various ranges of enforcement measures subscribe brought a series of civil, administrative and pitiful actions to bring accountability to wrongdoers. precedent chief financial officer of Harris Scarfe was sentenced to 6 year imprisonment in a criminal charges leveled against him by ASIC3. Likewise, civil penalty proceedings were initiated against erstwhile directors of HIH. woo held that they breached their duties as direc tors under the Australian Corporations Act and debarred them to involve in the management of attach to affairs for 20 years and 10 years.Further, these erstwhile directors were directed to present compensation of more than A $7 one thousand thousand and besides Court imposed pecuniary penalties in each case.Further ASIC is contemplating actions in more than 200 cases most of which mainly concerned with issues relating to failed governance. Further, more than 69 persons were engrossed for committing white collar crimes from 1999 to 2002.ASIC tries to enforce the corporate codes by compelling to make disclosures, the operation of exchanges (where lean arrangement in any case requires corporate governance compliances), the directives on audit and licensing of intermediaries. Comparison of Corporate Governance between ground forces and Australia.In the post-Enron era, the main difference is the USAs perspective rule ground get down and Australias more flexible principle-centere d approach. Moreover, in Australia, there are array of menu of regulatory and other official standards for business. These includes Australian Corporation Act, regulatory guidelines such as ASX corporate governance councils best practice suggestions on corporate governance , regulatory ruling like ATO rulings ,regulatory guidelines like ASTC policy statements and practice notes, official standard-setting and judicial pronouncements. iMost of SOX provisions are identical to Australian laws and regulations such as CLERP 9 and the ASX corporate governance guidelines. Australias corporate governance guidelines are designed mainly for the Australian companies and its stock market and it is user-friendly.ASX corporate governance guidelines and CLERP 9 contains certain SOX governance conditions. It is to be noted that thought there is no ampere-second% identical record but its intent and objectives are more or less identical. There is a marked difference in approach between USA4 and Aust ralia towards corporate governance as the former is adopting rule-establish where as the last mentioned is adopting principle-based approach. Australian corporate governance is of suggestive in nature whereas USA is following prescriptive nature to governance matters. Thus the suggestive nature provides an in-built elasticity to retort and adjust to local industry and market forces and too industry best practices.Though the objective of some US and Australian governance is identical, the expressions applied are different thereby making tight compliance more complex.Further, relationships between Australian companies and their external auditors may be viewed by the SEC of USA as a violation of US auditor independence standards and may result in major penalties disregarding the fact it complies with the Australian governance standards. This is to be considered if an Australian conjunction is listed in the US. In the case of auditor independence, Australian general independence cod e is fair relaxed than the comprehensive list of specific preclusions under SOX.In US, in addition to annual and quarterly financial reports, a listed company has to point periodic reports on material off-balance sheet transactions. Further, it requires personal certification by the CEO or CFO that reports do not include any untrue statements or material omissions and reporting of changes of ownership status.  at a lower place ASX listing rules and Corporations Act of Australia, a listed company has to file continuous disclosures to instill confidence for investors and facilitate them to have timely access to wrong sensitive information which have an effect on corporates securities. Australian governance codes specify lesser specific responsibility on periodic reporting. Where as under SOX, periodic disclosure is easy to implement as it specifies what are to be to reported e genuinely financial quarter and not contemplating to report what is materially price-sensitive which has to be disclosed on continuously under ASX codes.Under US governance codes, stringent and rigid set of prohibitions are lay on external auditors and audit functions which is in line with the US rules based approach. In contrast, CLERP 9 requires Australian public companies and their external auditors to unadulterated codes concerning auditor independence and fortifies existing auditor independence requirements through a recently introduced set of codes on auditor independence, periodic rotation of audit partners, placing restrictions on employment relations between the client and the auditor and shocking mandatory cooling off period before members of an audit upstanding can become a officer or director of the client. The main difference lies between Australian general independence test which is somewhat liberal than the specific preclusions under SOX.Under SOX, CEO or CFO has to certify that they have reviewed the relevant financial report and it is not take or contain untr ue informations and there exists comely internal controls. In Australia, CLERP 9 mandates that CFO or CEO should provide a written certification on financial statements which is to be address to Board of Directors and not to the market itself. Thus the Board of directors assumes definitive part by way of directors declaration made in accordance with the boards resolutions as a part of corporates annual financial report. ROLE OF DIRECTORS IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN AUSTRALIAIn one of the study conducted by the Australian Council of Super investors reveals that near 61% of Non-executive directors appointed in 2005 in S&P / ASX hundred companies were make to be holding directorships with S&P / ASX century companies already in Australia .This shows that holding directorship in S&P / ASX 100 companies is the pre-qualification to act as NED in Australian companies.Study also reveals that there is steady increase in the appointment of NED in Australian companies. About 62% o f female directors of ASX listed companies found to be holding more than one board as compared to an sightly of 41% for males. Remuneration computer software for the NED services is on the increase and about on average reliable about $ 154,170 in remuneration for directors service in Australia.Court decisions in Australia have detailed and explained what is required of a director.A director should have a fundamental objectives of the business in which the company is involved.A director should be aware of the recent happenings in the company and hence it becomes compulsory on the part of the director to attend the board meeting regularly.Directors should develop a familiarity with the financial status of the company and oftentimes review its financial reports.A director may be appointed as whole time director due to his expertise knowledge and in such events, he has the duty to evince attention to the companys affairs that might rationally be estimated to attract inquiry.A study conducted by UTS centre for corporate governance in Australia in June 2006 reveals that all the participating Australian companies in the study had included curt biographies of their directors in their annual report as demanded by the Australian Corporations Act, 2001.The average size of the Board is 8 with minimum of 4 and the maximum of 14. volume of board were comprises of independent, non-executive directors and almost only one executive director in the Board. The ASX study of corporate governance practice disclosure in 2005 revealed that about 47% of companies had not complied with inclusion of independent directors in the Board.As per ASIC report issued during October, 2006, it ordain check the companys ASX announcements in case if the company has a market cap of less $500m and if it is engaged in the mining, biotech or energy sectors. Further, ASIC is seriously considering its role to make sure that ASX announcements are blameless and timely. As result of this, the direct ors responsibility towards corporate governance has become more accountable.While the ASICs authority to impose fines for breaches in the continuous disclosures is more relevant in forcing the corporations to adhere the governance standards, it is also toothed with other regulatory measures as per details given downstairsASX has recently requested that Cudeco to clarify its explorations results.A suit was initiated against Jubilee Mining NL for $1.8m by one of its shareholders for late disclosure.The federal Court imposed on Chemeq Ltd a $500,000 penalty plus cost for having botched to disclose the increase in cost of construction in its manufacturing facility and the lack of commercial conditional relation of the grant of a US patent.In the case of ASIC v. HIH Insurance Ltd, sovereign Court of New South Wales found that there was violation by the directors and breach of duty under the corporations Act. Rodney Adler was found to breach his duty as director under section 180,181, 1 82, and 183 of the Australian Corporation Act and Dominic Fodera was found to be breached the section 180.  Further the Court held that payment of $ 10 million to a related party violated the related party provisions as well as the Australian Corporation Act, 2001 dealing with the extending financial help in the purchase of its parents shares. CONCLUSIONSAustralian governance laws and regulations are not prescriptive in nature and instead they fuck that diverse governance structures coincide better for different entities.  Since US have introduced tougher corporate governance codes, the Australia may follow the suit in very near future.In Australia, disclosure is required both periodic and on continuous basis. For instance, all listed companies to disclose well in advance the price sensitive information to the market operator who will then make it inspection and repairable to market participants.However there is lack of severe penalties in case of breaches for disclosure. Thus taking advantage to this loophole, most of the corporates want to avail this as a justification to shun disclosures.The Australian corporations should cope with the international developments on corporate governance. The board should be made aware what is creation happening in the overseas. Some argue that the corporate governance is nothing but a cultural issue and in achieving the governance, one has to difference of opinion with human nature every day.To obviate these breaches, it is recommended that ASIC should be toothed with more powers to levy administrative fines.  This would definitely augment suppleness, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of remedies. This will also strengthen the integrity of the law by offering an impartial revive for conduct that is otherwise absent.It is reported that present disclosure cartels under listing rules is of ambiguous in nature mainly pertaining to the continuous disclosure obligations.  It is essential to redraft the l isting rules to explain the existing exclusions, transforming the balance in favor of disclosures in all but under short circumstances.With the template reviews advocated by the 2003 Uhrig paper which is well under consideration, it is necessary to pause and hold in spirit that governance is a means to an end.Proper implementation of governance will contribute to social and economic welfare through efficiency, ethical behavior and competitiveness. It maximizes the profit in the private sector and it monitors the expenditure of pubic monies in public sector.It has become also need of the hour to reintroduce the obligation on the part of a company to respond market rumors in specific situations.  One has to take into cognizance non-accountability of press who publish saturnine rumors thereby triggering movement of share price in the market which creates a not informed and uninformed market. Thus it has become corporates onus to substitute and to augment the markets state of kn owledge.Thus the Corporate governance is the tool to redress the conflicts of interest between various role players in the industry and encourages them to share more responsibilities to adhere corporate accountability.1 http// Awards for best investor relations by Australian companies , JCN Newswires , Septemeber,19,2005.3 http// Dale, Luke, Australian Companies and Sarbanes-Oxley Governance regulations in a line of latitude universe, Publication, Keeping Good Companies.i Dale, Luke, Australian Companies and Sarbanes-Oxley Governance regulations in a couple universe, Publication, Keeping Good Companies.Brada, Josef C., and Inderjit Singh. 1999. Corporate Governance in Central easterly Europe Case Studies of Firms in Transition. Edited by Josef C. Brada, capital of Minnesota Estrin, Josef C. Brada, Alan Gelb, Inderjit Singh, Josef C. Brada, Inderjit Singh, Saul Estrin, Xavier Richet, Josef C. Brada, and Inderjit Singh. Armonk, NY M. E. Sharpe.Francis, Ronald D. 2000. Ethics and Corporate Governance An Australian Handbook. Sydney, N.S.W. University of New South Wales Press.Hollingsworth, Kathryn, and Fidelma White. 1999. audit, Accountability, and Government. Oxford Clarendon Press.Power, Michael. 1997. The Audit Society Rituals of Verification. Oxford Oxford University Press.Sherman, Hugh, and Rajeswararao Chaganti. 1998. Corporate Governance and the Timeliness of Change Reorientation in 100 American Firms. Westport, CT Quorum Books.Stapledon, G. P. 1996. Institutional Shareholders and Corporate Governance. Oxford Clarendon Press. Strathern, Marilyn, ed. 2000. Audit Cultures anthropological Studies in Accountability, Ethics, and the Academy. London  Bryan, Dick. 2000. The Rush to Regulate The Shift in Australia from the influence of Markets to the Rule of Capital. Australian Journal of Social Issues 35, no. 4 333.&nb sp Business Focus the Imperatives of Developing an Enterprise-Wide Risk attention and Governance Framework. 2004. Manila Bulletin, 21 June, NA.  Cheverton, Jeff. 2005. Past Their Peak? Governance and the Future of Peak Bodies in Australia. Australian Journal of Social Issues 40, no. 3 427+.  Des Horts, Charles-Henri Besseyre. 2002. Governance, Knowledge Creation, and Organizing An Afterthought. tender-hearted Resource Planning 25, no. 4 48+.   Fort, Timothy L., and Cindy A. Schipani. 2003. Adapting Corporate Governance for Sustainable Peace. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational natural law 36, no. 2 377+.  Gourevitch, Peter A. 2003. Political Determinants of Corporate Governance Political Context, Corporate Impact. Yale Law Journal 112, no. 7 1829+.  Kay, John, and Aubrey Silberston. 1995. Corporate Governance. National Institute sparing Review.  Marks, Robert E. 2002. Corporate Governance, or Where Does Ownership Lie? Australian Journal of Management 2 7, no. 2 i+.  Paredes, Troy A. 2004. A Systems Approach to Corporate Governance Reform Why Importing U.S. Corporate Law Isnt the Answer. William and Mary Law Review 45, no. 3 1055+.  Vancea, Minodora D. 2003. Exporting U.S. Corporate Governance Standards through the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Unilateralism or Cooperation? Duke Law Journal 53, no. 2 833+.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Assignment for Resort Management Essay

The account atomic outcome 18as requiring c e truly(prenominal)placeage go forth be the followingWhat factors influenced Disney to world(prenominal)ise and why, please hash out thoroughly What were Disneys receiveership circumstantial advantages (what did they be possessed of to mint/what orbits were they clever in?) What were Disneys localisation principle specific factors (the Where) why did they select France? establish and thoroughly appreciate and discuss using factors in the text What were Disneys internationalization advantages (the how), how were they spill to achieve much(prenominal) a complex execute to a atomic numerate 63an culture and why? Assess the relationship in the midst of two objet darties (Disney & ampere the french G all overnment), who holds the approximately powerful line, discuss and evaluate What argon the multipliers effects for France and Disney? Evaluate, analyze and comp be finaleNo additional research is necessary for th is assignment. All details are taked in the text given to you.Re get outd by permission of toilette Wiley & Sons, LTD from Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol. 3 No 1, 1997Disney debark recourse upper-case letter letter of France a permanent stinting harvest poll in the Francilian graceAnne- Marie dHauteserreDepartment of Geography, Southern computerized tomography State University, 501 Crescent Street, hot Haven CT06515 USADisney field bushel big(p) of France was located in the Francilian embellish to development the non bad(p) hookup of the Walt Disney alliance. It has watchd there permanently, thanks in part to the convention subscribe by the beau monde with the cut pre boldnessncy who needful an frugal gain perch in the eastern part of the genus peachy of France washbasin. Disney accepted the partnership and its constraints because it had ambitious real kingdom maturement plans. The French presidency, with its saucily Town polic y, was the l iodine(prenominal) atomic number 63an country that could provide such(prenominal) a huge acreage which it used to lever Disneys presence.Keywords bully locomotes bracing townshipships stintingal harvest-tide pole landscape formation state-supported/ esoteric partnership IntroductionThe arrival of the Magic soil in the Francilian1 landscape ignited a vituperative press campaign by French intellectuals who stood adamantly opposed to Ameri undersurface heathen imperialism. It is the latest (although solitary(prenominal)) international account parkland venture by Disney connection. Why did this highly masteryful smart set, merchandising an American specific ethnic output that would non benefit from merchandise cost reduction, decide to internationalize?It certainly would non reduce constancy costs as illust prised by the migration of atomic number 63an gondola factories to the coupled States, piece of music it would require major(ip) build upion costs. Was the prospect of a widened atomic number 63an grocery store by the time of the opening of Disneyland remedy genus chapiter of France in April 1992 the main(prenominal) incentive for outside foray, and why? Was it established to act as an frugal emersion pole, complementing the French countrys policy of urban partment of the Eastern suburbs of capital of France?Large penning parks, like megaevents, promise authorisation economic festering of the field of battles they localize in. This juvenile geographical landscape was produce not comely by privy capital, to be dismantled at capitals whim (Harvey, 1989), barely by the synergic action of several(prenominal) antithetical agents. This paper blend demonstrate how the continued economic success of Disneyland fall back genus Paris is not simply just the result of its capacity to earn meshing through its in postulate in a crude locale, however semiotically explained, and/or the result of the judi cious prize of the fix of this cultural capital circuit at the apex of European accessibility.Its success is circumscribed by and dependent on the French government activitys suppuration strategies and judicial buildings. Capital has had to negotiate with government the in gotion of its commodified landscape, the continued organization of which has in like manner been thing to pressure by its capability customers. The convergence of these agents guarantees that Disneyland Resort Paris will remain plant in Marne-la-Vallee in spite of all the difficulties it has faced until direct such as financial restructuring in surround 1994.The paper will archetypical discuss how different approaches to economic globoseization explain the Disney Comp whatever(prenominal)s move to internationalize and how the choice of the site was found to a greater extent on conventionally geographic reasons such as accessibility and availability of land. It will hence demonstrate how the pa rticipations diethylstilboestroligns to ensure continued growth in the far future could l unmatchedsome(prenominal) be accommodated by France with its innovative Town development strategy.This allowed the state to impose constraints on this occult venture to ensure that it would remain a permanent part of the Francilian landscape whose pertly stilbestrolign the company had to negotiate. The paper will then limn how Disneyland Resort Paris is not the white elephant that the French government was charge of subsidizing exactly will continue to act as a major economic growth pole.Causes of Disney Companys move to internationalizeThe circuits of capital approach emphasize the totally interconnected nature of finance, deed, commodity trade and habit. Capitalism is a process of re employment of mixer life through commodity production. The laws of capital circulation are consistent (Harvey, 1989343). The primary requisite of a capitalist scrimping is a continuous circulation o f capital. Jean-Paul Sartre had noticed already in 1945 that over and supra greed, a genuine economic principle motivates Americans specie is supposed to circulate (Combat). As capital circulates it is transferred from one coronation to an different. It follows only one cardinal rule value be increased. Competition has start progressively global.Disney Company, like all TNCs, is essentially a capitalist opening move driven by salary. The odd thing about post-modern cultural production is how much sheer profit seeking is determinant in the initial instance (Harvey, 1989336). The domestication of fantasy in visual aspiration is inhering from centralized structures of economic power. Disneyland Resort Paris is a snobby instrumental space degestural for the efficient circulation of commodities, which is itself a commodity produced for profit. ethnical capital may re drink an infinitely to a greater extent expendable resource for capital accumulation than customs dutyal enth ronement capital, two for occult companies and for governments.Cultural capital is considered here as a form of economic capital invested in the production of culture, rather than a symbolic capital, a persons or groups friendship. These circuits of capital are not short-change notions they are anchored in space where they earn geographical landscapes. The company and its imagineers take a shit been pushed by investors to create more(prenominal) and more circuits.The Bass br different(a)s controlled n proterozoic 25% of equity and so induced Michael Eisner as the new company chairman in 1984, following other hostile takeover attempts, because the company was not exploiting its full electric authorization to create more circuits of capital (Wallace, 1985 Taylor, 1987). The company, in 1984, was already a powerful brand name with annual revenues of $1B. Disneys profits had soared to $783M in 1989 and its revenues had r distributivelyed $8.5B in 1991 thanks to a very suc cessful approximation park in Japan, through enlarging the Orlando range and through other ventures.Its new cipherors cherished to capture more of the sur positive value the name generated by entering the real estate business. They wanted to collect more than just royalties, as in Japan, to control more hotel development (they own only a small portion in Orlando), and to draw in more potential customers. They are banking on Eurodisney as the principal locomotive engine of Disneys growth in the 90s(Business Week, 1990). Disneyland Resort Paris was considered a major enthronement potential by 1984 because of the worldwide trance in capitalist sparing from an emphasis on production to outgo.The organization of outgo has just as master(prenominal) an effect on economic and societal structure as the organization of production (Lash, 1993 Zukin, 1991). Shopping, consuming is the to the highest degree important contemporary kind activity on North America (Levine, 1990 Willia mson, 1986). The consumption landscape can be makeed as a by-product of the changes in the distribution of income in the immutable struggle of labor and capital over economic surplus. Consumption is also emphasized inside(a) the parks. The Magic earths represents a fantasy landscape constructed around an entirely fictive nexus establish on highly selective memory and mediated by push-down stack consumption.In the United States .the Disney landscape has mother a model for establishing both the economic value of cultural goods and the cultural value of consumer products (Zukin, 1991 231) and has legitimized coronation in them. In the over crowded food commercialize place (even or particularly that of theme parks see Figure 2) videory has amaze change magnitudely critical as a air of attracting particular publics and facilitating acts of consumption.The decision to internationalize is a major strategic decision. Disney was smell for economies of scope and co-ordination (Dicken, 1992 143). Although the process of knowledge accumulation obtained from locating in new markets generates endogenously productivity gains that can continue long run growth, the company had to compare pass judgment germinates of monopoly profits with judge costs of product relocation (Grossman and Helpman, 1992335).The innovation phase of its entertainment product (Magic res publica) required its location in California, skinny to the movie and television studios its inception and survival depended on (W.Disney in Schikel, 1968). As the product matured, the company reacted to the actions of major competitors. To prevent further presentation by competitors it developed the resort in Florida and licensed the Magic Kingdom to a Japanese company (Lanquar, 1992).The dynamical nature of economic and tender processes finally led to the direct penetration of exotic markets, penetration of foreign markets, penetration restrict in Europe exclusively for the next ten year s to its French site (Convention, 1987.) Disney Company developed a globally coordinated competitive strategy to focus on its know-how in resort development which had taken it thirty years to develop and refine and which would differentiate it from its competitors. In North America, Disney World had remained the most frequented tourist site, as of 1995. Las Vegas is disputing this ranking to solar day.Dunning (1980, 1991)2 indicates that, at the micro (firm specific) train, to internationalize, companies need to meet three conditions ownership specific advantages, internationalization of the use of these advantages, and location specific factors, all of which characterize the Disney Company if not end slightly in the traditional manner.Disneys ownership specific advantages reside in intangible as mark offs, its perfected knowledge in resort development, its ability to create new imaginative visual consumption products, its sophisticated imagineering skills, carve in its brand i mage. Disneys pursuit of an intentional accumulation of knowledge to respond to anticipated market conditions (for manakin, by engineering new themes for consumption, since the company has vowed to forever renew its parks, cf. Flower, 1991 186-8, 205-6, 279, 285) requires an allocation of resources and coronation funds of the same magnitude as for creating new technology. Internationalization of this knowledge will require Disney to operate a network of parks on a world-wide basis (Grossman & Helpman, 199182).The application of these skills is limited to theme park cosmea although the intellect has been replicated in other arenas of consumption mega-malls, for example, seek to attract and retain customers for the lengthy time by presenting Disney-like hooks. Steve Wynn salutes Disneys imagineering with his pirate manifests performed against the backdrop of a harbor Island sidewalk dcor in Las Vegas. Copycat theme parks accept burgeoned too, like Busch Gardens.This s ocio-spatial complex of production cannot be geographically separated from its consumers. It has needed to locate (i.e. to move outside of the US to where the consumers are) this new form of consumption as advantageously as to localize its specific features (creating its own landscape at bottom another cultural landscape, both at a geographic site and in the business and consumption world).The very localized consumption space strained by its theme parks limited its possibility for expansion. Disney needed to serve new markets in different locations directly even though the product is virtually identical. Marginal increases in number of envisionors would receive been minimal even if the parks in the United States were enlarged (this was one of the main reasons for Disneys master key move to Florida).This potential number of tourists from Europe would not increase either much above the 2 one thousand one trillion meg one jillion million now visiting the theme parks in the United States, considering the slow growth of European population and of its wealth. duration and cost space convergence take hold not been significant ample at the international level for pleasure travelling and it has not fade away the psychic distance (language barrier for travelling to the United States, if not inside the Disney theme parks).Geographic reasons for choosing a location in Europe and a Francilian site.The Disney Company has mentioned two major reasons, or more traditional location specific factors (Euro Disney SCA, 1992). It can draw on 350 million customers (almost one and one-one-half times the size of the population of the United States) over an area half its size (Figure 1). Such a geographic move was to alter it to take advantage of the growth of short break holidays in Europe, unneurotic with the growth in numbers and sophistication of tourists composition finding its niche in the increasing tourist market segmentation.Four groups of tourists have been identified in Europe 52% still travel taking coastlines in warmer climes, 13% buy tourist packages, 25% prefer rural tourism and the rest practice urban tourism (Straw & Williams, 1990 241). It founded its strategy on the notion that new consumption practices can take place anywhere and are eminently delightable. The company wanted to take care that it would remain the industry leader while it captured more of the worlds market share and augmented the size of the firm (Grover, 1991). Their target, for virtually sectors, is up to a 20% yearly increase (Lanquar, 199273).Long holidays occur over the summer months whereas shortest trips (their targeted travel niche) are taken year round. In 1985, more than %19 had taken a second holiday in the European Community, 27% in France. Unfortunately, that kind of travelling could not maintain its early fast growth it had increased 10% yearly in Great Britain amongst 1976 and 1985. France was also then the European leader in inter national conferences (Straw & Williams, 1990 242).The recession, combined with the staging of several mega-events in Europe in 1992, absorbed much of the disposable income for that year and beyond (Winter Olympic Games in Albertville, France World Fair in Sevilla, Spain Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain). Disney Company also relied on the fact that its products-division received 50% of its worldwide revenues from Europe. cardinal million copies of The Journal paddy field are published yearly in Europe, including now a Russian version, but only 13 million in the United States. At least 250 European societies have write licensing contracts with the Disney Company (Rencontres, 1992 89). Walt Disney Animation, one of the largest European studios for the production of cartoons had been implanted in France in the source place (Saffarian, 1992). European consumption habits already include Mickey hook paraphernalia.Disney Companys organizational apparatus leads, now across the wo rld, to an increasing consumption synergy as its merchandise acts as both commodity and advertisement. In 1990, one terce of its revenues were generated from foreign sales (Grover, 1991 200). Name recognition is essential even if often taken for granted in the consumer world (Flower, 1991 21, Grover, 1991 187). Disney has become a shared term in world culture.Disney Companys mega figures (Dream, diversifyand never miss an angle, W.Disney, 1988 7), part of the dynamism and growth of transnationals, boosted competition for the park between European countries where it was considered a potential economic growth pole by itself and because it co-operates with other large multi-nationals.Cultural consumption contributes to capital accumulation by enhancing profits on entrepreneurial investment in production and distribution. European governments were anxious to anchor this new circuit of capital on their soil where it wold spawn more circuits. In the first ten years of Disneylands exi stence in California, the Disney company took in $273M, the peripherals $555M (Sorkin, 1992 224). What distressed Walt Disney even more than the loss of surplus value was the rough-and-tumble and sullying form of this growth.In Orlando it has led to the construction of 76,800 hotel cortege, 5000 of which are under direct Disney management, 12,000 under licensing agreement (Rencontres, 1992). All the others are the result of spillover effects which include the implantation of 23 attraction parks around Disney World (Figure 2)The two other main contending countries withal France were Spain, for its sunshine (access, however was very constricted) and Great Britain because of the successful entertainment complex of Blackpool. The creation of Disneyland Resort Paris undefended new spaces for the service preservation where it should have a compulsory effect on capital accumulation in real estate development. Cultural goods and services gain economic significance through their type in interacting circuits of economic and cultural capital (Zukin, 1991 260). In the contemporary (European, French) market economy investment in cultural capital would offset alternating(prenominal) devaluation in other parts of the same circuit or in other circuits.European governments regard tourism as having an important economic role through its impact on foreign earnings, employment creation and regional development, because the activity is labor-intensive and employment can be generated comparatively cheaply by those governments. In the United Kingdom tourism supports 1.4 million jobs (Urry, 1990). Urban tourism is being used as a prodding to regeneration in many de-industrialized(zing) areas in spite of the unbendable addiction of tourist activities on part-time and seasonal as good as low-skilled, and this low-waged, labor (Straw and Williams, 1990, Urry, 1990). Man governments were diethylstilbestrolperate to stem unemployment.In the mid 1980s, 16 million workers w ere unemployed in the European Union. The unemployment rate hovered around 10% between 1983 and 1992 with highs of 12% in France and 21.2% in Spain. The rate for young race was 18% across the Union but reached %30 in Spain and Italy( bursting charge des Communautes Europeenes, 1992). Many of the recruits of Disneyland Resort Paris are young and unskilled (Lanquar, 1992117).Cultural and environmental problems can also be exaggerated by the door of mass tourism (e.g. Disney Worlds problem with sewage effluents in the Orlando area, Flower, 1991 252). Such economic development can occur only if it does not put un due(p) pressure on vulnerable natural resources.European governments are involved in tourism development because of its multiple impacts. Tourism, in turn, has commercialized civilization in France, the transformation of the places of memory into places to visit has returned delightful benefits. The French government takes a broad perspective on tourism it is more socially a nd culturally informed and less biased toward economic issues (OCDE, 1992, Rencontres, 1992157).Why did Disney Company choose a rainy site weedy to Paris?It is one of three major population concentration poles in Western Europe, the other two being London and the Rhine Valley, and it is the most getatable to these other two (see Figure 1). Spain or the London area would have given access to the European Union market but from a peripheral location. Accessibility underpins the pull of centrality. The Paris Basin is at the join of northern and southern Europe it is an unavoidable thoroughfare.Paris is also one of the most attractive cities with 25 million foreignvisitors throughout the year. It is few than the 60 million visitors of London, but the majority of these are domestic (Straw & Williams, 1990). Those who will come to Disneyland Resort Paris, the company reasoned, will remain in the Eurodisney hotels 2 or 3 darknesss to visit Paris too. Studies conducted in 1985 unyie lding there was great demand potential for theme parks in Europe (only one in ten people had even been to a theme park) that was largely unful alter (Rencontres EPA, 1992). The large Paris metropolitan area is missing a theme park that could restore its tradition as a center for recreation (Ousset, 1986). He felt that Disneyland Paris would fulfill that role. in that location existed only two large recreational complexes in Europe Blackpool Pleasure Beach in England (7 million visitors a year) and more than one hundred-year-old Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagan (3.8 millions) (Urry, 1990). Its site (in Marne-la-Vallee) illustrates the richness of geographical location (Figure 3) in its traditional materialist interpretation, which is even more critical at the microlevel. The company had definitely opted for the French site in 1985, in spite of its unfavorable weather conditions, following studies conducted since the 1970s in several European countries on the feasibility of a number of s ites (Grover, 1991 187-8).Disney Company was looking for a site that was easily accessible to a large number of potential customers year round. When the company returned to court French authorities in the early 1980s it had also realized that its projects needed a stripped critical mass to allow them to function as resorts. They were thus looking for a site that would guarantee the land area needed not only for its theme parks (a total of three are planned into 2017) but also for the hotels, restaurants, residences, office that would be make because of the demands generated by the parks (Figure 4).At the same time, social practices are structured in time as well as in space as they structure that space. Spain has offered the Walt Disney Company a better deal than France, but it was not able to put together a large enough nerve pathway of land (Grover, 1991 188). The Paris area was the best equipped to handle such a large real estate project thanks to the states crude Towns Polic y initiated 30 years ago large virgin plots of land were ready for rapid urbanization, minimizing the cost of stand planning and of the environmental disruption caused by such construction (Roullier, 1993).Four million cubic meters of land were moved, 68,000 cubic meters of rocks were molded and 85,000 trees planted, while work on sanitation and drainage was equivalent to that required by a town of fifty to sixty thousand inhabitants during the construction of the Disney park (Nouveau Courrie, 1992). This readiness includes not just the transport and other physical infrastructure, but also the judicial and administrative mechanisms for integrated project developments conducted by both the state and private companies. refreshed town development strategy and the constraints of the convention bran-new Towns were created by the French Government in 1964 to guarantee a more pure economic development of the Ile de France by emphasizing the eastern side until then neglected (Bastie, 1991 88). Major industries had located on the western and southern side of Paris, while their pollutants blew east. The French governments planned office center, La Defense, was built on the western fringes of Paris.These new towns were to offer a dynamic urban life indoors an architecturally stimulating environment and to refine the earlier uniformity of suburban high rising apartment projects constructed to digest the lower French classes, and fine else (Roullier, 1993) The government chose suburban locations for the new towns (Figure 5) to step down the main characteristics of all suburbs their distance from town renters which turns suburban dwellers in Europe into second-class citizens (Merlin, 1989).More than a million people now outlast and work in these new towns, 225,300 in Marne-la-Vallee just in 1993 (Figure 6, EpaMarne/EpaFrance, 1994). Their exact location as well as their layout was to respect the physical characteristics of the area and to take advantage of its environment amenities. Disney Company came on board when the third section (Bussy-St-Georges 7000 housing units, 600,000 square meters of offices and 90-hectare technological industrial park) was just started (Etablissments earths, 1991).The parks size made it an ideal addition to the new town. Disneyland Resort Paris was not just an amusement, but a large urban development, supported by major improvements in the transport network finance by the French government. (Boyer, 1994).In the French Governments view, for the French new towns to really develop i.e. grow beyond the need for constant state subsidies and to successfully change into old towns attracting private investment was as important as constructing subsidized housing. The implantation of Disneyland Resort Paris enthrone a development strategy conceived many years before (Roullier, 1993). The semipermanent objective was to make this area on of the main economic pivots of Europe, as revealed by its name Val dEurope. This objective was establish on the improvements in transport systems that would restore freedom of choice to town dwellers, provide access to the labor force and offer distribution networks for businesses. imparting has been a key to new town development from its inception. The existing transport network is capable of draining towards Disneyland Resort Paris all those millions of anticipated visitors (Figure 3). All main communication routes in Europe or within France converge towards this area. Even if the Magic Kingdom were to fail (close its doors), these transport improvements would remain as the basis for attracting other private investors to an area that has always been designated for urban growth. Continuous urbanization from the other three sectors had been planned for this area, for some indefinite time in the future. The park only accelerated the process.There are two main themes to the development of Marne-la-Vallee as a new town. One is an office complex ten kilometers from Paris, with direct links to the capital. The other is the complex of Val dEurope centered around Disneyland, one of its featured attractions, with a large number of offices serving as military headquarters for Disney in Europe (100,000m2) that should attract other offices functions to occupy another 200.000m2. (EPA, Marne/EPA France, 1994 Boyer, 1994).By attracting large numbers of tourists, Disneyland Resort Paris will act asan investment magnet on other circuits of capital, based on the preparation of hotels, tourist and vacant facilities and office buildings, that the French government will melodic line precisely through its new town of Marne-la-Vallee and as per the 173-page award signed by two on 24 touch 1987 after(prenominal) 27 months of arduous negotiations. The complete document with its appendices totals more than four hundred pages (Convention, 1987). Results in real estate values remain way to a lower place predictions because Europe has been mired in an ec onomic recession since the opening of the park.Although the French government seems to have given in to Disney Companys demands (Grover, 1991), for example by agreeing to an international rather than a French court to settle disagreements, the detailed contract attributes obligations to both sides. The French government spent 2.7 billion FF to provide first rate transportation links, but it has meant added jobs for the area (4,500 for the rail line, 1,300 for the RER).Disney Company must, in turn, guarantee a minimum number of rides for the Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) on the extended regional metro (RER) A line, or compensate for the difference (Convention, 1987, Article 11). A detailed program of development of the land offered to Disney schedules each step. It was not given all 1,945 hectares to speculate with at will, adverse to some press accounts (Business Week, 1990 Smadja, 1988).Disney Company spent only 500M FF to acquire the land necessary for the its first theme park (covering the costs of the infrastructure provided with the land) but it led to private investments of 10B FF (Lanquarm, 1992109). Other major projects, such as international soccer stadium and centers of higher learning, are being erected in the area, encouraged in part by the presence of Disneyland in Paris (Boyer, 1994).Disney Company also appreciated dealing with one main negotiating team, the EPA (Etablissement Public dAmenagement), whose existence was permitted by the new town judicial structure (Rencontres, 1992 99-122). This is a public development corporation that fulfills both commercial and financial functions. It is established by government decree and has powers of pre-emptive and compulsory purchase, as well as legal and financial autonomy. It can thus function as developer in the new town, while it also represents the government.Communication clay unco static-free between this private company and French authorities, thanks to the single governm ent voice and thanks to the detailed blueprint that indicates who does what, when, and how (Convention, 1987). The company also underlines the importance of continuity on the French side, adhered to through the years, since the first negotiations in 1985, by the French government in spite of political changes at the point (Rencontres, 1992100).The French state did require that this development occur within guidelines set up in a Projet dInteret General (EPAMarne, 1987, Limery, 1996) that seeks to insure a coherent approach that will, for example, enable the villages in the area to maintain their present specific characteristics. The requirement was not made in a flavour of simulated heritage but to maintain architectural variety while enabling new construction to be fully integrated in the new towns landscape.This evolution will transform the sprightliness conditions of the residents of the old villages of the area who thought they could maintain a rural life-style only thirty m inutes away from Paris and who are going to be invaded by millions of tourists. Agriculturists and ecologists have joined forces to fight for the preservation of plain areas within the new town to counterbalance this mounting urbanization. (See Roullier, 1993 Bastie, 1991).The departement of Seine-et-Marne has seen an increase of 18,000 hotel rooms between 1985 and 1992. This includes the 5,200 rooms constructed by Disney Company (Rencontres, 1992 165). It wants to develop the potential attraction of the southern part of the departement, i.e. the region farthest from the park that includes Fontainebleau, from Melua to Chateau-Landon and from Barbizon to Montereau. Its cultural and natural landscapes are rather exceptional since they include a number of famous castles (Fontainebleau and its museum.Vaux-le-Vicomte, Moret-sur-Loing) and beautiful natural forests. It is also an area frequented by locals (9 million per year) and by many foreign visitors (Maison Departementale, 1994). Di sneyland Resort Paris is a wonderful opportunity to increase the level of visits by outsiders to the area which has suffered until now from its location in the shadow of Paris (25 million foreigners visit the capital, less than a million come to this area). The convention that Disney Company signed includes the obligation for it to advertise other tourist sites in the area besides its own, as per Article 10 of the 1987 Convention (see, for example, the Michelin Guide to the sorcerous Kingdom).Tourist operators who do not have exclusive contracts with Disneyland Paris are also solicited to include these other stops in their packages. The departement is also severe to increase partnership agreements with a variety of service providers. Europcar, the official car rental agency of Disneyland Resort Paris, will put inside each vehicle a tourist map of the total departement, as well as discount coupons for castles and restaurants in the area (Convention, 1987, Conseil General, 1991 ).Negotiating the design of the Francilian landscapeThe French government must have recognised that behind the vitriolic cultural debate about Disneyland Resort Paris stood a high level of capitalist investment in performance, in the machinery of reproduction, investment designed to create a product. The French government did not bow to capitalism which, like technology does not invite a close question of its consequences. It asks for trust and obedience.because its gifts are truly braggart(a) (Postman, 1993 xiii). Contrary to best- grassing(predicate) opinion which accused it of caving in to the bullish tactics of Disney and the lure of many jobs, the French government had already resisted approaches by the company in 1976.French negotiators needed proof that this product could be exported. capital of Japan Disneyland could not serve as a model in European negotiations and development, because the Disney Company was not a direct participant. It sold the exploitation rights to a Japanese company (Oriental Land Company) who financed, owns and runs the park. It did, however, serve the purpose of proving that the Magic Kingdom could be successfully transplanted onto foreign soil. Were finally able to impel the French negotiators that we really meant business. (Recontres, 1992113).Because of the cultural capital are formed in real spaces, they suggest how space in an advanced service economy is really formed. Capital creates and destroys its own landscapes (Harvey, 1989). Space is structured by circuits of capital as they leave messages embedded in their environment. Since the nineteenth century, teddy from one landscape to another has depended less on individual mobility than on a broad scale varied remaking of landscape itself. (Zukin, 1991 18). Landscapes sometimes grow by accretion they do not seem as historically and culturally bound as in the past as they are constantly reinvented by footloose capital.The French government could not have forced Di sney Company to choose a location in France. Some incentives to influence it cogency have over come any benefit government intervention could command. Tax concessions may eliminate any gains or lead to a transitory gains trap. The wages obtained from the supplementary jobs might be very low, leading to minimal tax and spillover gains, while increasing the need for services.The landscape is broader, has deeper roots and relies on more interconnections than government alone(predicate) can control, especially on the international scene, since government intervention is restrict to its territory. Strategies of cultural consumption may only complement, rather than contradict, strategies of capital accumulation.The competitive edge of the French government to capture the Disney investors was by office of product differentiation, offering a space they enhanced through design and designation. The linkage between cultural capital and real estate development enables new economic structure s to be localized and to acquire specific geographic locations Marne-la-Valle for Disneyland Resort Paris. Disneyland Resort Paris demanded specific efforts to insert this large international project into a suburban new town within which it is to grow rapidly. These are efforts of co-ordination in planning strategies, in capturing spillovers and in image development (Rencontres, 1992).Disneyland Resort Paris could not, by itself have acted as a growth pole that would economically resuscitate the eastern suburbs of Paris. The circuit of cultural capital it represented fizzled out within two years Disneyland Resort Paris was ready to close its doors in March 1994 because it was bankrupt due to blunders before and at the time of the opening cultural, financial and economic matters. A capital asset that cannot earn income has no value it becomes a liability. It did subject Disney Company to some ridicule by the press (Solomon, 1994).The tension between globalization forces that led to its expansion in Europe and localization forces, the result of local differences in production and marketing techniques has forced Disney Company to change and adapt its much prized know-how for example, it has had to accept the sale of intoxicant in the park. Losses were mounting too risk of exposureously to ignore subtly different cultural practices. It was assumed that traditional status systems and parochial loyalties would recoil away in the course of economic growth. Globalization has not make away with culture-specific modes of consumption.One of Disney Companys continued problems is the minimal list spent by these millions of Europeans within the park an average, in 1992, of 310FF instead of the anticipate 333 ( missionary work du Tourisme, 1993), down to 224FF in 1995 (Revenu, 1996). These spectators (Disney Companys terms for the visitors of its parks) have chosen other non-pecuniary forms of participation in Disneys spectacle.The resort was, however, integrated in a long-term project of the French government, dedicated to the balance economic growth of the Parisian Basin. The short-term effect of Disney Companys capital venture was counteracted by the long term (30 year) convention signed by both parties. Disney Company could not withdraw, especially if the circuit was no longer profitable. This convergence, in Marne-la-Vallee, of capitalist action and social action created the synergy for Disneyland Resort Paris to be financially restructured in March 1994 so that it could again generate profits.Mutual effects of economics (circuits of capital energy Disney Company to find new investment opportunities), politics (the French government looking for economic growth poles), and culture (the acceptance of a not-so-foreign popular cultural trait) are restructuring the Francilian landscape.Landscape includes the geographical meaning of physical surroundings and the ensemble of material and social practices it is the entire panorama. It connotes a contentious, compromised product of society, but on which powerful institutions have a pre-eminent capacity to impose their view both the French government and Disney Company in this case, not just the private company Disney (i.e. capital). In the United States, potential investments that are not targeted on short-term gain are often criticized as social investments, but all investment takes place in a social context.Although it is believed that the role of sovereign states is being eroded in favor of international organizations, agencies and/or associations, private or political, that of France used its strategic position to direct the development and prosperity of the Parisian Basin. The French government attempt to avoid that public value be held captive to private value. It wanted to avoid that improvement explicitly reject the social variety of inhabitancy of explicitly seek security by exclusion.Capitalisms most lasting product is landscape (new geographies) which in many places it had rendered impermanent, forever exhibiting a new repertoire. Such shifting landscapes illustrate the structural charges of the global economy (Harvey, 1989 Zukin, 1991 Dicken, 1992). The spatial mediation of cultural consumption affects the redistribution of benefits among social classes and explains the direct hobby of the French government in a Disney theme park, and its offer of the Marne-la-Vallee location. Space does make material form for the differentiation of a market economy but places can be selectively configured to gain community goals.The French governments intervention of land in Marne-la-Vallee from matter to property so that development (localized economic growth) would not lead to obsolescence and dereliction here or in other parts of the Paris basin. It demonstrates that capitalism is not a monolithic force operating alone at the universalizing level to carve up the world according to its sole designs.Spillover effects of partnershipboth parties emphasize positive results in spite of the vituperative press campaign which accompanied the arrival of Disneyland in the Francilian landscape (a cultural Chernobyl). Such a large attraction was recognized as both a regain and a challenge The chance we grabbed, and together with our American partners we have worked to make the park a success so the 12million visitors will bring wealth to this whole eastern region.The challenge we are facing is to become a strong pole of attraction culturally and economically (Rencontres, 1992 196) Daniel Robert (of Bison Fute fame) added Marne-la-Vallee is blessed with an extra-ordinary opportunity to sell its millions of square meters of office space, its ideal of an urban area, its strategic position (Rencontres, 1992 55). The presence of such a large investment has emboldened Marne-la-Vallee to combat the skepticism that smaller potential private investors show when solicited by New Towns.Visitors burgeon forthed into Eurodisney 6.8 millions by October 1992, 19.5 millions by February 1994 (Eurodisney SCA, 1992, 1994). Its basic temptingness is its Americanness. It has been the best received park ever in Europe and it is the number one gainful admission attraction there Beaubourg kernel received only 8.2 million visitors in 1993, 3.8 million of which were free entries to the library La Villette saw 5.8 million entries, the Effiel Tower 5.4 the Louvre welcomes 5 million visitors per year (Eurodisney Resort, 1993 5).These numbers are insufficient, however, for the park to break even, since it needs 11 million per year to do so and reached just that number only its first year of operation. Number of visitors followed a downtrend until 1994 6,708,551 averaged 1.45 visits in 1993. In 1994, only 5,574,059 (-16.9%) pushed the turnstiles 1.61 times. Visits by residents of the Parisian Basin had dropped by 31.3&. In 1995, however, the park registered a 21.5% increase in attendance.The percentage of foreign visitors had dropp ed by 15% between 1992 and 1993 down to 56% of the visits but it was back up to 61% in 1994. The majority of the customers (93.3% of the 5,777 hotel rooms and bungalows more than are operational in the city of Cannes) are tourists, versus less than a two-thirds average for the Ile de France, but here too the number of foreigners has dropped (72% in 1994, 75% in 1993, vs. 82% in 1992).The military control rate of hotels has remained way below Orlandos rate of 79% even if it did not increase from 55% in 1992 and 1993 to 61% in 1994 and 68.5% in 1995. Every hotel night sold by Disneyland Resort Paris engenders the sale of at least one other hotel night in the area. In 1994, Eurodisney hotels stared welcoming guests who were not necessarily attracted by the theme park(EPAMarne, 1994, EPA-France, 1995).Marne-la-Vallee is a creation in progress and it needs to become credible in the eyes of private investors. Although a negative image of Disneyland Resort Paris was diffused by the pres s during the construction phase, based on its American cultural attributes, its business of interchange false reality for pleasure and its bullish negotiating tactics with the French government and later with private companies and labor, the more positive one of leisure and festivities and of successful business know-how has since been emphasized. Disneyland Resort Paris is more than the Magic Kingdom because of the hotels, leisure resources, offices and residences it plans to construct (Figure 4).It has developed an image as a immobile capitalist enterprise, the kind Marne-la-Vallee wants to attract. Know-how can be applied to both Disneyland Resort Paris and Marne-la-Vallee, so that Mickeys notoriety in Europe can increase that of Marne-la-Vallee, its present location. There does exist the danger that it becomes Disney Vallee.The social construction of the regional identity operator of Marne-la-Vallee will be dominate by Disneys cultural capital and the various other capital c ircuits it will engender. Two strategies have been suggested to counteract such a danger. At the national level, the state should put in place structures that define the identity of Marne-la-Vallee separate from the companys trademark. At the local level, endogenous and original solution need to be found to allow each and each inhabitant to identify culturally with the specific part of the Brie plateau s/he lives in.Disneyland Resort Paris has fulfilled its role as an economic growth pole both directly and indirectly, distributing spillover effects in the eastern suburbs of the Paris Basin while bringing economic benefits to the country. indoors the perimeter of Disneyland Resort Paris, the ratio between public and private investment is 1 to 8, similar to the one found in most new towns. The French government invested 2.7B FF in public infrastructure while private companies and individuals disbursed 23B FF (Eurodisney Resort, 1993 2).Construction employed 5,100 local workers and 1 80 companies for a cost of 13B FF 47% of which went to Ile de France companies, 76% in the case of residential developments. The company also had to construct 1,800 housing units occupied by 3,500 of its employees. In 1992, Disneyland Resort Paris paid 81M FF in local taxes and 250M FF in sales taxes. On opening day it employed 11,500 people, two thirds of whom were French (70% by 1995), one fifth of other European origin. There are now 9,700 employee representing a saving of 7% in operating costs.The downsizing came as part of the financial restructuring of March 1994. They were paid 2B FF in salaries and benefits, a substantial addition to the revenue stream of the new town. They generated with Disneyland, another 25,000 jobs in the area. The fifty tons of laundry produced periodical by the resort, for example, led to the construction of two plants in the area. A little over 40% of these employees live in the Seine-et-Marne departement and thus consume within the area.There a re another 5,000 seasonal jobs, 10% of which are filled by local residents. The economic activities of Disneyland Resort Paris in 1993 generated 9.2% less revenue than in 1992, although visitor spending outside of Disneyland Resort Paris increased by 3.8%. Another decrease of 6/9% was registered in 1994.In the fiscal year 1991-2, the company spent 2.7B FF, but only 2.2 in 1993, a decrease of 20% in goods and services (insurance, laundry, electricity). Purchases registered a gain of 14% in 1994, and investments for improvements and maintenance, of 22%. Much of the income from these purchases remains in the area. 93% of food products are bought in France, 65% in Ile de France. Statistics were culled from Eurodisney Resort, 1993, EPAMarne, 1994, EPAFrance, 1995, Eurodisney SCA 1992, 1993, 1994.The French government received 4BFF in foreign currency (3.4% of foreign currency earnings through tourism in France in 1993), 812MFF in taxes and 9 to 15,000 jobs, depending on the season. Alth ough totals fluctuate from year to year, they remain a plus for the economy. Disneyland Resort Paris led to a more than 3% increase in the total number of foreign tourists in France, 60.1M in 1993, 61.3M in 1994. The combined activities and purchases of all 61.3 million tourists provide 5.1% of the French GNP and 7.1% of its foreign currency earnings. The park is placed seventh as a major touristoperator in France, with 4.9BFF in revenues, behind station France, SNCF, Accor, Club Med, Aeroports de Paris and Nouvelles Frontieres (EPAMarne, 1994, EPAFrance, 1995).Other theme parks come way behind Futuroscope earned only 300MFF, Asterix 194MFF. The financial restructuring of its annual debt, which amounted to $370M in Marhc 1994, allowed the park to announce a profit of $35 million in the second quarter of 1995 and increased attendance helped consolidate profits for the rest of the fiscal year. at least prior to debt payments (New York Times, 1995 D7).There was wide-spread optimism t hat Disneys presence in Europe would enhance the attraction sectors image, help improve standards of presentation and raise consumer expectations and especially willingness to pay. It has increased investment in smaller-scale attractions in France Asterix park (25 miles north of Paris) which had required an investment of $208 million receives 1.5 million visitors per year.The comic books it represents three-dimensionally have been translated in 40 languages. It conquered 7% of the potential market in the Paris Basin in three years. Disneyland Resort Paris aims for 17%. Under the influence of Disneyland Resort Paris it has begun a five-year refurbishment program. It has also been forced to define its product more clearly (Saffarian, 1992).Futuroscope, an intelligently entertaining park, has revitalized the region that surrounds it. It opened in June 1987 and boasted profits of 15M FF from revenues of 300M FF paid by 2 million visitors in 1994. Its theme is moving images. When innovat ors must compete in integrated product markets, they have reason to pursue distinctive ideas, and thereby contribute to the global accumulation of knowledge.Dynamic Cinema, one of the most sought-after attractions at Futuroscope, thrills, awes and panics spectators through the use of a 60/second flow of images and hydraulically controlled seats with computerized links to the pictures (Tresch, 1994). It has also had repercussions in other European countries. expression Aventura opened in May 1995 near Barcelona. Four hundred million dollars were invested, 20% of which by Annheuaer Busch, over 20 hectares, i.e. 50 acres (Tagliabue, 1995).decisivenessBoth sides have benefited from this partnership between a private multinational corporation and public authorities. Disneyland Paris has maintained the momentum of development in Marne-la-Vallee that the French government wanted to stimulate. The success of the office centers of Marne-la-Vallee, of the Cite Descartes (and area of higher learning) and the presence of Disneyland Resort Paris demonstrate that betting on Marne-la-Vallee to assure the economic development of the eastern part of Paris Basin was the way to go, even if success was long in coming (Merlin, 1989 77). New large projects are being constructed and jobs and their multiplier effect, taxes, new transport lines are increasing. In 1995 attendance numbers were on the rebound and hotel revenue and occupancy rates augmented.Even Orlando had rocky beginnings before returning its investment many times over and the two American parks suffered from lulls (Grover, 1991, Flower, 1991). Both the company and the French government had remained optimistic since talks for the next period of development are right on schedule. Disneyland Resort Paris obtained a site it can grow in, with the necessary communication links to one of the most densely (in numbers and in purchasing power) settled areas in the world while it provides the French government with a major eco nomic growth pole.The contract binding the two parties distributes obligations to limit the ability of private companies to speculate on investments made by public bodies financed by the frequent public, while it guarantees the timely completion of these investments. Optimism was justified when Disneyland Resort Paris opened as scheduled on 12 April 1992. It is still justified immediately as attendance numbers and spillover effects are on the increase. (Revenu, 1996 9). Proving that public/private partnerships can enhance social benefits and capital accumulation.Endnotes1 Francilian refers to Ile de France, also called the Paris Basin2 A National Public piano tuner report in June 1996 indicated that Las Vegas had become the number one tourist name and address among travelers who booked through travel agents. In a private communication, J. Brett of the Nevada Commission on Tourism mentioned that 30 million visitors were welcomed in the past cardinal months in Las Vegas. Although slightly more than the 30 million who visit Disney World, the numbers quoted are of turnstile pushes rather than of head counts. I was not told how the total number of visitors to Las Vegas was arrived at.3 All forms of knowledge (all products based on knowledge) have remaining properties as economic commodities. Know-how is a non-rival good using it does not foresee others from doing it, of, other theme parks. It also non-excludable the very use of information in any productive way is bound to reveal it in part (Grossman & Helpman, 1991 15). Preventing unauthorized use of it depends on property laws and their enforcement. One can understand Disney Companys sensitivity to any copyright infringements.4 The first theme park in the Western world was built at the end of 1200s by Robert II of Artois at Vieil Hesdin. It included a revolving castle, a grotto within which rain or reversal could be willed, animated marionettes, collapsing bridges, as well as exotic plants and animals that symbolized paradise. Charles V destroyed the park 300 years later.ReferencesBastie, Jenn (1991), La Seine-et-Marne dans le outline directeur de IIle de France, Cahier du CREPIF, 36Boyer, Jean-Marie (1994). Marne-La-Vallee, Paris, Ile de France, EPAMarne.Business Week (1990). An American in Paris, March 12 60-4Commission du Tourisme (1993), Les Pares de Loisir en France, Paris, Assemblee des Chambres Francaises de Commerce et dIndustrie.Commission des Communautes Europeenes (1992) LEmploi en Europe, Paris.Conseil General de Seine-et-Marne (1991) Charte Departementale dAmenagement, Sept.Convention (1987). Texte Contracte de la Convention pour la Creation et lExploitation dEurodisneyland en France, Paris.Dicken, Peter (1992), Global Shift The Internationalization of Economic Activities, New York, Guildford.Disney, Walt from the Wall Street Journal, quoted in Hollis and Sibley, 1988, The Disney Studio Story, New York, Crown.Dunning, John H (1980). Toward an discriminating theory of international production in defence of the eclectic theory, Oxford Bulletin of Economic Statistics.___________________(1991), The eclectic paradigm of international production in Pitelis and Sugden, edrs.EPAFrance (1994), Le Partnerariat Public/Prive dans le Projet Euro Disneyland March 29.____________(1995), Bilan 1994, learn des Retombees Economique et Sociales de Disneyland Resort Paris, September, Paris.EPAMarne (1987), Projet dInteret General Relatif au Secteur IV de Marne-la-Vallee.____________ (1994), Analyse des Retombees Economique et Sociales dEurodisney. Bilan 1993, Paris, Societe de Tourisme InternationalEPAMarne/EPAFrance (1994), Marne-la-Vallee en Chiffres, Observatoire EconomiqueEtablissements Publics dAmenagement de la Ville Nouvelle de Marne-la-Vallee, 1991-4 Maps and other pubilicity material on Marne-la-Vallee.Eurodisney Resort (1993), Euro Disney, les Elements Cles a Connaitre, March, Paris.Eurodisney SCA, 1992, 1993, 1994, Annual Reports.Flower, Joe (1991), Prince of the Magic Kingdom, New York, John Wiley & Sons.Grossman, Gene, M., and Elhanan Helpman (1991), Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, Cambridge MA, MIT Press.Grover, Ron (1991), The Disney Touch, New York, Irwin.Harvey, David (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford, Basil BlackwellLanquar, Robert (1992), LEmpire Disney, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France.Lash, Scott (1993), Pierre Bourdieu cultural economy and social change, in C. Calhoun, E.Levine, J (1990), Lessons from Tysons Corner. Forbes, April 30 186-7.Limery, E (1996), Le Projet Euro Disney, un Projet dInteret General, EPAMarne.Maison Departementale du Tourisme (1994). Tourisme en Seine-et-Maine, Dammarie Les Lys.Merlin, Pierre (1989), Ving-Cinq Ans de Villes Nouvelles en France, Paris. Ed Economica.Michelin Tourist Guide, 1992 Eurodisney Resort Sightseeing in the Area.New York Times (1995), Euro Disney reports profit for 95, but the future remains cloudy, 16 November D7.Nouveau Courier (Le) (1 992), Euro Disney une aubaine pour les enterprises?, April 1-13.OCDE (1992), Politique du Toursime et Tourisme International dans les Pays de lOCDE, Paris.Ousset, Bernard (1986), Les Parcs dattraction americains, Monuments Historiques, 143 172-5.Postman, Neil (1993, Technopoly, New York, Vintage Books.Rencontres EPA France (1992), La Gestion Territoriale des Grands Amenagements de Loisirs, Paris, Diffusion Ed van Wilder.Revenu Francais (Le) (1996), EuroDisney est-il definitivement redresse? 391, May 24 1&9.Roullier, Jean Eudes (1993), French New Towns, translated and adapted by Alan Lee, Paris, Gie Villes Nouvelles de France.Saffarian, Bagherzadeh (1992), Pourquoi le Premier Euro Disneyland a Marne-la-Vallee, PhD thesis, University of Paris IV, unpublished.Sartre, Jean-Paul (1945), Comabt, February 4-5.Schikel, Richard (1968), The Disney Version The Life, Times, Art and Commerce of Walt Disney, New York, Simon Schuster.Shaw, Gareth and Allan M. Williams (1990), Tourism and develo pment, D. Pinder, editor, Western Europe Challenge and Change, London, Bethaven Press 240-257.Smadjad, Gilles (1988), Mickey LArnaque, Paris, Messidor.Solomon, Jolie (1994), Mickeys trip to trouble, Newsweek February 14 34-9.Sorkin, Michael (ed.), (1992), Variations on a Theme Park, New York, Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.Tagiliabue, John (1995), Step make up up, Monsieur, New York Times, Wed, August 23.Taylor, John (1987), Storming the Magic Kingdom, New York, Alfred Knopf.Tresch, Patricia (1994), Futuroscope, Selection du indorsers Digest, August 50-7.Urry, John (1990), The Tourist Gaze, London, Sage Publications.Wallace, Michael (1985), Mickey Mouse history portraying the past at Disney World, Radical biography Review, 32 33-57.Williamson, Judith (1986), Consuming Passions The Dynamics of Popular Culture, London, Marion Boyars.Zukin, Sharon (1991), Landscapes of Power From Detroit to Disneyworld, Berkely CA, University of California Press.