Saturday, August 31, 2019

Archimedes Was a Mathematician and Inventor of Ancient

Archimedes was so brilliant that he is still considered by most historians throughout time as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes was a mathematician and inventor of Ancient Greece born on 287 B. C. In Syracuse on the island of Sicily. His father was an astronomer named Aphid's. It is said that Archimedes was known to be a relative of Hirer II. Hirer was the king of Syracuse during the life of Archimedes. Throughout their lives they were very close friends. However besides his father's name and occupation and his relationship withHirer nothing else is really known about any other members of Archimedes family. At one point of Archimedes life it was his inventions that delayed the capture of Syracuse by the Romans. Archimedes remained in Syracuse for most of his life except when he went to school in Alexandria. Since Greeks loved to learn and be full of knowledge they would send their sons to schools to become wise Greek citizens. Archimedes had one of the best e ducations as a boy. When he was in his teens Archimedes traveled to Alexandria and went to one of the most famous schools of thematic that had been founded by Euclid.There he studied astronomy, geometry, algebra, trigonometry, astrology, geography, surveying, mechanics, and alchemy with many other brilliant minds of his time. Various subjects he studied when he was younger were poetry, politics, astronomy, mathematics, music, art, and military tactics. His professor was named Cocoon of Samos. Cocoon was a tremendous Influence in Archimedes' life. He taught Archimedes various things about science and life. Due to the fact he studied In Alexandria It became the biggest foundation on which he built his career as a scientist and mathematician.Archimedes had many eclectic Investigations, but he was mostly known for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and Its circumscribing cylinder, for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle: Archimedes' principle , and for Inventing the Archimedes' screw (a device for raising water). One of Archimedes' few Principals states: an object immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force that is equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on the displaced fluid.Archimedes had other inventions up his sleeve some were the hydraulic screw – for raising water from a lower to a enlarger level, catapult, ten lever, ten compound pulley Ana ten During mirror which was a machine Archimedes invented used as war weapon; these machines especially helped in the defense against the Romans when they attacked under the command of Marcella. In mechanics Archimedes also discovered fundamental theorems having to do with the center of gravity of solids and plane figures. Now even in this modern era we still use Archimedes inventions in many ways.The water screw is Just one out of many inventions we use. The water screw is used for raising water using an encased screw that opens at both ends. The screw has to be set at an angle and as it turns, water fills air pockets and is transported upwards. Out of his other inventions he achieved during his life we also use the lever. Levers are basic tools, and many of the simple tools we use today, use levers in some way. For example; scissors, pliers, hammer claws, nutcrackers, and tongs. We still even use his mathematical discoveries. Due to his inventions he made life impeller for us today.Archimedes' legend is still alive to this day. I think Archimedes was a great mathematician and inventor who inspired many others to perfect his discoveries and to carve the way to ones made in the future. Those discoveries have affected our ways of living in a good way. I believe his legend would indeed be greater if more people knew what he was trying to accomplish and what good it would do for them. Even so, his ideas were rediscovered in the middle ages and, fortunately, they are being worked on like many other discoveries that have been add.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Team Sports and Individual Sports

Learning to play team sports is an important part o f a child’s education. Do you agree or disagree? Practicing sports provides athletes with opportunities to develop their social skills during the academic portion of their life. Nowadays, the effect of practicing on children is very significant in a way they practice individual sport or joining a team. But is learning to play team sports an important part of a child’s academic portion? I personally agree and think that team sports are a much better option for the following reasons:First, there is no better alternative than learning how to be peer helper in your community, especially in a friendly environment. Practicing with a team will create an important relationship between the teammates that will know you and can direct your learning and adapt the pace of the practicing in a way that is more suitable to your capacities. Individual sports don't generally offer this type of flexibility as you don't really interact ph ysically with the others. What you basically have is a set of instructions, by your supervisor, that you have to follow alone.For example, if you have an exercise with a given discipline, when you are being in individual sport all you can do is to do it again and again alone and try to understand. You can maybe make it to succeed during the training but still that doesn't guarantee that you will get it in an official competition. But when you are with a group at your disposal, you can easily ask your mates and they would provide more information on the desired task from other perspectives that would definitely help you to understand better and get the idea.Another reason is that team sport, as opposed to individual sport, fosters the development and sustainability of social relationships between teammates. This is a very important point because learning after all is not only about acquiring information, but it is also about learning to interact with peers, forming social relationshi ps, being socially apt to live in a society of different individuals. Teamwork role is to prepare the members for an outer world, a society where having social skills and being able to form relationships is very critical.Individual sports contribute very little to the development of such a skill, as young athletes will be practicing alone in a very limited context while such skills are acquired through the physical interaction with other peers. If we take the example of a kid who practices with a team and another one who practices alone, we would clearly see differences in their personalities: The â€Å"team† boy would have a more extravert personality while the â€Å"alone† boy would be more introvert.There are no doubts cast on which one of the two boys will perform better in society. For these reasons, I believe that team sports are very important for the academic development of children, rather than individual sports. Even if the academic experience, the amount of information could be the same but team sports teach skills that cannot be guaranteed during a training of an individual sport, skills that are essential in the development of the individual later on in the society.

Tuition reimbursement

Organizations which fail to empower their human resources through putting in place proper knowledge management policies fail to benefit optimally from the potential in their employees. Tuition reimbursement is the best form of employee empowerment. Introduction Business organizations more than ever before are faced with a great risk of high employee turnover. To keep employees contented and well motivated, the organization must be seen to be genuinely interested in employee career growth and development.There is no better way to do this than tuition reimbursement study program for employees which enables employees to enroll for relevant courses as adult learners. The duty of companies in the whole program is the provision of financial help to meet the cost of education of the adult learners. The companies also contribute by providing adequate time for the employees. Tuition reimbursement programs are very important to an organization in a number of ways. Tuition reimbursement program s have been found to have a positive correlation with employee productivity (Kiser, 1999).This implies an increase in the productivity capability of a company especially considering the fact that, employees who undergo the program attain new skills and are either able to perform more effectively, or could as well increase their output in that, they become able to use new technologies for instance IT based technologies in their tasks. Employees who have been through these programs are also capable off executing more complex tasks faster and more effectively than their counterparts who lack that additional knowledge.Alternatively, the employees are more empowered to increase their performance in comparison with their past performances. According to (Kitano, & Morey, 1996) employee view tuition reimbursement programs as a sign of confidence and trust the company has in them, this in turn is reciprocated by their employees becoming more loyal and committed to their duties compared to th e period before. To some employees, the effect of such supportive and empowerment program is so big that, they become more loyal, submissive and committed in their duties following such decisions by their employers to cater for their education needs (Keegan, 1994).Employee tuition reimbursement programs have been found to indirectly contribute to the companies’ growth considering the fact that, the workers become more loyal, committed, skillful and effective as a result of the tuition reimbursement programs. Tuition reimbursement most likely leads to companies saving costs associated with the process of always having to always hire and train new employees as well as the time it takes for new recruits to settle upon being recruited.The process of hiring new staff is both time consuming and capital intensive and therefore not cost effective therefore any effort which can counter this is welcome by companies as a lifeline. Tuition reimbursement programs are very good at this. Th e federal government encourages companies to offer tuition reimbursement by in turn giving tax benefits to those companies which offer such programs. Therefore, tuition reimbursement is in that way, an advantage to companies in that, they stand to save expenditure while at the same gaining from a more empowered workforce.Tuition reimbursements are beneficial to employees who improve their worthiness through acquisition of more skills. In an increasingly competitive, market environment, employees stand better chances of getting promotions or jobs elsewhere if they posses more qualifications. Tuition reimbursement empowers employees and positions them strategically to compete in an increasingly competitive job market. Tuition reimbursement programs grants employees a chance to relive their unachieved dreams especially in terms of unattained academic qualifications.This further improves the connection between employees and their employers, a bond which every company longs to have in th e work place. According to (Greengard, 1999), tuition reimbursement achieves the desired learning in adult learners who are considered as pursuing academics with a clear focus especially considering the fact that, they can clearly link class theories and concepts with real life situations, this is what is the aim of any educational program.Therefore, adult learning is very beneficial to adults and all the gains are likely to trickle down to the company once the adult learner has grasped the intended skills. Unlike beginners who do not have any practical experience on their job tasks, adult learners easily connect theories and apply such to difficult issues in the work place to accomplish difficult tasks which an employee who is fresh from college may find impossible to accomplish. Tuition reimbursement is not a perfect program and therefore it has its own downfalls and challenges.First of all, adult learners are usually psychologically and unprepared for classroom teaching especiall y whereby they have to go back to colleges and study in integrated classes with young students. Some feel out of place and this can greatly affect their performance in the different courses they intend to pursue. This has been found to be a major set back in the tuition reimbursement program. The fact that, the tuition programs meet the tuition costs associated with learning leaves the adult learners with a financial burden to deal with.Some of the adult are barely financially well up and the learning program may mess up their finances and therefore interfere with their normal lives. This can be a source of stress in some occasions something which can cause job related stress hence affect job performance. The tuition reimbursement programs may also become a source of frustration for employees who attend such courses with high ambitions and yet fail to realize such dreams even after attaining the academic credentials.For instance, most employees enroll in such learning employees in a bid to gain promotions once they graduate, when ever their expectations are not met, this could prove a challenge for the employee and therefore lead the employee to be de-motivated or to leave the job altogether. Companies risk losing incase employees decide to search for better jobs after a lot has been spend on their training. This especially happens in situations whereby, employees are not genuinely interested in staying in their current jobs but see the learning opportunities as a chance to better their employment chances.Other challenges of implementing such programs include, as improved expenditure and therefore loss of profits, loss of time, the risk of loosing the companies to better paying companies or competitors once the company has invested heavily on the training as well as the fact that, some employees never show any meaningful improvement job performance despite the company spending too much money in their training are nothing compared to the benefits resulting ther eafter.Conclusion In light of the above mentioned advantages of tuition reimbursement programs, there is a need for organizations to incorporate tuition reimbursement programs in their employee development plans. Companies need to view these programs as beneficial to them only if the companies are ready to utilize them. The challenges which companies expect to gain as a result of the tuition reimbursement programs are nothing compared to the numerous benefits as listed above.However, all sides should be considered before an organization decides to support such programs. Advantages of the tuition reimbursement programs are numerous and include amongst others, winning employee loyalty, increased productivity, attraction of the best talent, decreased employee turnover, increased employee motivation, the tax benefits associated with the tuition reimbursement programs as well as increasing literacy levels in the society and improvement of service delivery as a result of well trained and qualified staff.From the analysis above, it is evident that, organizations which fail to empower their human resources through putting in place proper knowledge management policies are likely fail to benefit optimally from the potential in their employees. Tuition reimbursement is the best form of employee empowerment as it brings a lot of advantages not only to the company but also to the employees. ReferencesGreengard, S. 1999. Web-Based Training Yields Maximum Returns. Workforce. 78[2]. Keegan, D. 1994. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. New York. Routledge. Kiser, K. 1999. 10 things we know so far about online training. Training, 36 [11]. Kitano, M. & Morey, A. 1996. Multicultural Course Transformation in Higher Education. Old Tappan, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Key Characteristics of Effective Leadership in Practice Essay

Key Characteristics of Effective Leadership in Practice - Essay Example A leader is an individual with the major influence in a group, whose role is to get others to achieve organizational goals. But 'leadership' like many other key concepts in management, tends to be viewed differently; depending on whether the orientation is behavioral, economic, or managerial. Ordway Tead has defined leadership as "the activity of influencing people to co-operate towards some goal which they come to find desirable" (Anon., 1999). According to George R. Terry, "leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives". Robert Tannenbaum defines the leadership as "interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specialized goal or goals" and Koontz and O'Donnell state that "leadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of a specialized goal" (Harold Koontz, 1959). A review of these and other writers reveals that most management writers agree that leadership is the process of providing direction in group activities and influencing others to achieve group objectives in a given situation. From this definition of leadership, it follows that the leadership process is a function of the leader, the follower, and other situational variables i.e. L= f (i,f,s) (Hersey, 2010) Although influencing others for attaining group goals is the essential function of a leader, some of the important elements which can make the process of leading effectively is that firstly, one who leads is a part of the group, and yet he must maintain his separate identity if he is to continue to lead. Secondly, leadership contemplates interpersonal influence and close man-to-man relationship. It is rooted in feelings and attitudes that have grown out of reactions of individual personalities to each other. Thirdly, it is a dynamic and ever-evolving process; a manager must lead continuously. Finally, it involves directing, guiding and influencing the behavior of individuals and groups so that future actions and behavior are modified in the right direction. These four elements lie at the heart of a strategic leadership process where a manager is a leader directs, guides and influences the behavior of the employees keeping in mind the present and future business strategies of the organization and modifying and directing the employee behavior/performance in the right direction through the right means. This assumption would imply that for an effective leadership process it is crucial that a leader must be in a position to understand and evaluate the strategic intent of the firm and a leader must have the personality and attitudinal qualities in order to lead. As stated earlier that for an effective leadership process a leader must be knowledgeable so that he can evaluate the business strategy and direct the performance of the employees, it becomes the central reason to understand why managers can make good leaders (Senge, 1990).  

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Critical thinking Assignment # 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Critical thinking Assignment # 1 - Essay Example According to me justice needs to aim at preventing the crime by deterring criminals and upholding the rule of law, while assuring public order and ascertaining that the actual offenders get commensurately punished in consonance with the gravity of their crime in a way and manner that brings closing to the extended family of the offended, and expressing appropriate public and state denunciation for the committed crime, thereby bolstering the public confidence and establishing law and order in the society. As per my personal opinion, the purpose and objective of justice is not merely to assuage the ethical requisites like fairness and protection, but also to instill a sense of peace, confidence and certainty in the larger society in which a crime is committed. Each criminal case does define as to how justice presents itself to the larger society. In the light of this personal and larger definition of justice, justice is not being met in case of the twin brothers’ case being discussed here. The system is not extending a just and valid treatment to both the twin brothers here. Though it may not be true, yet it is quite possible that at least one of the twin brothers and one’s friends and relatives are taking advantage of the likeness in the looks of the two brothers to hoodwink and bypass the criminal justice system. The way criminal justice system is going soft on the perceived offender, going by the fact that he has an identical twin who looks and dresses up like him and was also present at the scene of crime is sending a message to the society that the criminals who do have a look alike could confuse and dither the criminal justice system. A more just approach in this case will be to take both the brothers within the loop of this murder case, because if one of them committed the actual murder, the other one is surely playing an active role in confusing the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Spirituality in Nursing Care Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Spirituality in Nursing Care - Essay Example Consequently, the subject of spirituality is at the heart of both medical practitioners and their patients. This is because all people are spiritual and that spiritual care largely contributes to the process of healing. Moreover, rehabilitation patients usually need a lot of spiritual care than patients in other healthcare areas because of their condition. Even though the duties in nursing practice always involve the provision of ethical and competent nursing services to patients, their profession widely involves provision of direct services that involve interactions between the person, health and environment. However, training in this area of spiritual care is seldom provided since most of the training is focused on emotional, social, cultural, physical and psychological aspects of the client. The nurse, therefore lacks the ability to provide spiritual care. Many nurses feel uncomfortable in accessing a client’s spiritual realm because of the abstract nature of the elements o f spirituality. Others find it difficult to develop appropriate methods to access this spiritual area. Moreover, the strict standards of practice make it difficult for nurses to indulge in spiritual care since these standards are self-regulating. Spirituality usually provides patients with a scope to view the world that they live in and, therefore involves an individual’s greatest threats and ambition.... Some of the spiritual values that can be applied by the nurses to bring about spiritual nourishment to their patients include: Compassion Compassion refers to the ability to control our impulsive and compulsive reactivity. For the nurses to take their patients through the road of spiritual nourishment, they have to have control over negative emotions that might arise because of interacting with their patients. These emotions can be manifested in form of frustrations, anger or impatience with patients. The nurses through dialogue should continuously encourage their patients to take a courageous look at their heir shortcomings in order to establish a balance between detachment and compassion. This balance represents success in spiritual progress as the patient grows in their ability to control rash reactivity and the reward being a relieving sense of detachment. Purity In such a situation, the patient views the nurse as an example of a healer. The nurse should ensure that the treatment given to their patients should be of high quality, since they represent the perfect example of such a quality. This is necessary to keep the patient growing because the treatment will be a perfect reflection of the provider who in this sense is purported to be pure. The patient should be put in the right frame of thinking to give room for positive thoughts that are vital for purification of their mind. This will be achieved since the patients will strive to emulate the perfect character of their attendants. Forgiveness Through the process of effective counselling, the nurse should bring out the concept of imperfection to the patient. The patient should realise that all the things that we encounter in this world are seldom perfect. The main objective should be to put the patients

Monday, August 26, 2019

Cinematography of the film Casablanca Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cinematography of the film Casablanca - Essay Example Edeson helped director Michael Curtiz in visualizing by focusing on the shadows and maximizing the use of proper lighting and angles. Wide-angle shots are placed in the beginning scenes giving importance to the place of Casablanca and how a German plane flies behind the sign for Rick's Cafe. The wide shot of the planes just over the cafe shows how important this place will be in the next parts of the story. An establishing shot will soon be noticed as camera angles focuses inside Rick’s cafe as if the audience were walking inside for the first time, giving wide angle shots of the patrons inside the club. Some medium shots are placed on individual characters such as the colored man piano player, until an extreme close up shot of a slip of paper is shown with an â€Å"OK† sign by Rick. Here it is established that Rick is an important man, in a medium shot, he is shown slowly puffing a cigarette. The shots through out the scenes create such continuity and gives credibility to the empty life of Rick. The intensity of the setting in a neutral country of Morocco is established with the mix of characters from the Allied forces and the Germans. It also creates an impression on how â€Å"all is fair in love and war† as what the story line would develop. There is also a use of proper lighting maximized with the proper dà ©cor to create at 1940’s kind of American cafà © with live band and gambling, but still the production team maintained certain props to make sure that the audience would remember that it is still in Morocco like the Islamic architecture that remains obvious in the interior. There is heightened use of lighting to create shadows especially to give focus on melancholic state like after curfew encounters at Rick’s cafe with Renault as he searches for money or documents. It creates a touch of mystery establishing that the main character Rick is an amoral man who after a painful heartbreak has remained to be neutral and cynical. He is portrayed as a bitter and sad man, as focused on the medium and close up shots of a face that seems to be sad and old despite earthly success. He moves slow and somehow gloomy with the background of shadows and smoke that surrounds his cafe. As for Iisa the leading lady, angles are focused on her sad and somehow glowing face with eyes that appears to be always in tears. The musical score also creates an impression. Most part of the film revolves around the song â€Å"As Time Goes By† as it somehow relives a memorable time in Paris by both Rick and Iisa. Songs from the 1930’s to the 1940’s are also el oquently highlighted and combined with national anthems from France and Germany, The audience are reminded that this is not just another love story, it maintains the political issues of World War II. Bogart plays a superb role of a romantic leading man, the sad and indifferent bad boy ruined by a past love. At first he seems to be the typical strong man, full of machismo and ego without caring for anyone in the world but himself. But a sense of humanity is shown by how he treats his employees such as Sam, the piano player. As Bergman enters the scene, we notice that indeed this could be the woman that has created all this illusion. When Sam had an encounter with Iisa, he pretends to have never met her before. It is obvious then that this woman would be someone important. Bergman portrays the role of Iisa with so much justice. The focus on her soft face makes a

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Creating Powerful Performance Profiles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Creating Powerful Performance Profiles - Essay Example The talent director will use his skills to coordinate all programs on this direction. Once a year, the director reviews the standard recruiting procedures. In addition, there is a two week time frame for developing recruiting strategies for each sector within the organization. The talent director is has one month to source candidates for any vacancies. This occurs through advertisements, screening, interviews and pre-employment procedures. Three days after being engaged, new employees will be required to undergo in-house training programs to acquaint them with operations within the organization. This requires the talent manager to fully understand all operations in order to offer effective guidance to new employees. The talent manager will use his understanding of HR related laws and regulations in ensuring that the organization fully abides to every requirement. Monthly reviews are conducted with the aim of gauging the performance of the department in this respect. On the weekly briefings with the top managers, the talent director informs the management on the all new developments regarding the department. In addition, the talent director prepares performance reports on monthly basis which are supplied to the management of the organization. On this, the director puts into use the skills on communication and collaborative engagement. As a sales executive, I will be required to find market for the car company which sells vehicles in the region. This will also involve arranging and coordinating client demonstrations while providing them with competitive options and quotations. In addition, the sales executive will also be required to create an effective sales staff by providing quality guidance on the recruitment, interviewing and training of all the sales staff in the organization. Lastly, the sales executive prepares accurate weekly reports to the management while also preparing elaborate monthly report on the overall performance of

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Comparative Advantage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Comparative Advantage - Essay Example This is probably not true for Japan because agriculture land is not massively available for cultivation in the country. Japan and Unites States have no comparative advantage in mineral fuels, pharmaceuticals, and apparel. Both countries have shortage of mineral fuel reserves and this is why they cannot export or neither fulfills all its energy needs. Pharmaceutical industry of United States is stronger than Japan but neither country has any comparative advantage in these industries. Both the countries have developed enough therefore they have no more labor intensive industry and this is why textile industry is not a comparative advantage for Japan and United States of America. Japan has competitive advantage in automotive industry and this is because of the innovative and technological capital of the country. Japanese automotive companies are famous all over the world for the quality of their product. Automobile industry started to grow in early 20th century in Japan and therefore the foundations of the industry were strong. Today, Japanese industry is ranked third all over the world in the automotive sector (BBC, 2012). United States enjoyed comparative advantage initially but later on lost to Japan, China, and Germany. On the other hand, United States has an extremely developed aerospace industry compared to Japan. The comparative advantage of United States in the aerospace industry is mainly due to large domestic consumer base and highly advanced military sector. This bolstered the aerospace industry of United States and gave the country comparative advantage over other countries. Electronics equipment is an area where Japan is well known all over the world. Again the intellectual and technological infrastructure the country has gives rise to the strength of the country in the sector. Electronics and electrical equipment are built on a large scale in Japan and are exported all over the world. Strong competition within Japan is contributed towards a strong

Friday, August 23, 2019

Ideology in Heart of Darkness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Ideology in Heart of Darkness - Essay Example As per , Yanse(2008)â€Å"Heart of Darkness" by Joseph Conrad is a story of a man’s journey into Africa’s dark heart to find a missing explorer. This is a metaphor for the journey into the dark heart of man†. This journey gave realization to the author that white and black skin color does not have relativity to the purity of the heart. He in this book focuses on the ideologies like White ideology, imperialism and slavery on the black race of Africa. â€Å"Conrad warns us of the â€Å"fascination of the abomination† and the â€Å"regrets, the longing to escape, the powerless disgust, the surrender, the hate, that would ensue when we encounter the truly wild other out there†(Harkins). Here the main ideology reflected by the writer is the white ideology, imperialism and slavery practiced by the white over the black men. It is unfortunate to know that white considers themselves to be a superior race and attempts forcefully to conquer the black for the purpose of slavery. According to Conrad, the white men are considered white only because of their skin surface and their heart is completely covered with evilness and darkness. The dominant white ideology largely reflects the aspect of cruelty, violence and arrogance of Europeans race. Here Kabala (2001) states that, â€Å"Africa's campaign for reparations for the injustices of slavery and colonialism recently gained significant ground.†Slavery and the slave trade were appalling tragedies ... a crime against humanity, and should always have been so,† Dominance of White Ideology White ideology is the core racist thoughts and principles of Europeans which gives an idea that only whites are exceptionally beautiful, ideal and perfect among all races. In olden times, the white men considered their race to be superior and believed that all the richness and wealth belongs to them exclusively. According to Post Colonial (2002)â€Å"A large part of colonial expressions of dista ste for African treatment of women and consequent reformist zeal arose in the fact that women's work effectively removed African men from the control of colonial power, ideology, and economic pressures†. White practiced hostile attitudes to the other races and treated them as slaves and servants, which is a heinous act. This can be counted as a sort of imperialism where a stronger race or nation takes over other race by power or by force. Caswell(2003)writes that,â€Å"Imperialism occurs when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life† .This white ideology lead to the emergence of violence and atrocities of the west to the people of other ethnic backgrounds. The author Joseph Conrad in his book â€Å"Heart of darkness† states that men of white clan show their dominance on black people, just because their skin is black in color. Europeans, who took over the lands of Africans and exploited their nati onal wealth and power, also did not forget to torture them to great level. The author in his book mentions that just being white in complexion does not imply that they are good at heart. The author being white could never separate himself from his white racial background and on the other hand, he also despised the cruel mentality of white men towards the black race. The

Thursday, August 22, 2019

INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY - Term Paper Example These behavior expectations according to Dovidio have their roots in individual differences, in both social and cultural experiences. Through personal experiences and learning though observation, people learn about their group values in their society. Therefore, norms are learned through observations, experiences, with immediate situations contributing to learning and understanding, where social norms are more applicable, or elaborate to a particular situation. Though social norms are expected codes of action by individuals, and dictate what people should do across a range of situations, having personal standards relate to the ideals of an individual, and feelings of moral obligation. In this investigation of norms, I chose to walk in a full lift and directly faced the occupants, instead of facing the door as the norm or expected code of action in such circumstances. In this demonstration, I went to an office building at eight o’clock in the morning, which is mostly a rush hour when people are rushing to their offices and work places. The life had 5 occupants; 3 ladies and 2 men, and I was the last occupant as the lift had a safe load of six individuals. All the occupants were in their early thirties, guessing from their looks. As people shoved and pushed in rush to catch the next lift, I waited patiently and counted up to five occupants before forcing myself in as the last occupant. As I entered the lift, all the other occupants we re directly facing the door; they all had their eyes fixed on me. With a serious expression and oblivious to the people in the lift, the lift door closed and instead of turning around to face the door, I stood there just staring the other occupants, and did not en hit the button indicating my destination. I faced the occupants directly and gathered all my courage not to smile or blink in the short dash as the lift rapidly accelerated

Microbiology Essay Example for Free

Microbiology Essay 1.List five environments where you are likely to find microbial growth: Lakes, soil, oceans, tundras, deserts 2.How do microbes contribute to soil fertility? The decomposition that microbes take part in help release mineral nutrients, such as potassium and nitrogen, from dead organic matter and allowing primary producers the nutritional access. They also produce CO2 and CH4 to release into the soil and atmosphere. 3.Describe the growth you observed in each of your samples: Soil: I chose an area of soil outside of my apartment to do my soil sample. I noticed that there were a few prominent growth in this dish. The majority of them seemed to grow in a snowflake shape and were mainly white. Whether they were different types of microbes or just one, I am not sure. There was one growth that had a black center and a white border that was shaped like a snowflake. Air: I left the dish uncovered in my kitchen and the growth was interesting. I noticed that there were three distinct microbial growths that were prominent along with a small smattering of white along the petri dish. There was one growth that was a dark grey colour with a mottled appearance, another that was a white colour with a mottled appearance, and finally one that was a tan colour with a bubbly appearance. Water: There is a small and very stale pond near my house that I took the water sample from. This was by far the most disgusting of the three observations. The growth I observed looked like a very dark Picasso painting. There was a black coloured colony that had a fuzzy appearance, there was a dark green coloured colony that looked wrinkled and somewhat mottled, there was a colony with a black center and white surrounding it with a wispy appearance, and there was a white colony with a very feathery appearance. 4.What were the differences between the growths in each plate? The similarities? The differences in the growth plates is that each of the three environments had their own bacteria that were specific to it. It seems as if the water sample had the most growth due to the fact that it was continually exposed to the elements and people. The soil one seemed as if it may have some fungal microbes due to the snowflake like appearance. There were similarities between the soil plate and the water plate. It could be that the droplets from the water reached the soil area and that their microbes could be colonizing there. I saw no similarities between the air plate and any of the other two. 5.What is the difference between and autotroph and a heterotroph? The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is that an autotroph is capable of deriving its energy from light using photosynthesis or he oxidation of reduced organic or inorganic molecules. Heterotrophs are not able to produce heir own food and are required to feed on other organisms in order to obtain their energy. 6.Define the following terms: Photoautotroph – Capable of using ligh as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source Photoheterotroph- Uses light as an energy source and reduced organic compounds as a carbon source Chemoautotroph- Uses inorganic chemicals as an energy source and CO2 as a principal carbon source Chemoheterotroph- Uses organic compounds as an energy source as well as a principal carbon source 7.What is nitrogen fixation? What role do microbes serve? Nitrogen fixation is a process where atmospheric nitrogen is converted into a useable form of nitrogen (ammonia). Microbes serve a role in nitrogn fixation because they are the only organisms capable of performing this process. 8.Define the following terms: Hyphae- Tube like structures with a rigid cell wall that protects the cell membrane Mycelium- A structure that is composed of intertwined thread-like hyphae. This is the primary structural component of the fungi buried in thhe soil/organic matter that the fungus is living on Septate- Also known as cross-walls, they divide the hyphae into sections giving them the possibility of containing more than one nucleus in addition to the usual organelles found in these cells. 9.What type of morphological features were you able to see in your fungal wet mounts? In your stained preparations? In the wet mount, it was very obvious that the organisms growing on the food were of fungal origins. There was a network of hyphae that was branching out and tangled up around the slide. In the stained preparations, I could see the individual sections that are divided by the septae. Within these sections, if you went up to a higher powered lens, you could see dark little spots which I am assuming are the nuclei. I also saw that there were tiny little buds that were present throughout the hyphae tangle. 10.List the four main classifications of fungi and describe each group Chytridiomycota- The smallest and simplest fungi. They are considered the ancestors of modern fungi and are primarily aquatic organisms. The majority are decomposeres but come can be plant pathogens. Zygomycota- Mostly terrestrial fungi that live in soil or decaying plant and animal matter. They are mainly parasites of plants, insects, and animals. Ascomycota- The largest and most diverse group of fungi that includes the fungal element of lichen and many edible fungi (morels and truffles). Basidiomycota- Producers of spores on a stick or club-like structures and are known as club fungi. Some club fungi are edible but the majority are poisonous. 11.What fungi would you find in the group Deuteromycota? Deuteromycota has fungi that have lost the ability to reproduce sexually. 12.What is a lichen? Lichens are the symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an algae where the fungus is usually an ascomycete and the algae is usually a cyanobacteria. The fungal partner cant grow without the algae. 13.Define the following terms: Parasite- An organism that lives off of another living organism without killing or helping the host organism in any way. Saprobe- An organism that uses dead organic matter as a food source. Mutualistic Organism- Organisms that live in close association with another type of organism in a mutually beneficial relationship such as lichens. 14.What are the five common features of fungi? Fungi are heterotrophs and depend on other organisms as a carbon source. The structure of fungi is generally found as a unicellular fungi or as a mycelium. Most fungi have cell walls that are primarily composed of chitin. Fungi acquire their food through absorption which and transport their nutrients from substrate directly through their cell walls. Most fungi reproduce through sexual and asexual routes. Which route is used is determined by the environmental conditions. Describe the growth on each of your substrates, what were the similarities? The differences? I chose bread, a strawberry, a slice of tomato, and a square of cheese as my growing substrates. The similarities amongst them was in the general appearance of the mold. Each specimen had mold that was fuzz in appearance and seemed to branch away from a central location and spread throughout the food. A white colour was seen in each of the specimens as well. However, the bread mold had black in it as well as the white which makes me believe that it has different fungi that prefer bread to the other foods. The cheese, strawberry, and tomato all had white fuzzy mold on it. The cheeses mold was more dispersed throughout the food in a random pattern. The strawberry and the tomato mold looked very similar to one another and grew rather aggressively and covered the whole specimen.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Usefulness Of Maxima And Minima Of Functions Engineering Essay

Usefulness Of Maxima And Minima Of Functions Engineering Essay The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea that one quantity(input) completely determines another quantity (output). A function assigns a unique value or output to each input of a specified type. The argument and the value may be real numbers, but they can also be elements from any given sets: the domain and the co-domain of the function. Whenever a relationship exists between two variables (or quantities) such that for every value of the first, there is only one corresponding value of the second, then we say:The second variable is a function of the first variable. The first variable is the independent variable (usually x), and the second variable is the dependent variable (usually y). The independent variable and the dependent variable are real numbers. The term function is just a type of operator which transforms the given input to output according to the given conditions. This operator relates two or more quantities to each other, the quantities are known as variables. Out of total variables only one is independent and all other are dependent on that variable. One precise definition of a function is that it consists of an ordered triple of sets, which may be written as (X, Y, F). X is the domain of the function, Y is the co-domain, and F is a set of ordered pairs. In each of these ordered pairs (a, b), the first element a is from the domain, the second element b is from the co-domain, and every element in the domain is the first element in one and only one ordered pair. The set of all b is known as the image of the function. Some authors use the term range to mean the image, others to mean the co-domain. The notation Æ’:Xà ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Y indicates that Æ’ is a function with domain X and co-domain Y. (Domain implies input whereas range or co-domain implies output.) In most practical situations, the domain and co-domain are understood from context, and only the relationship between the input and output is given. Thus is usually written as Here the two variables are x and y out of which x is independent and y is dependent on x. From the other side if we consider y as independent variable then x is dependent on y. Every function can be plotted on graph or more precisely Argand Plain. The graph of function may be a straight line, a continuous curve, a circle, an ellipse or even a point also. HISTORY OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA: Since origin of life, all people knew, talked, applied the concept of maxima and minima in their daily lives without even knowing about the concept of maxima and minima. In the earlier phase of time the kings used to estimate the maximum and minimum army of the opposite side, doctors used to record minimum and maximum symptom of any disease, cooks used to estimate the maximum and minimum quantity of food or people before any function, the businessmen used to estimate maximum and minimum profit or loss in any transaction. Even today also the women in the house prepare the food according to maximum or minimum consumption by each individual. Sir Issac Newton, a great scientist, invented the concept of functions and hence concept of maxima or minima. Since then his concepts are very usefully applicable in our daily lives. PRESENT TIME CONCEPTS OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA: The terms maxima and minima refer to extreme values of a function, that is, the maximum and minimum values that the function attains. Maximum means upper bound or largest possible quantity. The absolute maximum of a function is the largest number contained in the range of the function. That is, if f(a) is greater than or equal to f(x), for all x in the domain of the function, then f(a) is the absolute maximum. For example, the function f(x) = -162 + 32x + 6 has a maximum value of 22 occurring at x = 1. Every value of x produces a value of the function that is less than or equal to 22, hence, 22 is an absolute maximum. In terms of its graph, the absolute maximum of a function is the value of the function that corresponds to the highest point on the graph. Conversely, minimum means lower bound or least possible quantity. The absolute minimum of a function is the smallest number in its range and corresponds to the value of the function at the lowest point of its graph. If f(a) is less t han or equal to f(x), for all x in the domain of the function, then f(a) is an absolute minimum. As an example, f(x) = 322 32x 6 has an absolute minimum of -22, because every value of x produces a value greater than or equal to -22. In some cases, a function will have no absolute maximum or minimum. For instance the function f(x) = 1/x has no absolute maximum value, nor does f(x) = -1/x have an absolute minimum. In still other cases, functions may have relative (or local) maxima and minima. Relative means relative to local or nearby values of the function. The terms relative maxima and relative minima refer to the largest, or least, value that a function takes on over some small portion or interval of its domain. Thus, if f(b) is greater than or equal to f(b  ± h) for small values of h, then f(b) is a local maximum; if f(b) is less than or equal to f(b  ± h), then f(b) is a relative minimum. Finding the maxima and minima, both absolute and relative, of various functions represents an important class of problems solvable by use of differential calculus. The theory behind finding maximum and minimum values of a function is based on the fact that the derivative of a function is equal to the slope of the tangent. When the values of a function increase as the value of the independent variable increases, the lines that are tangent to the graph of the function have positive slope, and the function is said to be increasing. Conversely, when the values of the function decrease with increasing values of the independent variable, the tangent lines have negative slope, and the function is said to be decreasing. Precisely at the point where the function changes from increasing to decreasing or from decreasing to increasing, the tangent line is horizontal (has slope 0), and the derivative is zero (With reference to figure 1, the function is decreasing to the left of point A, as well a s between points B and C, and increasing between points A and B and to the right of point C). In order to find maximum and minimum points, first find the values of the independent variable for which the derivative of the function is zero, then substitute them in the original function to obtain the corresponding maximum or minimum values of the function. Second, inspect the behavior of the derivative to the left and right of each point. A wide variety of problems can be solved by finding maximum or minimum values of functions. For example, suppose it is desired to maximize the area of a rectangle inscribed in a semicircle. The area of the rectangle is given by A = 2xy. The semicircle is given by x2 + y2 = r2, for y à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ 0, where r is the radius. To simplify the mathematics, note that A and A2 are both maximum for the same values of x and y, which occurs when the corner of the rectangle intersects the semicircle, that is, when y2 = r2 x2. Thus, we must find a maximum value of the function A2 = 42(r2 -x2) = 4r2x2 44. The required condition is that the derivative be equal to zero, that is, d(A2)/dx = 8r2x 163 = 0. This occurs when x = 0 or when x = 1à ¢Ã‚ Ã¢â‚¬Å¾2(r à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã… ¡ +2 ). Clearly the area is a maximum when x = 1à ¢Ã‚ Ã¢â‚¬Å¾2(r à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã… ¡ +2 ). Substitution of this value into the equation of the semicircle gives y = 1à ¢Ã‚ Ã¢â‚¬Å¾2(r à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã… ¡ +2 ), that is, y = x. Thus, the max imum area of a rectangle inscribed in a semicircle is A = 2xy = r2. The problem of determining the maximum or minimum of function is encountered in geometry, mechanics, physics, and other fields, and was one of the motivating factors in the development of the calculus in the seventeenth century. Let us recall the procedure for the case of a function of one variable y=f(x). First, we determine points where f'(x)=0. These points are called critical points. At critical points the tangent line is horizontal. This is shown in the figure below. . The second derivative test is employed to determine if a critical point is a relative maximum or a relative minimum. If f()>0, then x is a relative minimum. If f() The notions of critical points and the second derivative test carry over to functions of two variables. Let z=f(x, y). Critical points are points in the xy-plane where the tangent plane is horizontal. Since the normal vector of the tangent plane at (x,y) is given by The tangent plane is horizontal if its normal vector points in the z direction. Hence, critical points are solutions of the equations: because horizontal planes have normal vector parallel to z-axis. The two equations above must be solved simultaneously. The Second Derivative Test for Functions of Two Variables How can we determine if the critical points found above are relative maxima or minima? We apply a second derivative test for functions of two variables. Let (x,y) be a critical point and define We have the following cases: If D>0 and (,).) If D>0 and (,).)>0, then f(x,y) has a relative minimum at ( ,).). If D If D=0, the second derivative test is inconclusive. Maxima and Minima in a Bounded Region Suppose that our goal is to find the global maximum and minimum of our model function above in the square -2 Relative extrema in the interior of the square. Relative extrema on the boundary of the square. Corner Points. We have already done step 1. There are extrema at (1, 0) and (-1, 0). The boundary of square consists of 4 parts. Side 1 is y=-2 and -2 The original function of 2 variables is now a function of x only. We set g'(x)=0 to determine relative extrema on Side 1. It can be shown that x=1 and x=-1 are the relative extrema. Since y=-2, the relative extrema on Side 1 are at (1,-2) and (-1,-2). On Side 2 (x=-2 and -2 We set h'(y)=0 to determine the relative extrema. It can be shown that y=0 is the only critical point, corresponding to (-2,0). We play the same game to determine the relative extrema on the other 2 sides. It can be shown that they are (2,0), (1,2), and (-1,2). Finally, we must include the 4 corners (-2,-2), (-2,2), (2,-2), and (2,2). In summary, the candidates for global maximum and minimum are (-1,0), (1,0), (1,-2), (-1,-2), (-2,0), (2,0), (1,2), (-1,2), (-2,-2), (-2,2), (2,-2), and (2,2). We evaluate f(x,y) at each of these points to determine the global max and min in the square. The global maximum occurs (-2,0) and (1,0). This can be seen in the figure above. The global minimum occurs at 4 points: (-1,2), (-1,-2), (2,2), and (2,-2). One of the great powers of calculus is in the determination of the maximum or minimum value of a function. Take f(x) to be a function of x. Then the value of x for which the derivative of f(x) with respect to x is equal to zero corresponds to a maximum, a minimum or an inflexion point of the function f(x). The derivative of a function can be geometrically interpreted as the slope of the curve of the mathematical function y(t) plotted as a function of t. The derivative is positive when a function is increasing toward a maximum, zero (horizontal) at the maximum, and negative just after the maximum. The second derivative is the rate of change of the derivative, and it is negative for the process described above since the first derivative (slope) is always getting smaller. The second derivative is always negative for a hump in the function, corresponding to a maximum. A critical point (x,y) of f is a point where both the partial derivatives of the functions vanish. A local maximum, or a local minimum, is a critical point. In one variable, local maxima and minima are the only `nondegenerate critical points. In two or more variables, other possibilities appear. For instance one has the saddle point, like the critical point of at (0; 0). In some directions this looks like a maximum, in other directions this looks like a minimum. We try to classify critical points by looking at the second derivatives. APPLICATIONS OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA IN DAILY LIFE: There are numerous practical applications in which it is desired to find the maximum or minimum value of a particular quantity. Such applications exist in economics, business, and engineering. Many can be solved using the methods of differential calculus described above. For example, in any manufacturing business it is usually possible to express profit as a function of the number of units sold. Finding a maximum for this function represents a straightforward way of maximizing profits. In other cases, the shape of a container may be determined by minimizing the amount of material required to manufacture it. The design of piping systems is often based on minimizing pressure drop which in turn minimizes required pump sizes and reduces cost. The shapes of steel beams are based on maximizing strength. Finding maxima or minima also has important applications in linear algebra and game theory. For example, linear programming consists of maximizing (or minimizing) a particular quantity while requiring that certain constraints be imposed on other quantities. The quantity to be maximized (or minimized), as well as each of the constraints, is represented by an equation or inequality. The resulting system of equations or inequalities, usually linear, often contains hundreds or thousands of variables. The idea is to find the maximum value of a particular variable that represents a solution to the whole system. A practical example might be minimizing the cost of producing an automobile given certain known constraints on the cost of each part, and the time spent by each laborer, all of which may be interdependent. Regardless of the application, though, the key step in any maxima or minima problem is expressing the problem in mathematical terms. Everything in this world is based on the concept of maxima and minima, every time we always calculate the maximum and minimum of every data. Now-a-days results are also based on the concepts of grades which is again based on the concept of maxima and minima.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Reggae music on Rastafarians

Reggae music on Rastafarians The origins and significance of reggae music on Rastafarians Regarded as the core of Rastafarian culture, reggae music is also the heart and soul of Jamaica. Rastafarianism emerged in the 20th century along with reggae music in the 1960s. The latter has been a way of revealing Rastafarianism to individuals while Rastafarianism has contributed to the growth of the reggae genre, illustrating the reciprocal relationship between the two. One of the major promoters of both Rastafarianism and its music has been Bob Marley who, via globally famous tracks, has helped the two proliferate. I wish to look at the influence of reggae and rastafari beyond the West Indies because I feel that Reggae is unique, joyful and does something to people, different to other music. This is mostly due to the ideas behind it, and I want to show that its not just about marijuana and the usual stereotypes of Rastafarians but to show the beauty and significance of listening to Reggae and being a Rastafarian. During the 1930s Jamaica was an island where depression, discrimination and racism dominated, especially in the poorest areas. This is where Rastafarianism came in to help out the community. The Rastas claim that Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974, was the re incarnation of Jesus Christ and their religion worships a single God, known as Jah. Rastafarianism therefore originated in Jamaica around this time as a result of the strong oppression by Western nations. Its basic principles include the desire to defy Babylon (a common term used to define Western culture) as well as using non-violence as a method to achieve this. Furthermore their principles consist of a peaceful autonomous and independent society together with a symbiotic relationship with nature and their surrounding environment illustrated by the fact that often Rastafarians are vegetarians and prefer avoiding foodstuffs such as alcohol, meat, pork and shellfish instead basing their diets on alternative nu trients such as those in mango and coconut. Another extremely important aspect of the Rastafarian culture is dreadlocks; in fact these are a way to repudiate Babylon and its artificiality inspiring dread in its inhabitants. Furthermore Rastafarians believe that by shaking their dreadlocks a connection is created between God and themselves. Another method of completing this divine connection is by smoking ganja which also counteracts the daily oppression. The Rastafarian method of non-violence has therefore allowed the survival of Jamaicas population along with other colonies of the West Indies providing survival against the influence of Babylon as well as pride in the African culture. Originally serving as a method of restoring self awareness as well as their African roots reggae music today plays a major role in teaching the Rastafarian people about the oppressive, deceptive and divisive nature of the system under which they live and, as written above, serves as the primary way to annihilate Babylon, with Nyabinghi music being the most integral form of it. Reggae developed from several other musical styles including ska, rocksteady, mento as well as American RB. Furthermore, although the majority of radio stations were situated in Florida or Louisiana, some were powerful enough to transmit their music as far as Jamaica therefore influencing the development of this genre. Only in the 1960s did Reggae become an officially distinct genre. Reggae is based on a musical approach characterized by accents on the off-beat which is identified as the skank. It also contains a heavy backbeated rhythm which means there is an emphasis on specific beats in a bar, an example of this in beats 2 and 4 in 4/4 time. This backbeat differs greatly from the usual strong African-based sounds and is not found in typical European or Asian music. The music is also frequently very straightforward, and occasionally it will be constructed and based upon no more than one or two chords. These simple recurring chord structures therefore add to the hypnotic effects of reggae. Reggae music consists of several instruments which include drums and other percussion, bass guitars and guitars, keyboards, horns and vocals. Furthermore the reggae drumbeats are usually selected from three major categories: One drop, Rockers and Steppers. In the first, the stress is fully on the third beat of the bar (typically on the snare, or joint with the bass drum). With Rockers beat, the stress is on the third beat as well as an accent on beat one (usually on bass drum) while in the last, the bass drum plays four solid beats to the bar, giving the beat an persistent force. There is also extensive variety of additional percussion instruments that are used in Reggae music. Bongos are often used in improvised patterns with African style rhythms but cowbells, shakers and claves also have fundamental roles in reggae music. Also, the bass guitar regularly plays a leading position in reggae and, united, the drum and bass are typically referred to as the riddim (Rhythm). The sound of bass in reggae is thick and heavy and the bass line is often an uncomplicated two-bar riff that is focused around its thickest and heaviest note. Another fundamental instrument in reggae music is the rhythm guitar which plays chords mainly on the second and fourth beats of a bar which, as written on the previous page, is a sequence of beat known as skank upon which reggae is largely based. Furthermore this instrument is played to produce a very short and scratchy chop sound which causes it to sound similar to a percussion instrument. From the late 1960s to the early eighties the piano was also a main feature in reggae music doubling the guitars skank rhythm, playing chords in a staccato style or occasional extra beats or riffs. From the 1980s onwards synthesizers were used to replace the piano, adopting organ-style sounds in order to achieve the choppy feel typical to this style of music. Another family of instruments utilized in reggae is the brass section, including saxophones, tr umpets and trombones. These often play introductions or counter-melodies but, in more recent times, are being replaced, along with the piano part, by synthesizers. In comparison to the other instruments and rhythm of reggae, the vocals are a more of crucial aspect of the genre. In fact they are distinct from other genres as they directly deliver specific messages to the audience, the nature of which will be discussed in the following paragraph. Many reggae singers use embellishments of various kinds such as tremolos (volume oscillation) or vibrato (pitch oscillation). Possibly the most fundamental part of Reggae is its lyrics, known for their tradition to cover various subjects including love, peace, religion, sexuality, relationships and socializing. Some of the messages sent to the audience via the lyrics are optimistic and upbeat, but they may also be of political significance as the singer attempts to increase the awareness of the audience to such matters. This is achieved by criticizing materialism or enlightening the listener with lyrics concerning controversial issues such as the Apartheid or human rights. Reggae song-writers mainly sing about one love and one world, unity and brotherhood of all mankind, the coming together regardless of diverse beliefs, and the hope of a new tomorrow. In addition Reggae lyrics are, as written in above pages, religion oriented, often discussing religious subject matter such as paying tribute to the Rastafari God, Jah. Other common lyrics are based on socio-political issues, for example the embrace of black nationalism, anti capitalism, criticism of political systems and Babylon which, as previously discussed, is the idiom used for the white political authority organization that has held back the black race for centuries. The lyrics in Reggae music remind the audience of the singers demand to gain freedom which in turn addresses the quest for freedom of all people who are oppressed globally. Robert Nesta Marley or more likely known, Bob Marley was born in a little countryside town in Jamaica on 6th of February 1945. He was a vocalist, performer, songwriter, and a pioneer to many because of his way of introducing reggae music to the world, and he still remains to be one of the most adored musicians to this date. Bob was the child of a black adolescent mother and a much older, soon after not present white father. His earlier years in the countryside village were spent in the community of St. Ann. This is where Marley meets one of his child-hood friends, and future collaborator in music, called Neville â€Å"Bunny Wailer† ORiley Livingston. They both attended the same school, and they mutually shared a love called music. Bob was encouraged to begin playing guitar thanks to Bunny. Nevilles father and Bob Marleys mother afterward had an affair together which resulted in all of them living together for some time in Kingston; this is according to Christopher John Farleys Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley. Marley in the late 1950s lived in Trench Town; this is one of Kingstons poorest neighborhoods. Even though the poverty influenced him a lot he still found motivation in the music that surrounded him. This is because there were a couple of successful musicians which were from Trench Town as well. Also as I mentioned before, many other sounds and music was broadcasted from America which many artists such as Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, Fats Domino, influenced Marleys love for music. Bob and Bunny dedicated most of their time to music and under the supervision of Joe Higgs, a famous reggae musician in Jamaica, Marley tried to develop on his singing skills. Under the tutoring of Higgs Marley met another student, Peter McIntosh which later became Peter Tosh, who would play with Marley and Livingston later on, to be known as The Wailers. Approximately in 1962 a local record producer, named Leslie Kong, liked Bobs singing and produced a small number of singles for Marley, one of them being â€Å"Judge Not†. His small success as a solo artist, made Marley join and create a band with his two friends, Bunny and Tosh, to form the ‘Wailing Wailers in 1963. In January 1964 the first single that they all made called â€Å"Simmer Down† rose up to the top of Jamaican charts, at this point of the bands status 3 other members had joined the Wailing Wailers. These new band members included Junior Braithwaite, Beverly Kelso, and Cherry Smith. Even though the bands popularity was rising in Jamaica, they still had financial problems and this caused for 3 of the members to leave, these were Junior, Beverly and Cherry. The 3 original members went through a rough patch for a period of time and Marley moved to the United States where he married Rita Anderson on 1966. After some time Bob returned to his home, Jamaica and reunited with bunny and Tosh now form ‘The Wailers. At this point in Marleys life he started to develop and explore his spiritual side and his interest grew for the Rastafarian movement. At this point the Rastafarian movement had been in Jamaica over 30 years. In the late 1960s some of the songs that the wailers produced where â€Å"Trench Town Rock†, â€Å"Soul Rebel†, and â€Å"Four Hundred Years†. In the 1970s the wailers added two new members, Aston â€Å"Family Man† Barret and his brother Carlton†Carlie† Barret. They later got a contract with Island Records which resulted in the recording their first full album, Catch a Fire, and tour Britain and the United States in 1973. Burnin, their next album was released that same year and this album featured songs like â€Å"I Shot the Sheriff†. Their next album in 1975, Natty Dread, reflected some of the political problems that Jamaica was facing between the Peoples National Party and the Jamaica Labor Party. Some of the conflicts between these two parties can be seen in one of their songs â€Å"Rebels†, this song was inspired because of Marleys own firsthand experience of these conflicts. One sad fact about this album was that two if the original members left to pursue their own solo careers, these were Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer. The bands and reggaes popularity was increased abroad when the band toured extensively now called Bob Marley the Wailers. They were joined by I-Threes which consisted of a group of 3 female vocalists, Marleys wife Rita, Marcia Griffiths, and Judy Mowatt. Marley was starting to be on his way to becoming an international music icon and was already a much admired star in Jamaica. He entered the U.S music charts in 1976 with the album ‘Rastaman Vibration. His devotion to his faith and his interest in political change was reflected in one of his songs, â€Å"War†. The lyrics to this song where taken from a speech by Haile Selassie, the song discusses a new Africa, freedom, and racism. In 1976 there was an attempt of assassination on Marley because of his popularity and support of the Peoples National Party from the rivals. The night of December 3, 1976, a group of armed men broke into Marleys and the Wailers rehearsal before a concert. Marley and his wife were lucky and were just injured from gun shots but Don Taylor was shot 5 times and had to have surgery in order to save him. Even though the attempt of assassination had occurred, Marley still played at the show that night. The following day the Marleys escaped the country. The next year, 1977, Bob moved to London where he began to work on ‘Exodus. This song speaks about biblical stories of Moses and the Israelites leaving exile and comparing this to his own situation. This theme also links to another topic discussed in the song being returning to Africa, to the roots of Africans. This track was very popular in Britain and this song was followed with other successful songs like ‘Waiting in Vain and ‘Jammin. The whole album was very popular and stayed in the British charts for more than a year and is considered one of the best albums ever made. During 1977, Marley wanted treatment on a toe he had injured earlier that year, then discovering it to be cancerous cells on his toe. Bob required surgery for it to be removed in Miami, Florida. Even thought Marley and the Wailers were making Exodus they all recorded what would be released on another album, Kaya, which came out the following year, 1978. The two main records in this album were ‘Is This Love and ‘Satisfy My Soul, this record theme was love. Even after his last experience in Jamaica with an attempt of assassination he returned to Jamaica and in his One Love Peace Concert he made the two parties PNP and JLP leaders shake hands on stage, I think this shows the determination of Bob towards unity and love. That same year Bob visited Africa for the first time in his life. He visited places like Kenya and Ethiopia and obviously Ethiopia being more significant to him because of the relations with Rastafarianism. His next album portrayed a lot the unity of Africa and the end of the oppression there. Survival, the album, was mostly inspired from his visit to Africa. The next album which was release in 1980 was a huge success. Songs in this album like ‘Could you be loved and ‘Redemption Song, the latter song spoke about Marleys talents of how he combined poetical lyrics with social and political importance. One of the lines of the songs quotes ‘emancipate yourselves from mental slavery; none but ourselves can free our minds this is a clear example of the play of words and how he directs the message directly at the audience. The cancer that had been discovered earlier in his toe had unfortunately spread across all of Bobs body while they were in touring around Europe and the united states to promote their album. During his tour in Europe Bob underwent treatment in Germany where we was able to fight the cancer for a couple months, but it then was shown that he did not have much to live. When this was known Bob Marley wanted to return to his homeland but unfortunately passed away before he could make it to Jamaica. He died on the 11 of May 1981 in Miami, Florida. In part of his memorial service his wife, Rita Marley, and the Wailers played one last time for him. Figures of more than 30,000 people paid their respects to the Jamaican hero whish had received a Medal of Peace from the United States that earlier year. Marley will always be remembered till the end of times as one of the first international singer to have come from the Third World. His music is still and will be popular and fortunately his inheritance is continued by his wife and children. Also many of his children have continued in the family business and have as well succeeded in the music industry. His fight for the oppression and poverty still continues thanks to an organization created by the Marley family called the Bob Marley Foundation. This organization helps in education, health, food, and development of countries which need help.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Microsoft Corporation (MSFT) Finance Paper :: essays research papers

Microsoft Corporation (MSFT) Company Overview Formed in 1975, Microsoft started by selling a BASIC interpreter which quickly established a reputation for excellence. As the popularity of Microsoft BASIC grew, other manufacturers adopted Microsoft BASIC's syntax to maintain compatibility with existing Microsoft BASIC implementations. Because of this feedback loop, Microsoft BASIC became a de facto standard, and the company cornered the market. Later, it tried (unsuccessfully) to extend their grip on the home computer market by designing the MSX home computer standard. In late 1980, International Business Machines needed an operating system for its new home computer, the IBM PC. Microsoft subsequently purchased all rights to QDOS for $10,000, and renamed it MS-DOS (for Microsoft Disk Operating System). It was released as IBM PC-DOS 1.0 with the introduction of the PC in 1981. In contracting with IBM, however, Microsoft had retained the rights to license the software to other computer vendors as MS-DOS. The now highly profitable and cash rich Microsoft diversified into a wide variety of software products including: compilers and interpreters for programming languages and word processors, spreadsheets and other office software some of these products were successful, and some were not. By the turn of the millennium, many of Microsoft's software products dominated the market in their respective categories. Microsoft has devoted huge amounts of effort to marketing in developing their products and services, as well as to the integration of their software products with one another in an attempt to create a seamless and consistent computing environment for the user. Analysis I.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Trend Analysis Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio – For the last three years was growing from 3.56 in 2001 to 3.81 in 2002 to 4.22 in 2003. The reason of grow is increased in Assets. Even though Liability was growing, Asset grow was more significant. Quick Ratio – Constant grow for the last three years. From 3.56 in 2001 to 3.76 in 2002 to 4.17 in 2003. The reason of grow is constant increase in Current Assets. Cash ratio – Big drop (from .35 to .087) in year 2002. In 2003 the rate grew from .087 to .460. The reason of drop in 2002 is decreased in Cash and big increase in Liabilities. The increase in 2003 occurs because of big increase in Cash and slight increase in Liabilities. Asset Management Ratios Total Asset Turnover – Dropped from .64 in 2001 to .58 in 2002 to .55 in 2003. The reason is big increase in Total Assets.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Laying the Last Minstrel in Jane Eyre :: Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre Essays

Laying the Last Minstrel in Jane Eyre To find one work quoted multiple times in a novel, as is the case in Jane Eyre with The Lay of the Last Minstrel by Sir Walter Scott, should suggest to a reader that this quoted work can serve to shed some light on the work in which it is found. In this case, Charlotte Brontà « alluded to Scott’s work at appropriate moments in the novel, both because of similarities in the plots at those moments, but also, more importantly, because of the theme of The Lay of the Last Minstrel. The Lay of the Last Minstrel tells the story of two lovers, who despite overwhelming obstacles, end up together. This is possible only after the pride which contributes to their separation is vanquished. Use of a story with this theme serves to foreshadow the eventual marriage between Jane and Rochester, but only after their pride is no longer an obstacle. J. H. Alexander’s description of the themes in The Lay of the Last Minstrel in his article "On the Verbal and Thematic Texture" can easily be applied to a discussion of Jane Eyre. He writes that the "overt theme of the Lay [is] the quelling of barren pride" while added to that are "the apocalyptic abolition of all pride in human achievement and the insistance that true love is in its essential nature supernatural" (19). The ability to freely love one another is what enables Rochester and Jane to be together at the end, once pride is no longer an issue for either one of them. Brontà « gives their love a supernatural element in the way that Jane is drawn to Rochester after hearing him call out her name (409; ch. 35). Aside from the legal obstacle to Jane and Rochester’s marriage, pride is a major factor in keeping them apart. The first instance where The Lay of the Last Minstrel appears in Jane Eyre is the scene where Jane tells Rochester of the night that someone (she later learns it was Bertha) came to her bedroom and ripped the veil she was supposed to wear at Jane and Rochester’s wedding: "But, sir, as it grew dark, the wind rose: it blew yesterday evening not as it blows now – wild and high – but ‘with a sullen, moaning sound’ far more eerie" (279; ch. 25). She goes on to explain her uneasiness at his being away and her difficulty in falling asleep that night. Laying the Last Minstrel in Jane Eyre :: Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre Essays Laying the Last Minstrel in Jane Eyre To find one work quoted multiple times in a novel, as is the case in Jane Eyre with The Lay of the Last Minstrel by Sir Walter Scott, should suggest to a reader that this quoted work can serve to shed some light on the work in which it is found. In this case, Charlotte Brontà « alluded to Scott’s work at appropriate moments in the novel, both because of similarities in the plots at those moments, but also, more importantly, because of the theme of The Lay of the Last Minstrel. The Lay of the Last Minstrel tells the story of two lovers, who despite overwhelming obstacles, end up together. This is possible only after the pride which contributes to their separation is vanquished. Use of a story with this theme serves to foreshadow the eventual marriage between Jane and Rochester, but only after their pride is no longer an obstacle. J. H. Alexander’s description of the themes in The Lay of the Last Minstrel in his article "On the Verbal and Thematic Texture" can easily be applied to a discussion of Jane Eyre. He writes that the "overt theme of the Lay [is] the quelling of barren pride" while added to that are "the apocalyptic abolition of all pride in human achievement and the insistance that true love is in its essential nature supernatural" (19). The ability to freely love one another is what enables Rochester and Jane to be together at the end, once pride is no longer an issue for either one of them. Brontà « gives their love a supernatural element in the way that Jane is drawn to Rochester after hearing him call out her name (409; ch. 35). Aside from the legal obstacle to Jane and Rochester’s marriage, pride is a major factor in keeping them apart. The first instance where The Lay of the Last Minstrel appears in Jane Eyre is the scene where Jane tells Rochester of the night that someone (she later learns it was Bertha) came to her bedroom and ripped the veil she was supposed to wear at Jane and Rochester’s wedding: "But, sir, as it grew dark, the wind rose: it blew yesterday evening not as it blows now – wild and high – but ‘with a sullen, moaning sound’ far more eerie" (279; ch. 25). She goes on to explain her uneasiness at his being away and her difficulty in falling asleep that night.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Edward Jenner and Smallpox

Despite all of the controversy around vaccinations, vaccines have been around for nearly 200 years and are known to have saved millions of lives by preventing a person from infectious diseases through inoculation. The world’s first vaccine, the vaccination for smallpox was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, a doctor from England. Smallpox, which dates back to 1350 B. C. , is an infectious and contagious disease that plagued much of Europe and North American colonies during the 17th and 18th century. Smallpox claimed more than million deaths in Europe and Mexico before development of the vaccination. Dr. Jenner’s scientific research and observations led to the eradication of smallpox in 1979. The purpose of this paper is to examine one of the greatest achievements in public health, the smallpox vaccination and the man responsible for it, Dr. Edward Jenner. This paper will also focus on the effects that the smallpox vaccination has had on public and community health and how the process of immunization from infectious diseases has saved millions of lives today. What is Smallpox Smallpox is an infectious and contagious disease, which is caused by the variola virus. The virus, which has two forms, variola major and variola minor, was referred to as the speckled monster because of red, pustule, raised lesions that appeared on a person’s skin. Aside from the skin lesions, smallpox is characterized by typical flu symptoms such as fever, fatigue, muscle aches, malaise, and headache. Smallpox is an airborne transmitted infection, which multiplies itself in the lymph nodes while moving from cell to cell. A person is said to be contagious until the last lesion scab falls off. Whereas a cure for smallpox does not exist, the only form of prevention is vaccination (Barquet & Domingo, 1997). Edward Jenner and His Developments Edward Jenner, who was born on May 17, 1749 in England, developed an interest in science and nature during his early years. He worked as an apprentice under George Harwicke, in which he developed the interest in cowpox. Jenner went to London at the age of 21 to become a student of John Hunter, the most prestigious surgeon in England, Here, Jenner learned that if a person had cowpox he or she could not contract smallpox (Stern, 2005). Through Jenner’s apprenticeship with Hunter, he began learning surgical techniques and the use of scientific methods and observation. After publishing several scientific studies and learning through observations, Jenner's interest in smallpox grew and it was at this point in which he developed his hypothesis; â€Å"Cowpox protected a person from the human disease smallpox† (Barquet & Domingo, 1997, p. 639). Developing the Smallpox Vaccine Sparked by the interest in his hypothesis and the overwhelming plague of smallpox, Jenner decided to perform an experiment to test his hypothesis. Jenner came into contact with Sarah Nelms, a dairymaid who had contracted cowpox through an infected cow. To test his hypothesis, â€Å"Jenner extracted fluid from the pustules on Nelm’s hand and used that same fluid to inoculate an 8-year-old boy through two inch incisions on the boy’s arm† (Barquet & Domingo, 1997, p. 639). A few weeks later, Jenner injected fluid from a smallpox lesion into the arm of the same boy. This is known as variolation. The variolation did not produce a reaction and Jenner confirmed that the boy was protected against smallpox. As a result of Jenner’s studies, research, and observations, the smallpox vaccine was developed (Stefan, 2005). The Effect of the Smallpox Vaccine on Public and Community Health Upon the publication of Jenner’s inquiry, skepticism arose as Jenner began a nationwide survey to support his findings. Other physicians began vaccinating through Jenner’s method and the theory was confirmed. Those who were previously infected with cowpox and received variolation did not find themselves stricken by smallpox. The vaccination era had begun as news of the inquiry spread to the United States where the method was tried and confirmed once again by Benjamin Waterhouse, a Harvard Medical School professor (Barquet & Domingo, 1997). According to Barquet and Domingo (2005), â€Å"President Thomas Jefferson had 18 members of his family vaccinated and supported the theory that the vaccine preserves individuals from smallpox† (p. 640). President Jefferson later appointed Waterhouse as the â€Å"vaccine agent in the National Vaccine Institute, an organization to establish vaccination in the United States† (Barquet & Domingo, 1997, p. 640). Public and Community Health Today Several years after Jenner’s discovery, scientists had begun to develop new vaccines. Protesting began as antivaccinationists believed that vaccinating violated a person’s privacy. In 1905, the United States Supreme court ruled that â€Å"The need to protect the public health through compulsory smallpox vaccination outweighed the individual’s right to privacy† (Stern & Markel, 2005, p. 617). The World Health Organization (WHO) certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979. As other vaccinations emerged, such as vaccines for polio, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella, people commonly worried about the safety and efficacy of these vaccinations. Today, many parents are under the impression that autism is linked to a preservative called thimerosal, which was used in many vaccinations such as DTP and Hepatitis B vaccines. Upon scientific studies, no connection was found. However, in 1999 the United States Food and Drug Administration stopped licensing vaccines that contained thimerosal (Stern & Markel, 2005). Conclusion The development of the smallpox vaccine and other immunizations are considered to be one of the greatest achievements in public health. Disease prevention is a major necessity of public and community health. Through extensive research, scientific studies, and observation, Edward Jenner paved the way for the evolution of public health. To date, vaccinations have saved millions of lives by protecting people against polio, diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella, and smallpox. Although many people are skeptical about the safety and efficacy of immunizations, choosing not to be immunized puts not only the individual at risk but also other people at risk of contracting an infectious disease.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Reasons for Hitler to become a tyrant

Hitler was the founder of the National Socialist German Workers Party and one of the most Influential voices of his time. He Implemented the Holocaust, the mass execution of the Jews, Gypsies, and people he considered inordinate. Hitler was known for being very cruel to many people and punished those who disobeyed his rule. In November of 1921, he had realized that he had a powerful skill in oratory and could speak like none other. He founded the Nationalistic Socialist German Workers Party and created the swastika.He started to lead Germany in many rebellions against other countries. Hitler was furious with what how the nations of the world mistreated Germany after World War l, and wanted to get revenge. As World War I ended, there were many reparations that were needed to be done. Many countries were In a state of depression and anger was fueled inside all of them, and someone had to pay. The League of Nations Indicted Germany of the crimes that were done, and Germany had to pay th e money for all the nations' compensations. Everybody In Germany, Including Doll Hitler, was enraged by this decision, because they had to pay more taxes.Hitler thought someone needed to stand up for judgment, and with his oratory skills, he tried convincing the people of Germany to rebel against the world. He conducted many speeches all over Germany, and many people agreed with his ideas and with the support that he gathered from his people, he overthrew the nation's government and gathered all the power. When Germany was weakened, considering it had to pay for all the reparations, the government collapsed. In addition to that, most of the German states made their own Constitutions and did not follow the main Constitution.The army of Germany was under General Hans von Sects, and he wanted to destroy the government. The leadership of the previous Kaiser of Germany was not present anymore, and the people did not have anyone to look up to. In fact, most people wanted dictatorship to c ome back, so they could get ruled again. Germany was split up Into small independent states, and Doll Hitler did not like this. He wanted a single, strong, united Germany with a strong government, so they could fight against the Allied states and get their revenge.He immediately started throwing leadership campaigns, ND many people bent to his opinion. A couple years following his campaigns, Hitler became the leader of Germany. Thirdly, he rose to power was because he gained a lot of money. Fresh out of World War l, Hitler didn't have a lot of money and was financially unstable. When Hitler realized that Germany didn't have a strong leadership, he decided to step up to the case. He didn't have the money to set up propaganda or any sort of art to convince them, so he conducted a lot of speeches.By doing so, many rich entrepreneurs In Germany offered Hitler money to restore Germany. With that money, Hitler could create propaganda, so that he could get the people's support. Also, Hitle r could set up many campaigns all over Germany and attracted many that the Jews and other people who he considered â€Å"morally unjust† were to blame, and the Germans showed distrust towards these people. He put Josef Gobbles in charge of the propaganda, because Gobbles was able to appeal to the peoples' feelings instead of arguing against them.Gobbles communicated the views of the Nazi perfectly and a lot of people, especially the youth, started to follow Hitler in his billions. With this type of power, there was no stopping Hitler. At the end of the war, everyone in Germany lost something. Even Hitler lost someone, his mother. Before the war, Germany was a big and threatening country, but in the post war, nobody was scared of it anymore. It was Just some poor third- world country that no one cared about anymore. Hitler was positive that he could get Germany's moral back.In his speeches, he promised that he will bring Germany back up and give everyone something. He basicall y promised the impossible to a nation of people who were in desperate, starving, loss of credibility, and utterly defeated at the mercy of the nations to help rebuild them. The government was doing little to bring Germany back, but the people never listened to them. Hitler appealed to their pride, and they supported him. As Hitler started to create more and more campaigns, he soon started enemies. There were many opposing parties that electioneered against Hitler.Since the German Constitution was not effective, Hitler could do whatever he wanted. His men or the Gestapo Secret Police and the Storekeepers, would often attack his opposition. With more and more parties getting destroyed by Hitter's organization, fear spread throughout the people. He showed the country who he really was and no one, including the government, wanted to mess with him. Along with the many campaigns he held and the fear he created, the people of Germany admired Hitler, because of his body language and his per sonality. He appealed to a people who had been defeated and humiliated.The people wanted a leader who was not afraid of anything and is willing to stand up for his country. His body language as shown well and used as a great way to get across his message. The people of Germany adored how he could organize everything so perfectly and was driven to become the dictator of Germany. A lot of people referred to him as the Messiah of Germany. Disaster struck the United States in 1929, when the Stock Market collapsed. Everyone lost a lot of money, and the United States of America did not have a lot of money. They had to shut down their major imports with other countries, Germany being one of them.Since Germany had to pay for all the war reparations, their sports were a primary source of making money. With the Great Depression, they lost one of their main exports, and Germany started to lose money. Inflation rose greatly in Germany, and money started to lose value. Unemployment shot up drast ically, and people were not making money. The people of Germany wanted someone to blame. Hitler thought that if he can get the people back to work, he can get lot of followers. He started to talk about the Nazi party and why it is beneficial, and more and more people started to Join the Nazi party, because it was their last chance of hope.Since the Nazi party went from 12 people in 1928 to 230 in 1932, Hitler gave people what they wanted. In 1932, the population of the Nazi party started to decline, and the elections about suicide. A man named Paul von Hindering gave him a helping hand and set him up with a friend of his, Chancellor Franz von Pane. Von Pane was having trouble getting people to listen to him and needed someone who he can trust to rule Germany. He gave Hitler a position as vice-chancellor, but Hitler declined, because Hitler thought he was suited for a higher position.Taking a risk Hindering and von Pane gave Hitler the position of Chancellor. They made a very bad mis take, because Hitler used this to have total control of the power in Germany. He finally got what he wanted, and he didn't take power, he was given it. There were many reasons for why Hitler rose to the position where he was, but there are a few that stand out among the others. The biggest reason for why he got so much power was because of the outcome of World War II. Since Germany had to pay for all the reparations, everyone in Germany was mad at the other nations.No one would stand up and rebel against them. Hitler took a stand and wanted to show the other countries that Germany doesn't deserve the treatment. He capitalized on this decision and created the Nazi party that would end the nightmare the Germans were living in. Another reason for why he rose to power was through his speeches and his extravagant character. The government of Germany did not do anything about the ruins and had a hard time getting its people to listen it. The people of Germany wanted someone who was brave, logical, and willing to stand up to his country.Hitler had all those qualities, and he was not afraid to speak. The Germans saw this in him and took the liberty of following in him for his rise to power. A third reason for why he had risen to great power was through his use of propaganda. He thought that he needed to get the people of Germany to believe what was right and wrong. Hitler thought the only way to do this was through the use of propaganda. By using that, he led the people to believe that they need to stand up for what's right. Hitler was and still is, one of the greatest leaders of all time.

The Darker Side of Shakespeare

In William Shakespeare’s play, â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream†, the audience is spectator to a much darker Shakespearian comedy than many of Shakespeare’s other works. The play begins with a young woman by the name of Hermia is torn between marrying the man that her father has chosen for her or facing death for defying her father’s wishes. The audience sees dark humor through Puck’s antics in pleasing his Oberon. The two enjoy playing mean tricks on innocent characters they come across, obviously exhibiting a dark sense of humor. Shakespeare also incorporates dark magic into â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream† with the fairies in the forest. Whereas fairies are typically portrayed as helpful, innocent creatures, Shakespeare’s fairies seem only to create mischief and chaos. Also portrayed in this play is the dark side of love and romance. The darkness of the play is obvious from the first page through the last page, obviously displaying Shakespeare’s darker intentions for this play. The most obvious element of â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream† is the element of dark humor. Oberon’s mignon, Puck, is constantly entertaining Oberon in any way possible. In most cases, this entertainment incorporates playing tricks on unsuspecting characters. Puck and Oberon seem to have a darker sense of humor, enjoying seeing others in states of confusion or embarrassment. Early in the play, Puck talks about the pranks that he has been known to play, telling the audience that, â€Å"†¦ sometimes lurk I in a gossip’s bowl, in very likeness of a roasted crab, and when she drinks, against her lips I bob and on her withered dewlap pour the ale. The wisest aunt, telling the saddest tale, sometimes for three-foot stool mistaketh me; then slip I from her bum, down topples she, and â€Å"tailor† cries, and falls into a cough† (Act 2, Scene 1, Lines 47-54). By turning himself into a crab and lurking in a bowl of ale to scare a woman, and making himself appear to be a stool so that when a woman sits on him, he can make her fall, Puck makes it obvious that he cares about nothing but entertaining himself and his king. One example of this darker humor is when Puck changes Bottom’s head into that of an ass. As if this single trick isn’t entertaining enough, Puck then casts a spell over Titania causing the fairy queen to fall in love with Bottom. When Puck tells Oberon how the trick played out, Oberon is obviously happy with the results, telling Puck that, â€Å"This falls out better than I could devise† (Act 3, Scene 2, Line 35). The relationship between Oberon and Puck is one similar to a King and Court Jester during medieval times. Puck exists only to entertain Oberon, and it is very obvious that the two have a much darker sense of humor than others. The second element of â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream† that exhibits an obvious darkness is the magic and fairies within the play. Typically, fairies are thought to be good creatures who are helpful and innocent. However, the fairies that Shakespeare has envisioned are a much darker breed than what the audience would normally expect. The fairies that exist in this play are more known for creating a sense of chaos. The most prominent fairy in the play is Puck, the trickster of the forest. We see the darker side of the magic that Puck practices on several occasions throughout the play. One of the more obvious examples of Puck’s dark magic is when he decides to relinquish the Athenian youngsters of their relationship troubles. Puck uses magic to make Demetrius fall in love with Helena. This is a darker spell because it interferes with the ability of Demetrius to truly exhibit free will and love who he wants. Puck tracks down the Athenian he is to cast the spell upon in the forest, â€Å"When thou wakest, let love forbid; Sleep his seat on thy eyelid: So awake when I am gone† (Act 2, Scene 2, Lines 67-68). In the process of â€Å"helping† the young lovers with this love triangle, Puck casts the spell on the wrong Athenian man. The plan backfires, and it is Lysander who is made to woo Helena. As Puck and Oberon watch their antics unfold, Puck is obviously entertained by the confusion that he has caused. Puck tells Oberon, â€Å"Shall we their fond pageant see? Lord, what fools these mortals be!† (Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 115-116). The third element of Shakespeare’s play that incorporates a darker feeling is that of love and relationships. This is most evident in the relationship that exists between Titania and Oberon. While most comedies are full of love and passion, Shakespeare places a dark emphasis on relationships in â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream†. The marriage of Titania and Oberon is thrown into chaos over a changeling that Titania has taken under her care. Because of Titania’s actions, Oberon is in a rage and essentially trying to get revenge on her. This takes on a dark element when Oberon encourages Puck to play a trick on her, resulting in Titania falling temporarily in love with Bottom. Unfortunately for the fairy queen, Bottom’s head has been transformed into that of an ass. Puck takes great delight in his bizarre love connection, however, saying, â€Å"When in that moment, so it came to pass, Titania waked and straightway loved an ass† (Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 33-34). The audience sees a different kind of relationship between Titania and Oberon – one in which Oberon obviously must always be â€Å"in charge†. By not allowing Oberon to have control of the changeling, she has obviously thrown their relationship out of balance. It appears to the audience that Titania is expected to bend to Oberon’s wishes at all times. The audience is exposed to the darker side of Titania in her battle with Oberon. When the two meet by accident in the woods, Titania is furious with Oberon for interrupting the fairy dances that Titania and her fairies partake in. Titania’s darker side is uncovered in her accusations to her husband, â€Å"The ox hath therefore stretch'd his yoke in vain; The ploughman lost his sweat, and the green corn; Hath rotted ere his youth attain'd a beard; The fold stands empty in the drowned field; And crows are fatted with the murrion flock† (Act 2, Scene 1, Lines 78-82). Titania’s word choice alone has a dark connotation, and she makes it clear that the disturbance of the fairy dance will have dark consequences for others. Shakespeare’s comedy, â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream† leaves the audience reeling from a sense of darkness within the play. This play is not a typical comedy in that many of the comedic elements are darker than other plays in the same genre. Shakespeare shows the audience the darker side of humor through the interactions between Oberon and his servant, Puck. The element of dark magic also makes its way into the play, through the chaotic realm of the fairies in the forest, changing the typical role of a fairy in writing. Lastly, Shakespeare makes his audience aware of the darkness that exists within the various relationships in the play. Almost all of the lovers in this play have a darker element to their relationships. Shakespeare, through diverse characters, intrigues the audience with an obvious fascination with the darker side of the most common elements of his play. Works Cited Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1980.