Sunday, March 31, 2019

Age of Discovery Events Before the Industrial Revolution

season of Discovery Events Before the Industrial Revolution succession of discovery-events leading up to the Industrial Revolution, commenting on the fol unhopefuling currency, colonialism, recession, globilism, monetary market, man yearsment theories and approaches, relationship in the midst of the past and present, economy, technology, change and people that contributed to the revolution.This paper presents an overview of the factors within the so-called bestride of Discovery which engendered the industrial revolution in Britain. Although the industrial revolution itself is unremarkably full pointised in the period 1750-1850, this is by no means a universally agreed principle. Some authorities, such as Berg, propose that what she terms the age of manufactures in fact break awayd from 1700-1820. (1) As Berg herself explains, industrial growth took family over the whole of the ordinal ampere-second, non just the last poop of it. There was a substantial growth in the who le contrive of traditional industries as well as the nigh obviously kindle cases of cotton and iron. (2) If this position is accepted, the age of discovery was contemporaneous with the industrial revolution. whatsoever its precise chronological context, it is argued here that the provenance of the industrialization in Britain lays in a diffuse range of developments, many of which are furthest disclosedoors the timeframe of industrialization itself. The ideological framework was shaped during the Re turnation and primeval advanced(a) period, which also saw the necessary financial and commercial developments take place. This in turn led to colonial expansion, technological growth, and was re-negotiated after foreign revolutions and alternate(prenominal) recessions, all of which helped drive Britains impetus to contendds industrial expansion and self-sufficiency.The ideological and scotch framework was arguably created by attendant developments in sociology and financial infrastructure the so called elective or protestant chemical attraction with the appraisal of bang-up letterism, and the financial revolution which followed on the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The supposed pre-disposition of early modern side society towards specific forms of commercial development was proposed by figures such as R.H.Tawney and Max Weber as an elective affinity betwixt the protestant asceticism and the spirit of capitalism. (3). Although this system little to a greater extent than a much-discussed theory, the economic individualism which became institutionalized in Britain during the late ordinal century is much more tangible. It is also, arguably, gruellingly constructive of the industrial revolution. The prat of the Bank of England, the East India Company, and the proliferation of other large joint-stock ventures such as the southern Sea Company, gave Britain both the incentive and the financial personnel to push out into expanding markets, looking fo r spic-and-span commodities and raw materials. As Carruthers explains, Improvements in the system of mankind borrowing were authoritative in explaining the growing financial strength of the English statedramatic enough to be called a Financial Revolution. England was adequate to borrow more moneyat lower rates of interest. The borrowing was mostly from domestic sourcesthanks to the development of trade and commerce, there was in England a growing pool of available capital. (4) The setting up of a large sinking fund was partly justified on the curtilage of the chronic need to fund armed services conflict with European and imperial rivals improvements in revenues allowed for increased borrowing, and together they underwrote higher expenditures and a successful war effort. (5) Unfortunately, the British realized that even victorious campaigns were ruinously expensive, as Colley relates the septet Years War was the most dramatically successful war the British ever fought. They co nquered Canadathey assumed for themselves the reputation of being the most aggressive, the most affluent, and the most swiftly expanding power in the worldyet the euphoria short souredthere was the hard, unpleasant fact of the National Debt which led inexorably to the rise in taxation. (6) However, fiscal understand by the British political science was itself to be a factor in industrialisation.Britains foreign military successes factored in the related developments of colonialism and slavery both had prominent roles in the capital formation which financed the industrial revolution. Simply put, capital generated in the colonies had been steadily accumulating in Britain since the late seventeenth century, and much of it went into joint-stock companies, investment houses, or often at present into the enterprise and fixed capital itself. Much of it also went back abroad even, when it did so, it often did so to finance orders for British-manufactured goods which further fanned dom estic industrialization. The angular trade in British manufacturing output, Afri evict slaves, and West Indian shit ultimately concluded in the accretion of private capital reserves back in the UK, all seeking dividends through land or other investment. As Williams points out, the industrial expansion required finance. What man in the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century was better able to afford the put capital than a West Indian sugar planter or a Liverpool slave trader? (7)Many of the best known call of Britains industrial and commercial scene were the net beneficiaries of capital generated overseas, from both colonial or plantation sources. As Williams once again indicates, It was the capital put in from the West Indian trade that financed James Watt and the steam engine. engine room luminaries such as Boulton and Watt received advances from established plantation interests, as did the architects of the Great Western Railway one of the leading banking families to transfer capital from their slave owning activities directly into financial services were the Barclays, precursors to the modern day Barclays bank. (8.) The American War of Independence, the eventual abolition of British slavery, and increased competition form South America eventually meant that these forms of revenue fell into decline. However, as Bayly reports, they were in short replaced, not only by new forms of income from other territories, but by massive new markets for raw materials and Britains industrial output by 1815 the nation could celebrate an astonishing, indeed providential, recovery of fortunes. (9)It has to be recognised however that the capital accumulating in Britains investment houses and stock market did not find its way into a managerially static or vernacular economic arena. The eighteenth century also saw the emergence of a range of management theories and theories of the firm, which were implicit in the rationalization of the commercial and manufacturin g enterprise. As Williams puts it, individualism became a practice in the new industry long sooner it penetrated the text books as orthodox economic theory. (10) Adam smith, Thomas Malthus , Robert Torrens and others make the discipline of economics from the remnants of the former ideas of political arithmetic, producing a technical and prophetical framework which combined with new technology to give the UK a new form of economic staple. Classical economics has continued to be re-worked and corking ever since. As Cohen and Cyert point out, For the purposes of the setical theory, the profit maximization impudence whitethorn be perfectly adequate. It is clear however, that as one asks a different set of questionsthe profit maximization assumption is neither necessary nor sufficient (11) It nevertheless continues to pervade present-day(a) economic thought.New ideas around the economy were not the only intellectual developments creating change in the age of discovery and indus trialisation they were accompanied by new political ideas with profound implications for British expansion. In Marxist parlance, Englands own bourgeois revolution the middle classes wresting power from monarchical or aristocratic control had already passed in the form of the English Civil War. In the eighteenth century the American and French Revolutions helped determine the character of British growth by shaping domestic political institutions and providing a further impetus for overseas expansion. There was a sense in which the social, economic and political processes butt up with industrialisation had to break down the protocols associated with monarchical and aristocratic control before the transformation could really be achieved. Capitalism had to supplant mercantilism, tariffs and protectionism had to be removed, markets had to be open to competition, and the vested interests who opposed it had to be pushed aside. As Williams expresses it, Adam Smiths economic tour de force in the Wealth of Nations was the philosophic antecedent of the American Revolution. Both were twin products of the same cause, the brake utilize by the mercantile system on the development of the productive power of England and her colonies. Consequently, he adds, Adam Smiths role was to berate intellectually the mean and malignant expedients of a system which the armies of George Washington dealt a deadly wound on the battlefields of America. (12) After the loss of the American colonies, the British presidency seized upon the idea that, in future, administration needed to be more focus on the needs of the market a the necessary accompaniment to industrial expansion. British goods needed markets, and British government needed expertise to agree and retain those markets. As Bayly observes, The disasters of the American Civil War had produced an interlocking intercommunicate of parliamentary committees with their own experts so administrations also had to know more and be bet ter prepared. (13)Britains industrial progress was, however, not uniform or linear in nature. As Bayly reports, of lateened by cyclical depressions operating in a more integrated world economy and by the continuing splutter of local wars which often marked the advance of settler capitalism into indigenous societies. (14) Britains technological and managerial expertise could not insulate it from seemingly inevitable financial crises and recession which, as Hilton reports, plagued it throughout its period of supposed industrial might. There had been monetary and commercial disorders in the eighteenth century1788, 1793, 1797but nothing to compare with the crises of 1825-6, 1837-9, 1847-8, 1857, and 1866. Perhaps more important than the empirical details of these crises was their impact upon economic and social thinking, and in particular the way in which blame was apportioned for such disasters. A Hilton again explains, contemporary analysis concentrated on twotypes of netary misdirection by government or Bank of England, and human avarice and greed. (15) The deep and pernicious nature of these crises eventually prompted the creation of the economic governance which til now prevails today. In the 1770s, the Bank of England note replaced the private bank notes which had circulated previously. (16). However, a more unified financial system meant that financial crises were themselves more pervasive and all-embracing. restrain liability legislation, as well as regulation of monopolies, mergers, and competition, helped protect individuals from the surpass effects of economic downturns. What the industrial revolution and associated market creation implied for the UK dividing line community was a increasingly close relationship with a globalizing economy. The wonderful wealth created by this for some individuals meant that the economy was now vulnerable to upheavals far beyond the control of the London stock market or government.This, arguably, e ncapsulates the adept clearest link between the society which shaped the industrial revolution and contemporary social conditions i.e., the individuals whose contributions are most important to industrialization were those with the least wager in its benefits. Academic debates as to whether or not a real(a) class consciousness was engendered by the industrial revolution are, ultimately, inconclusive. Few can realistically deny, however, that industrialisation demanded a massive influx of skilled, semi-skilled, but overwhelmingly unskilled beat back, whom technological production could deprive of a skilled wage. As Gray points out, Industrial change was associated with crises of gender and class relations, and struggles over grind regulation can be seen in the context of a gendered class consciousness. (17). In other words, both men and women realized that their livelihoods and earning power in an industrial context depended upon whether or not their work was defined as skilled. De-skilling was, it may be argued, the necessary precursor to the enormous industrial earnings generated in the mill system significant surplus value, the disparity between the amount spent to produce an item, and the amount it sold for could only be maintained at a realistic level if costs were low and margins were wide. It was therefore no accident that unskilled female and child elbow grease were highly significant in populating the new factory system which remains the emblematic representation of the industrial revolution in Britain. The same processes of de-skilling, and an fundamentally exploitative relationship, arguably feature in the new globalization winning place in the contemporary economy. It is interesting to speculate on whether these special K relations of production, the taproot of collectivized and organized labour movements, will produce a new variant on the trade unionism thrown up by the domestic British industrial revolution. The same may be asked of off icial intervention in the manufacturing process. As Gray points out, Attempts to regulate factory employment can be traced back, almost to the beginnings of factory production itself. The restructuring of labour markets and employment relations during.indutrialisation was accompanied by a series of imbrication debates about protective labour laws, the poor laws and statutory or usual controls over wages, prices, and commercial practice. (18) This historical process is arguably on-going, as successive waves of de-skilled labour are moved around the globalizing economy to meet displace demand, often in uncontrolled conditions. The practices of child and female labour may have stopped in the domestic economy, but they have by no means been eliminated from the global arena. This is notwithstanding the appearance of Third guidance economics, and the supposed elimination of class difference.Footnotes1.) Berg, M., (1994), The Age of Manufactures, 1700-1820, Routledge, London, p.2.2.) I bid., p.281.3.) Robertson, H.M., (1933), Aspects of the Rise of Economic Liberalism A check of Max Weber and His School, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.208.4.) Carruthers, B.G., (1996), City of Capital Politics and Markets in the English Financial Revolution, Princeton University Press, NJ, p.71.5.) Ibid., p.69.6.) Colley, L., (1992), Britons Forging the Nation, 1707-1837, Pimlico, London.p.1017.) Williams, E., (1964), Capitalism and Slavery, Andre Deutsch, London. p.98.8.) Ibid., pp.101-105.9.) Bayly, C.A., (1989), Imperial Meridian The British conglomerate and the World, 1780-1830, Longman, London, p.3.10.) Williams, op.cit., p.106.11.) Cohen, K.J., and Cyert, R.M., (1965), guess of the Firm Resource Allocation in a Market providence , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.12.) Williams, op.cit., p.107.13.) Bayly, op.cit., p.161.14. ) Bayly, C.A., (1989), Imperial Meridian The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830, Longman, London, p.238.15.) Hilton, B., (1988), The Age of conciliation the influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought, 1783-1865, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p.125.16.) Bayly, op.cit., p.116.17.) Gray, R.Q., (1996), The milling machinery Question and Industrial England, 1830-1860, Cambridge University Press, Canbridge, p.24.18.) ibid., p.21.BibliographyBayly, C.A., (1989), Imperial Meridian The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830, Longman, London.Berg, M., (1994), The Age of Manufactures, 1700-1820, Routledge, London.Carruthers, B.G., (1996), City of Capital Politics and Markets in the English Financial Revolution, Princeton University Press, NJ.Cohen, K.J., and Cyert, R.M., (1965), Theory of the Firm Resource Allocation in a Market Economy , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Colley, L., (1992), Britons Forging the Nation, 1707-1837, Pimlico, London.Gray, R.Q., (1996), The Factory Question and Industrial England, 1830-1860, Cambridge University Press, Canbridge.Hilton, B., (1988), The Age of Atonement the infl uence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought, 1783-1865, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Jennings, H., (1985), Pandemonium the Coming of the elevator car as Seen by Contemporary Observers, Picador, London.Robertson, H.M., (1933), Aspects of the Rise of Economic Liberalism A Criticism of Max Weber and His School, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Williams, E., (1964), Capitalism and Slavery, Andre Deutsch, London.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effects of Organisational Structure on HRM in a Business

Effects of Organisational mental synthesis on HRM in a rail lineINTRODUCTIONAssociations be organized in a mixture of routes, dependant on their goals and nine. The construction of an connector egress focus the way in which it organises and its exploit. Structure permits the obligations regarding as appearanceed capacities and methods to be unmistakably dispensed to distinctive offices and workers. Association Structure and Business Success.The wrong association building leave behind frustrate the accomplishment of the chore. domineering twists ought to mean to boost the proficiency and accomplishment of the Organization. A compelling exacting structure depart encourage working connections between several(a) segments of the association. It will intimidate request and charge whilst pushing adaptability and imagi community.Part -1As a Recent Human resource graduate ,Luna Convenience Store has intermeshed you to develop a discussion document on these two issues. apologise influence an brass instrumental structure has on the HRM social function.Is the HRM function influenced by organisational structure or non?One of the crucial difficulties confronting organizations of all sizes is decision making how to arrange and staff their operations. This undertaking constricts to be signifi camberly to a greater extent temporary when an organization chooses to work together cross(prenominal) everywhere subject field fringes.A little entrepreneur may begin as the main vocalisation in his or her organization. For this situation association and staffing basically includes the wareive dispersal of the managers chance and regard for the different undertakings connected with the business. As the organization develops, to a greater extent than re showatives will most likely be procured. At the point when this happens, it is laboursaving to unequivocally guard a gander at how undertakings faculty be appoint crosswise over workers in a delib erate manner. As the organization develops still bigger, it is frequently precious to jump arranging the organization into offices. more of the time, an organizations initial moves abroad include responding to an evidently irregular or unanticipated abroad business open door. From the get go, such business may be led anyplace in the association on a specially appointed premise.As an organization develops its operations abroad, it undertakes extra many-sided nature as choices must be make which address universal and nearby relic outline, neighborhood responsiveness to undivided markets, cross-outskirt financing, and so on.Theories of organizational structure-weber-webers organization centered around making standards and regulations to weed out complex methods in social orders and work environments.Key Points-Max Weber was a part of the traditional point of view of formation, and his written work attend toed the investigative school of considered government. He expounded on t he signifi contributece of administration in the public eye.Weberian organization is described by progressive association, move made on the premise of and recorded in composed tenets, and bureaucratic authorities obliging master preparing. Professional success relies on upon specialized capabilities judged by association, not nap.Webers thoughts on organization originated from society amid the Industrial Revolution. As Weber comprehended, society was being determined by the entry of reasonable plans into society which, thus, spayd society into an inexorably bureaucratic substance.Qualities Of Bureaucratic Organizations A decently characterized orchis progression and trains of leadership recognizes the level of power inside an association. People who hold higher positions will oversee and speedy lower positions inside the progression. For instance, Megan the manager oversees a group of quartet deals agents. Megans position inside the association as a manager provides for her power over those four deals indicates to steer and suck up got their activities to guarantee vertical objectives are met.Administration by principles and regulations gives a constitute of standard working techniques that encourage consistency in both hierarchical and administration rehearses. Case in point, when a representative is wiped out and roll in the hayt make it into work that day, he or she must shout to their immediate chief. On the off chance that one of Megans deals reps is wiped out, they are relied upon to call her forthright to educate her of their unlucky deficiency. Any worker who neglects to do this will be liable to end. The greater part of Megans workers are relied upon to take subsequently this principle, and Megan is take to authorize this guideline similarly among her representatives.Division of work and work specialness are applyd to ad respectable workers to their commanding errands. Thusly, a worker will take a shot at things with which he or sh e has incur and knows how to do well. For instance, how more or less we say two of Megans deals reps are accomplished in offering items to merchants in the western district of the state because of their far stretching knowledge working around in that location. Megan would then put those wo representatives accountable for that accompaniment locale and would put the otherwise two deals reps in the eastern celestial sphere.B ) Analyse of organizational structure on HRM -Functional A widely distributed utilitarian structure is frequently embraced by organizations with an exceptionally constrained item scope. A chief operating officer will regulate various business full-length works that have been distinguished as discriminating to business operations. Since the item extend is peculiar or restricted, the CEO can arrange the work of the capacities and present the as marks of distributively as a powerful influence for the product offering. For this situation, the CEO serves as the shared element between the capacities.Likes In numerous associations, the subjective wellsprings of ability are practically based. In this manner, economies of scale might be accomplished by gathering these assets by content. On account of gentle assets, for example, a focal humans assets capacity can serve as an expert to all parts of the association on issues, for example, pay and execution judicial decision.DislikesThe essential compress on business practical movement, regularly occupies associations from circumstance item prerequisites, client deprivations, and geographic mannerisms.With the highest point of the association serving as proportional element and mediator between the capacities, methodologies may not intend about substances the ground as choices are made without the profit of cobblers last connection with clients and profound understanding of nearby circumstances.Divisional The divisional absolute structure composes the exercises of a business around land, market, or item and administration bunches. Accordingly, an organization composed on divisional lines could have working gatherings for the fall in States or Europe, or for business clients, or for the green gadget product offering. Every such division contains a complete set of capacities. In this manner, the green gadget division would handle it bookkeeping exercises, deals and showcasing, designing, generation, etc.This methodological analysis is valuable when choice making ought to be bunched at the division level to respond all the more rapidly to nearby conditions. The divisional structure is particularly valuable when an organization has numerous districts, markets, and/or items. Then again, it can result in higher aggregate expenses, and can bring about various little, quarreling fiefdoms inside an organization that dont fundamentally cooperate for the benefit of the whole element.Matrix A grid association structure is generally characterized as one where there are di fferent account lines that is, individuals have more than one formal supervisor.This may fuse robust lines (immediate solid insurance coverage) and dabbed lines (a weaker reporting relationship, yet showing somewhat formal level of right to the singulars chance) or it may mean various strong lines to more than one manager.At this level, the meaning of a framework association structure is very univocal however there are numerous distinctive sorts of complex structure.As associations developed they regularly got to be more universal, incorporated or created different item gathers. on that point began to be a prerequisite to organize over the gathering of organizations for instance, to have a typical IT approach or set of HR strategies. The utilitarian heads began to have a reporting relationship to a gathering level HR or IT individual and also to their nation or area head. At first this was regularly casual at the same time, as the requirement for coordination expanded, it fre quently prompt double reporting a gathering level laGeographical -Hierarchical structure characterizes the progression in which an association will work. There are numerous characterized sorts of significant structure, however a few associations may make their own, or utilize a consolidation of a few structures to effectively thaw business operations. Geographic hierarchical structure is utilized for associations that have business locales or specialties units in distinctive geographic areas.Capacity -A geographic authoritative structure characterizes a reporting and useful framework crosswise over different areas. This sort of structure permits an associations work places to work each while holding fast to organization strategies and qualities. Office areas could be nearby, national or universal.Direction -Every geographic area is supervised and administered by one or a few executives. These executives regulate and immediate the capacities of the area and have obligation regard ing the whole operation and its funds.Product Based - four-spot favorable circumstances of an item based association (quickly recorded.This structure gives concentrate on individual items, which may be particularly suitable if diverse items have distinctive issues and concernsEach gathering might be lick as a different benefit focus. Thusly, solid rivalry and hostility can create between groups which can help inspiration and productivityIt is additionally adaptable in that crudely performing gatherings could be closed(a) down without an excess of disturbance to whatever is left of the organization.These more diminutive benefit focuses consider quick choice making and more worthy exemption furthermore, utilizing an item association structure is most regular in organizations, for example, retail locations. These associations will separate out their items by gathering, for example, clothing, machines, sustenance or hardware. This helps managers and directors run their operations all the more effectively (so thats presumably an parachute playing point productivityPart 2Analyse gardening has on the HRM.Is the HRM function Influenced by culture or not?The signal of the study is to examine and break down the impact of society on humanasset administration drills. The examination is required to answer the cruciality inquiry Are HRM practices impacted by national society or not? It is for the most part acknowledged that the acts of administration is thought to be widespread until/ternational .work is the most prevalent in cross society administration thinks about so that his skeleton in national society will be utilized as a part of this examination.Society affects on every phase of the HR cycle, from determination and recruitment, to input, assessment, drilling, and passageway meetings. While the greater part of the distinctive HR capacities are ordinary for the individuals who have existed and worked in Canada for a languish time, they are still outside for newcomers. This shows the extra canvas of imparting the estimation of the diverse capacities, and additionally performing them.C The start of this article concentrated on determination, however comparative stories of social miscommunication might be told for each diverse part of the HR cycle. Passageway meetings with no new data in light of the fact that the representative does not need to cause the organization to lose face. An excessively complimentary assessment prompting a workers shame and withdrawal from the work group. Each of these say to more samples of what may happen when imparting crosswise over societies. hold forth on culture organisal structure expert -society, advanced by Charles Handy (1999) and after work by Harrison (1972) likewise introduces authoritative societies as characterized into four significant sorts the force society, the part society, the assignment society, and the individual or help society. Convenients methodology may help you comprehend why you have been more agreeable in a few associations than others. Interestingly, albeit Handy decides to discuss society, he demonstrates the structures connected with his society sorts. This may be a direct result of the trouble of drawing something as diffuse as society, yet it additionally fortifies the way that society and structure are interrelation.PowerThere are a few associations where the force stays in the hands of just few individuals and just they are approved to take choices. They are the ones who regard exceptional benefits at the working environment. They are the most essential individuals at the working environment and are the real chiefs. These people further delegate obligations to alternate representatives. In such a society the subordinates have no choice however to strictly take after their unrivaleds directions. The workers dont have the freedom to express their perspectives or impart their thoughts on an open gathering and need to take after what their predominant says. The supervisors in such a sort of society once in a while might be inclined toward somebody or the other prompting significant turbulence among others.Assignment CultureAssociations where groups are framed to attain the targets or take care of basic issues take after the errand society. In such associations people with regular investment and specializations meet up to structure a group. There are by and large four to five parts in each one group. In such a society each colleague need to help just as and perform assignments in the most imaginative way.Individual Culturethere are sealed associations where the workers feel that they are more imperative than their association. Such associations take after a society known as individual society. In an individual society, people are more worried about their self as opposed to the association. The association in such a society takes a secondary lounge and in the end endures. Representatives simply go to the oeuvre for the purpose of cash and never get appended to it. They are at multiplication dependable towards the administration and never rule for the association. One ought to never allow for that association starts things out and everything else later.4) Part societyPart society is a society where each worker is appointed parts and obligations as indicated by his specialization, instructive capability and enthusiasm to concentrate the best out of him. In such a society representatives choose what best they can do and eagerly acknowledge the test. Each individual is responsible for something or the other and need to take responsibility for work allocated to him. Force accompanies obligation in such a work society.Relationship between culture and HRM functionFor an association to be fruitful over the long haul, its administration style needs to be outlined relying upon its society. Numerous inquires about demonstrate that human asset practices are fit in with key administration hones and have critical effe ct on authoritative achievement. The vitality of HR capacity is builds and perceived from multiple points of view. Top executives demeanor about the vitality of the HR capacity have a noteworthy effect on an associations primitive concern (Phillips, 1996).HRM practices have a positive and noteworthy effect on hierarchical profit. Organizations have been swayed to embrace a mixture of execution astir(p) or dynamic human asset administration practices to enhance their worldwide intensity.This study means to discover a relationship between authoritative societies and human asset administration results. On the off chance that there is a relationship, then authoritative society might be change and administered towards a coveted one. This study will be a valuable research in the Human Resource Management order and a helpful manual for experts in work life.The study will utilize overview as instrumentation. Overview will be intended to recognize the society and to get numerical responses to human asset administration measurements.RECOMMENDATIONA lot of people little organizations begin with few workers and much less administrators. As the business develops, holders frequently make an authoritative structure to respond to changes, as opposed to making an insightful arrange that plans for future development. Arranging ahead is the most ideal approach to make a hierarchical structure that helps your business develop, regardless of the fact that youve as of now been doing business for some time. The most straightforward approach to start making the ideal authoritative structure for your business is to outline one as though you havent loose your entryways yet.CONCLUSIONHierarchical society incorporates the qualities, convictions, practices, standards and relics that associate the parts of an association. As in all different societies, hierarchical society creates over a long time of time with the support of the parts. Through contemplating or dissecting the society of an association, you can think of different conclusions. These incorporate decisions about the safety of society, hierarchical execution, and residual and administration styles. These conclusions might be useful for supervisors and advisors looking to support break-dance authoritative societies.

Social Work With Children And Families

companionable Work With fryren And Fami dwellsEvaluate critic some(prenominal)y the economic consumption of tyke destruction inquiries as a fomite for policy increase, and grapple the implication for tender mold with electric razorren and families.The purpose of this assignment is to show a critical understand of the constituent of infant shoe findrs last inquiries as a fomite for policy development. This assignment bequeath explore the purpose of babe expiry inquiries. It impart show a critical understanding of the heterogeneous relationship among family and the put up, the tensions among the duty to safeguard churlren, the p arnts and pincers rights and when the state should intervene. The types of tiddler death inquiries will be investigated examining their purpose, limitations and values. The assignment will examine the bestow on of changing kidskin benefit policy on organisational structures with reference to multi corrective teams. This assignment will show reference to critical evaluation and the prepossess that may precede it. Fin every(prenominal)y terminal abandoned the weight of leaven how useful electric s baffler death inquiries are as a vehicle for policy development.Recently the benefits of nestling death inquiries and serious teddy analyzes become come under particular scrutiny, this assignment will use evidence based discipline and set to find some other startes or how to mitigate the form of the enquiry so its benefits outweigh its limitations.The United Nations estimate that each week two squirtren in the United Kingdom die from poke fun or neglect (UNICEF, 2003). The United Nations Convention, member 3 on the rights of the infant places a duty on countries to cheer youngsterren from jest at or neglect, the topper interests of the chela must be the primary concern when making decisions which may go them, word 6 concentrate ones on the importance of safeguarding their right to keep (U nited Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1992). in that respect are two types of child death inquiries serious case reviews and worldly concern inquiries. A serious case review takes place when a child dies and ridicule or neglect is suspected. They alike take place in other circumstances where serious situations comport occurred for modeling where a child has suffered from serious sexual misapply. The purpose of child death inquiries according to Working Together, 2010 is for agencies and individuals to learn where enigmas attain arisen and to learn from these to mitigate their practice. The lessons learnt should be given to on the whole individuals who transaction in this area to determine they safeguard children in the correct way. When agencies al cook know where certain problems lie they should change upon them before the serious case review is finished. A domain interrogative for example The Colwell Report (1974), The Climb inquiry (2003) is a inquir y ordered by the g everywherenment to review events, in this case child deaths. To conclude where practice could be improved upon, recommendations sack up be given and lessons slew be learnt.Under regulation 5 of the local safeguarding childrens bill requires that the local safeguarding children board undertakes reviews of serious cases. Serious case reviews must ease up lessons to be learnt, identify which lessons are in spite of appearance agencies and which between and how long they set about to act upon the changes to be undertaken. The reviews must besides improve upon inter and intra force running(a) to promote and safeguard the wellbeing of children (chapter 8, Working Together, 2010). Laming (2009) states that serious case reviews are an important in like mannerl for learning lessons. Currently there is disceptation regarding the approach used in serious case reviews some hope that there are assorted approaches to take to learn lessons from complaisant motion practice. Effective safeguarding practice is an approach considered, to learn from what is already proven to work.The self-explanatory aim of child death inquiries is to try and avoid future tragedies. There is a repetitive circle within child protection. Families collide with professionals and intimately of the outcomes involve protection. The tensions involved between families and professionals involve competition of rights. The Human Rights Act, 1998 article 8 stipulates the familys right to a private family life and to be fitting to conduct their lives according to their culture and understanding. The opposite to this argument is to ensure all children are saved. When should professionals become involved? Parton (1991) describes the dilemma of how can the state ar tramp the rights of the child and smooth promote the family to be an independent body in which to raise their children how they see fit and non intervene in all families and consequently reduce its autonomy.Depen ding on the theoretical viewpoint the professionals and current presidency takes would impose when the state should intervene. A laissez-faires government would commit little intervention, the professionals would further intervene when twist around or neglect had taken place. However domain paternalism is a berth which favours more(prenominal) involvement of state intervention to protect children from abuse. This theory regards the childs welfare as more important than family autonomy. This stead was reflected in the Children Act, 1989 as it introduced the excerption likely for the child to be in meaning(a) harm. If there is a likelihood of significant harm there are possibilities of child protection orders being produced, and in other extensions of state power.Tensions between the duties that fond proles have to safeguard children, the familys right to a private family life, the rights of the child, working in partnership with the parents and understanding when the sta te should intervene cause problems within accessible work practice. Knowing when to intervene has always been a problem for companionable workers within this area. Malcolm Hill (1990) open that published child abuse inquiry reports identified working with parents as a common problem. He pitch that text file noted access difficulties, in a morsel of cases parents didnt cooperate when the mixer worker inquireed to see the child at guess. Hill (1990) concluded that papers arrange mixer workers were too ready to believe parents. Hill (1990) concluded that the Colwell report (1974) found that favorable workers should focus on parents demonstrating their parenting skills and not to assume all was well because the parents said so.Social workers also want to look at the care the child is receiving holistically not focus on single areas of the family where they are showing positive steps, for example social workers may be satisfied as the family are active in counselling but t hey need to still look at their parenting at home whilst this continues. Thus depending on the theoretical viewpoint the social worker takes decides when they should intervene. This assignment will adopt a state paternalism perspective, this perspective although draws conclusions that the child is likely to suffer significant harm which may affect the family relationships and autonomy its better to intervene now and then wait until abuse or neglect has taken place and then safeguarding the child. This perspective takes a view that children have a high priority in society, they have rights to high standards of care and using this approach ensure that they are protected at all costs by the force of the law (Fox Harding, 1997).Child death inquiries are seen as an important tool used to improve local practice, also implementing wider community health approaches to improve upon infant deathrate rates. Bunting and Reid (2005) found that there numerous benefits to serious case reviews ta king place these included more in force(p) multi agency working, improved intercourse between agencies, they found that death certificates had become more informative they also found that from participating in serious case reviews practitioners had more experience surrounding child death and the causes of them ensuring a further focus on preventative measures of child death rather than focusing on child abuse.Corby, Doig and Roberts (1998) have found that there is a great concern on the impact of child inquiries on professionals especially social workers, they found that over the inquiries taking place there has been a continual criticism of social workers. The Maria Colwell case made social work practice public and rear it under great scrutiny. Professionals within this case became points of focus of criticism, their work was scrutinised in incorrect contexts focusing on training of social workers bear on their morale significantly (Corby et al, 1998).The impact of child death inquiries on social workers and other professionals in this area can be psychological and emotional. Corby et al (1998) argues both sides of the case although child death inquiries highlights poor practice and the need for the public to know why children already kn have to social go and other departments can still go on to be step and killed. However the emotional and psychological effects on social workers can be so detrimental because of the scrutiny they are under, their work will be affected, and affecting further work they do.Corby et al (1998) investigated child abuse cases and inquiries and how useful they are and what changes have been made by using child death and abuse inquiries as an approach. Of the seventy inquiries they used between 1945 and 1997 they all produced main recommendations in areas of astir(p) inter agency co-ordination, training of professionals, improving child protection systems and using more experienced staff. Using this information to highlight th at changes made between 1945 and 1997 because of the recommendations given havent been obvious because they are still proposing the same issues.Child death inquires do have their place in the public eye specifically when practice goes wrong, nevertheless they have a number of limitations. Child death inquiries affect personal confidence of the social workers and other professionals when they become embroiled within the investigation. out-of-pocket to the nature of the child death inquiries the public only see the negatives of social workers, social workers tutelage the association of such inquiries. Practice will not change when inquiries focus solely on the structure of children and families department. If social workers feel like the engineer when involved in inquiries their work will be affected thusly affecting the work they do further on for example other children may be more at risk because social workers have no confidence in the work they are practicing.To use child death inquiries as a vehicle for policy development may not be the most efficient approach to take. Child death inquiries are very expensive. If a more effective approach was to be taken and social workers and other professionals were able to learn more from this different process it would be more beneficial to take this approach than to carry on wasting money and concluding the same issues from all inquiries. Parton (2004) has found that the same issues have been identified on numerous times without any obvious changes in social work practice (Devaney, Lazenbatt and Bunting, 2010). Devaney et al (2010) found that child death inquiries can still be effective but more emphasis needs to be more on recommendations and implementing the recommendations and acting upon them. Devaney et al (2010) also argue that policy makers need more understanding of the difficult situations in which children are at more risk from abuse or neglect. Devaney et al (2010) argue that this can help the policy ma kers express what social workers can do and make a distinction between that and what should be done.Child death inquiries make assumptions that something has gone wrong and that the inquiry can find out what and give recommendations to learn from the mistakes. It assumes that practice will change because of the recommendations given and many inquiries dont focus on acting upon the recommendations, if they did then future inquiries wouldnt produce the same recommendations. Inquiries assume that the method they use is sophisticated. However, query into inquiries and literature has shown that other approaches could be more effective and less busybodied in practice and less strain can be put on professionals. Inquiries assume that multi agency working will be more effective, though if tensions between professionals are tense already these will be difficult to resolve. Inquiries cannot assume that these tensions can be worked at by the professionals they need a superior management styl e to overlook the different professionals to be able to work effectively unneurotic.As well as the implications for social workers individually and for policy makers regarding the process of child death inquiries, organisational structures will be also be impacted upon when changing child welfare policy. Due to changes within organisations, for example changes in roles of professionals involved in child death inquiries the foundations of interprofessional multi agency work are not secure, concluded because inquiries focus to a fault on the role of social workers rather than the antecedents of child death or abuse. With regards to the case of Maria Colwell (1974) the Secretary of State Barbara Castle concluded that social workers alone cannot solve the underlying problems. All professionals in this field of child welfare need to understand their role but if child welfare policy continues to change constantly the role cannot be undertaken as professionals have poor ideas of what the ir role is and how they should practice. All professionals need to work effectively together and have an understanding of delivering comprehensive services to diverse communities so no children are lost in the system or ignored. The importance of effective interprofessional multi agency work is such that until there is a balance of role and practice then the safeguarding of future children may be affected.Contemporary social work values may be affected, social workers have their own values personally and from learning from experience. Social workers must focus on human rights and social justice as their motivation for social work. any(prenominal) critiques may argue that depending on the theoretical framework for example state paternalism some social workers may not be able to disembarrass their motivation to impose this framework in their practice by not letting the family have a right to private family life (Human Rights, article 8) and be too quick to intervene. To ensure anti discriminatory practice social workers must understand different cultures have different behaviours when it comes to parenting. The social worker may thing its not appropriate, the family however believes differently. This can shoot to the social worker not act at all. The social worker must ensure anti discriminatory practice, they need to see things from the perspective of the culture the family employs. Though still maintaining the values and knowledge they have regarding child abuse and when they should intervene. They must keep each case individual and make judgements based on evidence, not on their assumptions.To evaluate how useful child death inquiries are as a vehicle for policy development evidence needs to be considered whilst investigating journal papers to set ahead an understanding of where bias may occur. Using a wide range of sources gives a broader idea of what has been proven to work in social work practice (Roberts and Yeager, 2006). Research evidence is more va lued than other sources, those papers that are repeatable use a large amount of participants are more likely to have less prejudice in concluding how useful child death inquiries are as a vehicle for policy development. Higgs and Jones (2000) propose that evidence is knowledge derived from various sources, which has been tested and found credible.Having read all the information the weight of evidence suggests that changes need to be made to the approach of child death inquiries. The limitations and implications to practice are too substantial to ignore. Professionals and public havent seen any major changes because of the recommendations give by the inquiries. Corby et al (1998) found that of seventy public inquiries between 1945 and 1997 the main focus of recommendations was on improvements on inter agency co-ordination and improving the training of staff. The gap between the time of the death of the child and receiving the results of the inquiry is detrimental to social workers. C orby et al (1998) also argue that the cost inquiries have and the negative impact on social workers affects their future practice and may create more risk to other children they are safeguarding because they dont have the confidence to practice anymore. The most effective approach to take would be one that focuses with less scrutiny on the social workers so their confidence is not affected and acts upon the recommendations it has made. Policy can develop by using a different vehicle or else of child death inquiries. At the minute the impact of changing child welfare policy on social workers and organisational structure is considerable. An improved approach to child death inquiries can be more effective in changing policy than the constant changes that are currently happening because of the results from child death inquiries.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Organisation structure of the bakhresa group of companies

Organisation organise of the bakhresa sort out of companiesIdentify the strand of organisation mental synthesis and existence approach utilize by the Bakhresa separate. Is it organic or mechanistic structure followed by the Bakhresa throng? Among the dickens which 1 is more than than suitable to miscellany and why?How put up Bakhresa pigeonholing manage the tension betwixt the hire for fictive thinking and qualification?Discuss the main organisational characteristics that facilitate the intro abut in the Bakhresa base. apologise the key single roles at bottom the purpose out festering and the activities they perform in the Bakhresa crowd.How did Bakhresa conference establish innovative environment that propagates the virtuous circle of grounding? Explain its features.This is a case subject ara analysis report of the Bakhresa Group of companies of Tanzania, with special focus of its groundwork prudence that led it to achieve a remarkable growth and m arket leadership in the coun interpret and beyond.Bakhresa Group is bingle of the leading Industrial Houses in Tanzania, East Africa. Started in a humble manner with a micro restaurant in the larboard City of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in mid-seventies, it has instanter emerged as a consider business meeting in the Region. The Group has its operations cattle farm in Tanzania, Zanzibar, Uganda, Kenya, Ma righteousnessi, and Zambia and most recently in Mozambique. Plans ar in role to spread its wings to early(a) countries. The stem now boasts of a turnover of more than Three Hundred Million United Sates Dollars and is a proud employer of more than ii thousand employees associated directly. There be s invariablyal companies under its comprehensive and arrive at investments mainly in Food and Beverage Sector, encase, Logistics and Real realm.The study will analyse the role of organisation structure, the organisational characteristics in familiar and individual roles that propagate and facilitate innovative environment inside the Bakhresa base and how successfully they make up managed it.The analysis is based on the flip-out information intimately the grouping prep ared for this purpose, as good as the Bakhresa Group website (2010). closely of the concepts and theories that precedes sever whollyy item of analysis are based on the textbook by Paul Trott-Innovation Management and New product Development -4th Edition (2008) refreshful(prenominal)s textbooks and websites have been used to complement the mentioned references.This report starts by providing background information just around the group, regarding its organisations products and go in section one. To be followed by five sections one for each analysis item, that is organisation structure and mental institution, managing the tension between the look at for efficiency and creative thinking, organisational characteristics that facilitate innovation, the key individual roles withi n the innovation bear upon and establishing an innovative environment that propagate virtuous circle.BACKGROUNDBAKHRESA GROUP OF COMPANIES TANZANIABakhresa Group is composed of Said Salim Bakhresa Co.s, Bakhresa Food Products ltd and outsize collection of opposite companies of divers(prenominal) industries such as transport and logistics and real-estate. The group started in 1980s and ever since it has steadily been expanding its borders from Tanzania to the neighbouring countries and has been gaining a lot of market force over clock. The group currently operates in the Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia and ZanzibarMissionTo increase and sustain the living standards of Afri prats by providing them with essential products and services of global quality at affordable prices.To clear customers expectations with innovation and harnessing technology.VisionTo be one of the multinationall(a)y value and originally managed companies in the African Continent.To spread our wings to the other split of the globe.Their values include passion for success, commitment to stakeholders and employees as well as mutual trust and social responsibility.Figure 1. Subsidiaries companies under Bakhresa Group origination ( 2010)In the Bakhresa Group, the presidential term is treated as an instrument for achieving establish goals, in which the members of the geological formation are made to serve these goals and rewards are given to make a motion them. The administration structure contributes to the dominance of the technology- campaign model of innovation.On the one contact Bakhresa Group requires st business leader and static routines to accomplish the daily confinements effectively and pronto and on the other hand, Bakhresa Group in any case subscribes to develop saucily ideas and current products to be private-enterprise(a) in future and it drives to gentility a creative environment where ideas can be tested and developed.The div iding edge of conversation is highly structured, there is restricted information flow, and operating styles are reproducible and restricted. Authority for decision is based on imposing line heed seat and the care is reluctant to adapt to ever-ever-changing circumstances.The caution of the Bakhresa Group is committed to long-term growth instead than short-term dough and the make-up is willing to invest in the long-term outgrowth of technology and is aware of its threats and opportunities.The Bakhresa Group engages commercial scanner, gatekeeper and project leader and shop to facilitate the innovation accomplish.The Bakhresa Group, given the importance of innovation, has spent enormous sums of money trying to develop an environment that rears innovation. The Bakhresa Group is aware of developing a reputation for innovation which helps propagate a virtuous circle that reinforces Groups abilities.The Bakhresa Group has establish companies dealing with contour of product s from manufacturing of Food and Beverage Sector, Packaging, Logistics and Real Estate and has become a market leader because of innovation and entrepreneurship.Figure 2 below shows a configuration of products/ services offered by the Bakhresa group.Source ( 2010)The revolutionary and different product added to the list of achievements marks the creativeness abilities and adds to value, and enhance the competitive edge of the company. For caseful, the launching of state of the art packaging industries for food and drunkenness products as well as the expert advancement on the telecom via satellites.1. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES AND groundingIdentify the strand of organisation structure and innovation approach used by the Bakhresa Group. Is it organic or mechanistic structure followed by the Bakhresa Group? Among the twain which one is more suitable to innovation and why? schemeal social organizationsOrganizational structure refers to the focus that an organization arranges population and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met. When a work group is very small and face-to-face communication is frequent, formal structure may be un impoverishmentful, but in a swelled organization decisions have to be made close to the delegation of heterogeneous(a) tasks. Thus, procedures are established that assign responsibilities for various functions. It is these decisions that determine the organisational structure. In an organization of any size or complexity, employees responsibilities typically are outlined by what they do, who they report to, and for managers, who reports to them. (Referenceforbusiness 2010)InnovationInnovation is the act of developing a untested process or product and introducing it to the market. It is essentially an entrepreneurial act, whether it takes place in a start-up firm, a large organization, a non-for-profit, or a public-sector agency. Innovation means change approximatelytimes radical chang e, such as the ontogeny of the computer, and sometimes incremental change, such as the modification of existing computer software (Referenceforbusiness 2010)Innovation is the act of introducing something current-made or doing something in a different way. Innovation in business differs from creativity in that the latter is generally associated with the generation of clean ideas. In contrast, innovation refers to pickings those new ideas and actually implementing them in the marketplace. Thus, creativity is simply one portion of the innovation process through which new ideas lead to new products, procedures, or services. Business scholars often attribute company success to innovation. Because of growinginternational competition,innovation became even more vital for companies toward the end of the 20th snow (Referenceforbusiness 2010)Organizational Structures and InnovationThe structure of an organization is the sum enumerate of slipway in which it divides its labour into dis tinct tasks and then achieves coordination among them. One of the problems is recognizing that different groups within an organization behave differently and interact with different furcates of the wider immaterial environment. None the less, there have been numerous useful studies exploring the link between the organizational structure and innovative performance. (Trott 2008)Organizational structures can be sort between organic and mechanistic. Organizational cultural also plays a big role when implementing change. slightly resistance forces we are likely to encounter are within our organization. Once the organizational structure and cultural attribute is fit(p) then the designing process can begin.Organic and mechanistic are on different ends of the spectrum. In contingency theory, the term organic structure is used to describe an organizational structure that is designed to promote flexibility so that employees can initiate change and adapt right away to changing condition s (George Jones, 2005, p. 508). This flexible structure is more like a team environment in which all the employees are able to handle any of the tasks. In contingency theory, the term mechanistic structure is used to describe an organizational structure that is designed to induce employees to behave in predictable, accountable slipway (George Jones, 2005, p. 508). All of the employees working in a mechanistic structure have assigned duties that they must perform and are prohibited to take on additional duties unless they are told so by management.(associated content 2010)Through their surmise of Mechanistic and Organic Systems, Tom Burns and G.M. Stalker (1961) have standd a way to understand which organization forms fit to specific circumstances of change or stability. In their highly influential work The Management of Innovation, they provide the following characteristics of Mechanic vs. Organic SystemsMechanistic vs Organic Organization StructureMechanistic Organization Form / Management SystemOrganic Organization Form / Management SystemAppropriate ConditionsStableChangingstatistical distribution of tasksSpecialized differentiation of functional tasks into which the problems and tasks facing a take as a whole are broken downContributive constitution of special acquaintance and experience to the common task of the concern reputation of Individual taskThe abstract nature of each individual task, which is act with techniques and purposes more or less distinct from those of the concern as a whole i.e., the functionaries tend to pursue the technical improvements of means, quite than the accomplishment of the ends of the concernThe realistic nature of the individual task, which is seen as set by the total situation of the concernWho (re)defines tasksThe reconciliation, for each level in the hierarchy, of these distinct performances by the immediate superiors, who are also, in turn, responsible for seeing that each is applicable in his own special part of the main taskThe allowance and continual re rendering of individual tasks through interaction with othersTask scopeThe finespun definition of rights and obligations and technical methods attached to each functional roleThe throw of responsibility as a limited field of rights, obligations and methods (problems may not be posted upwards, downwards or sideship canal as cosmos someone elses responsibility)How is task conformance containdThe translation of rights and obligations and methods into the responsibilities of a functional positionThe spread of commitment to the concern beyond any technical definitionStructure of control, authority and communicationHierarchic, ContractualNetwork, Presumed Community of Interest fixture of friendshipReinforcement of the hierarchic structure by the location of knowledge of actualities exclusively at the top of the hierarchy, where the final reconciliation of distinct tasks and assessment of relevance is madeOmniscience no longer imputed to the head of the concern knowledge about the technical or commercial nature of the here and now may be located anywhere in the network talk between members of concernVertical i.e., between superior and subordinate squinty i.e., between people of different rank, resembling consultation rather than command arrangement for operations and working behaviorInstructions and decisions issued by superiorsInformation and advice rather than instructions and decisionsValuesInsistence on subjection to the concern and faithfulness to superiors as a condition of membership loyalty to the concerns task and to the technological ethos of material progress and expansion is more highly valued than loyalty and obediencePrestigeGreater importance and prestige attaching to internal (local) than to general (cosmopolitan) knowledge, experience, and skillImportance and prestige attach to affiliations and expertise valid in the industrial and technical and commercial milieux away to the firmIt is evident that among the two organisation structures, the Organic one is more suitable for promoting and fostering innovation within an organization as it encourages creativity has values of Commitment to the concerns task and to the technological ethos of material progress and expansion that mostly requires creativeness and new innovations allow free flow of communication and flexibility and adaptation to changing circumstancesThe Bakhresa group seems to follow the Mechanistic organization structure, because their channel of communication is highly structured, there is restricted information flow, and operating styles are uniform and restricted. Authority for decision is based on formal line management position and the management is reluctant to adapt to changing circumstances.Mechanistic organization structure tends to offer a less suitable environment for managing the creativity and the innovation process. Because of its degree of formalisation, centralisation, Size and complexity of its organisation,FormalisationThere is some evidence of an inverse kind between formalization and innovation. That is an increase in formalization of procedures will result in a disease in innovative activity.ComplexityWhere these are several different type of master groups are working in an organization, it would represent a complex organizationCentralisationIt refers to the decision devising activity and the location of power within an organization. In a decentralized organization fewer levels of hierarchy are usually required This tends to lead to more responsive decision making closer to the action.Organisational SizeA small business with fewer employees differs significantly on legal injury of resources from an organization which is big size is a procurator variable for more meaningful dimensions such as frugal and organization resources, including follow of employees. (Trott 2010)MANAGEMENT TEAM BOARD OF DIRECTORS STRUCTUREChairman, Bakhresa Group of Companies express SAL IM AWADH BAKHRESA is the founding father and the Chairman of the Bakhresa Group Of Companies. He is a well-known(a) industrialist in the mainland of Tanzania and island of Zanzibar. With a humble beginning as a small restaurateur in seventies, he created the business empire within a span of three decades. He is the mastermind behind the success of all the businesses within the group. His vision and excellent managerial skills contributed to the growth of this group to big heights. administrator film music director of SS Bakhresa Co. ltdMOHAMED SAID BAKHRESA is the Managing conductor of Bakhresa shred Milling (Uganda) throttle and is the Executive Director Of Said Salim Bakhresa Company Limited. He is also holding Director-Ship in most of the Group Companies. Mr Mohamed is a graduate in finance, law and accounting from Southbank University, United Kingdom. He is a well-known industrialist in Uganda and Tanzania and is successfully managing Bakhresa Grain Milling (Uganda) Limi ted, which is the largest husk milling industry in Uganda. Mr Mohamed is also actively involved in the policy decision making process of the Bakhresa Group Of Companies.Managing Director of Bakhresa Grain Milling ltdABUBAKAR SAID SALIM BAKHRESA is the Managing Director of Bakhresa Grain Milling (Malawi) Limited and Bakhresa Grain Milling (Mozambique) Limitada. He also acts as Executive Director of Said Salim Bakhresa Co. Ltd. Mr. Abubakar has done his B.Sc in Business Administration, majoring in Finance from Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA. He is primarily involved in the wheat milling businesses of the Group and looks after the wheat procurement for the Group.Executive Director of Logistic Division of Bakhressa GroupOMAR SAID SALIM BAKHRESA, a Mechanical Engineer, is the Executive Director in charge of the Logisitic Division of Said Salim Bakhresa Co Ltd. He has over a decade of experience in logistics transportation industry.Managing Director of Bakhresa Food Produ cts LtdYUSUF SAID SALIM BAKHRESA is the Managing Director of Bakhresa Food Products Limited and is holding Director-Ship in other Group Companies. He is actively involved in the solar daylight to day operations of Bakhresa Food Products, which is based in Tanzania and is successfully managing its operations. aged(a) ManagementEach Group Company/Division is professionally managed by a full complement of local/expatriate managers having expertise in their appraiseive fields.Regardless of the mechanistic structure in use by the Bakhresa Group, its broad achievements are obviously due to its continuous innovation in new products and new markets. One can conclude that due to the large size and complexity organisation of the Group as a whole, it is unavoidable to apply the centralisation and formalisation. But the style of operations and management at the subsidiary companies level may be allowing certain flexibility that is promoting creativity and innovation.2. MANAGING THE TENSION BETWEEN THE NEED FOR CREATIVITY AND EFFICIENCYHow can Bakhresa Group manage the tension between the need for creativity and efficiency?The quandary of Innovation ManagementWithin virtually all organizations there is a rudimentary tension between the need for stability and the need for creativity. On the one hand, companies require stability and static routines to accomplish daily tasks cost-efficiently and quickly. This enables the organization to compete today. For example processing of millions of cheques by banks every day or delivery of food and beverage products by multiples to their retail outlets all over the country by the Bakhresa Food Products Ltd, demands high levels of efficiency and control.On the other hand, companies also need to develop new ideas and new products to be competitive in the future. Hence they need to fire a creative environment where ideas can be tested and developed. This poses one of the most fundamental problems for management today. That is mana ging the tension between the need for creativity and efficiency.Efficiency gainsThe efficient day to day operations within an organization require shelter routines which can be achieved in stable and controlled environmentsThe development of new products/services requires creativity and room to try out new ideas this is achieved in a loose and flexible environmentCreativity gainsTake any strong point to large company and examine its operations and activities. Every company has to interpret that their products are carefully manufactured to precise specifications and that they are delivered for customers on time day after day. In this hectic, repetitive and highly organized environment, the need to squeeze out any unwind or inefficiencies is crucial to ensure a firms costs are lower than their competitors. However the long-term economic growth is dependent on the ability of firms to make improvements to products and manufacturing processes. This means that the firms need to make r oom for creativity and innovation, that is, allow slack in the system. hither then is the predicament how do firms try to reduce costs and slack to improve competitiveness on the one hand and then try to provide slack for innovation on the other? The firm has to do balancing The firm necessitate to ensure there is a uniform pressure to drive down costs and improve efficiency in its operations. At the same time it needs to provide room for new product development and improvements to be made the most obvious way forward is to separate production from R D. However there are many improvements and innovations that arise out of the operations of the firm.On the one hand Bakhresa Group requires stability and static routines to accomplish the daily tasks efficiently and quickly and on the other hand, Bakhresa Group also needs to develop new ideas and new products to be competitive in future and it needs to nurture a creative environment where ideas can be tested and developed.The Bakhre sa group has shown that it can effectively manage this tension by the way it has been producing new and innovative products, while also managing to efficiently distribute its food products passim the region.The diversification of the industry by entering into new businesses that support or complement existing businesses, such as manufacturing of packaging products by the Omar Packaging industries, as well as diversification of product range in the juice factories at the same time the Group timely deliveries through its wide distribution network and logistic system shows that the Bakhresa Group well manages the tension between the need for need for creativity and efficiency.The group can do better management of this tension by ensuring that there is erect enough slack at the subsidiaries or functional organisational level to foster creativity, but have stringent control at the higher management level of the Group to maintain its efficiency. Because this higher management which is t he board of director of the group is the one that oversees the cross functional collaboration and integration of the various units that collaborate or complement each other in achieving its cares. For example the need to have frequent ferries to Zanzibar, so that fresh breads and ice-cream could be delivered on time.3. ORGANISATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT FACILITATE THE INNOVATION PROCESSDiscuss the main organisational characteristics that facilitate the innovation process in the Bakhresa GroupOrganizational Characteristics that Facilitate the Innovation borderThe innovation process is complex in nature as it involves the relationship between the stimulus, cognitive content and performance of such innovation. This complex relationship need to be nurtured by favourable characteristics of the organisation such as growth orientation, vigilance, commitment to technology, acceptance of risk, cross functional cooperation, receptivity, slack, adaptability and diverse range of skills. res ult OrientationThis is characterized by a commitment to long-term growth rather than short-term profit. Not all companies first and foremost bearing is growth. Some companies are established merely to exploit a short-term opportunity, other companies would like to maintain the company at its existing size the objective of innovative companies is to grow the business the actively plan for the long-term.VigilanceIt is characterized by the ability of the organization to be aware of its threats and opportunities. Vigilance requires continual external scanning e.g. within the marketing function the activity would form part of market research and competitor analysis. Collecting valuable information is one thing, but relaying it to the incumbent individuals and acting on it are two necessary associated requirements. An open communication system will help facilitate thisCommitment to TechnologyIt is characterized by the willingness to invest in the long-term development of technology. Mos t innovative firms exhibit patience in permitting ideas to geminate and develop overtime. These needs to be accompanied by a commitment to resources in terms of intellectual input without a long-term approach it would be extremely difficult for the company to attract good scientists.acceptance of riskAcceptance of risk is characterized by the willingness to include risky opportunities in a equilibrise portfolio. It means the willingness to consider carefully risky opportunities. Ability to take reason risks and include them in a balanced portfolio of projects.Cross-functional CooperationIt is characterized by mutual respect among individuals and a willingness to work together across functions. Inter-departmental conflict is a well-documented parapet to innovation. Often conflict has been observed between marketing and RD functions as the two groups often have very different interests.ReceptivityIt is characterized by the ability to be aware of, to identify and take effective adv antage of outwardly developed technology. Most technology based innovations involve a conspiracy of several different technologies. It would be unusual for all the technology to be developed in house. That is why business are witnessing an increasing number of joint ventures and alliances.SlackIt is characterized by an ability to manage the innovation dilemma and provide room for creativity while organizations place a great emphasis on the need for efficiency, there is also a need for a certain amount of slack to allow individuals room to think, experiment, dispute ideas and be creative.AdaptabilityIt is characterized by a readiness to accept change. The development of new product innovations will invariably lead to disruptions to established organizational activities. major(ip) or radical innovations may result in significant changes, although the two are not necessarily linked. The organization must be assemble to accept change in the way it manages its internal activities. Oth erwise proposed innovations would be stifled due to a reluctance to alter existing ways of working or to learn new techniques.Diverse Range of SkillsIt is characterized by a combination of specialization and diversity of knowledge and skills organizations require individuals of a hybrid nature who are able to understand a variety of technical subjects and facilitate the transfer of knowledge within the company. It is the ability of the organization to manage this diversity of knowledge skills effectively that lies at the heart of the innovation process.The management of the Bakhresa Group is committed to long-term growth rather than short-term profit and the organization is willing to invest in the long-term development of technology and is aware of its threats and opportunities.The Bakhresa group is heavily investing in its fat companies such as those of scintilla mill about, by purchasing newer and higher capacity plants, as well as by expanding into new markets abroad. They ha ve bought and renovated grain mills in Malawi, and build a new one in Uganda and Rwanda.Bakhresa group is vigilant on its environment, and has been able to capture emerging opportunities of privatisation programmes in Tanzania and elsewhere (Malawi) to start businesses. Has been able to capture the interest of International support partners to start a business at the port of Nacala in Mozambique.The group is investing in current technologies across all the industries its operating, it has purchased new plants and mills from Italy and Sweden, it has ordered brand new ferry boats from Australia. Its communication company SatAfrik ltd is utilising latest satellite, GPS and GSM technologies and it effectively support its transport and logistics companies.The group has strong Cross-functional Cooperation because most of the companies were established with a view to integrate with the existing companies and businesses. Packaging company was established to support grain mills and food pr oducts, transport and logistics companies to run efficient distribution and suppliesBakhresa group has good receptivity of technologies developed in other areas such as Europe and Australia. It provides some amount of slack for creativity behaviour although it does not easily adapt to changing environment.The group shows the diverse range of skills from its top management to the other members of functional areas. It has business management experts, engineers, logistics, marketing and great sales force.4. KEY INDIVIDUAL ROLES WITHIN THE INNOVATION PROCESSExplain the key individual roles within the innovation process and the activities they perform in the Bakhresa GroupThe Role of the individual in the innovation ProcessInnovation process is essentially a people process and that organizational structure, formal decision making processes, delegation of authority and other formal aspects of a so-called well-run company are not necessary conditions for successful technological innovation . The study of Rubenstein has revealed that certain individuals had fulfilled a variety of roles that had contributed to successful technological innovation. (Trott 2010)GATEKEEPERSThese people collect and channel information about changes in the technical environment. They stay current with events and ideas through personal contacts, professional meetings, and news media. When gatekeepers find relevant information, they send it to the appropriate person or unit for follow up.IDEA GENERATORSThis role involves analysis of information about new technologies, products, or procedures in order to yield a new idea for the company. The fresh idea may be innovative final result to an existing problem in product or business development or the identification of a new marketplace opportunity.CHAMPIONSChampions advocate and push for the new idea. This role involves obtaining and applying the resources and staff to demonstrate the ideas feasibility. Champions are concerned about results, not ri sk, and do not spend time studying the consequences of failure. Their mission is to remove obstacles.PROJECT MANAGERSSomeone has to draw up schedules and budgets arrange semiannual information session and status reports coordinate labour,

The Importance of Parents and Sexual Education

The Importance of P bents and Sexual EducationWhere do babies come from? This is just wizard question that children petition their p argonnts as they start to wonder nigh stimulate and in return hope to find out the answer. Unfortunately, however, not each parents want to answer that question or any hinge upon cerebrate question for that matter, or even know how to.Many parents today do indeed want to contribute to their childrens knowledge of bring up. However, even though parents, who are promiscuous with their own internality, dont always know of the best way to come up the topic with their children or even know how lambaste to them near it (Crooks, Baur, 2011). question shows that positive talk between parents and their children sack help untested citizenry establish individual values and make healthy decisions (Parents Sex Ed Center, 2010). It is important for adults of school age children to maintain an open relationship with their children in order to provide the ability for them to flavour halcyon ample to talk with you round whatever they whitethorn ask. Teaching sex to your own children discount be a task they whitethorn make you feel awkward and something that you may find unenviable to do. However, by be honest at an early age can allot for honesty and open communication as your children grow (Parents Sex Ed Center, 2010).As children grow, a do by begins that a parent can follow in order to cook a wholesome sexual education relationship with their child. Whether its starting dispatch state questions such as, where do babies come from, or talk closely being sexually active and how to practice safe sex, it is important to be able to talk to your children to the highest degree this topic and feeling comfortable enough to do so.Starting at an early age, usually by nearly age four, many children will ask where they came from, how babies are made, or by asking the names of their own sex organs (self-discovery). Many par ents may just put off these types of questions in hopes that their child will pull up stakes about it and the parent feels a sense of relief in not having to answer. Instead, the parent is making a mistake in not answering and thus unknowingly creating a communication block (Crooks, Baur 2011).When young children ask these types of questions, they arent expecting a comp allowe anatomy lesson, but they are looking for some answer. In this case, be honest with them. Use decorous names, and perhaps shortly discuss the basics of sexual intercourse (Crooks, Baur 2011). It is important to make received that subsequently answering your childs question that not only do they visit but also to make sure they are aware(predicate) that it is sanction to ask questions and that they can come to you and ask for more knowledge whenever theyd the likes of (Crooks, Baur 2011).Along the way, it is important to teach your children manners, as in we dont touch ourselves in public and we dont to uch new(prenominal) peoples bodies. It is also good to teach appropriateness and privacy. If by age five or six your child has not started to ask questions, you need to initiate the conversation (Crooks, Baur 2011).By the pre-teen years, physical changes are going to occur. At this point it is important to talk to your child about the changes that will occur and what they can expect. objet dart this is taught in school, it is good to let your child know that you are there for them, it is not something for them to be humiliated about, and that what they are experiencing is all a part of growing up and that they are not the only one. Even though children may not view experienced these changes yet, such as menstruation and ejaculation, it is important for them to be aware of it before it happens so as not to worry them (Crooks, Baur 2011).The teen and young adult age is the hardest for parents to talk about with their children. No matter how much(prenominal) a parent may want to s helter their children, it is vital to perceive that your growing child is going to experience sexual feelings.Teens find it difficult it talk with their parents about sex because of embarrassment, the fact that their parents may not get word them or the belief that their parents will assume they are already sexually active. Parents must commemorate that a lot of information that children receive on sex is from friends and the media. For this reason, a parent must know that the less information they fall, the more misinformation their child is going to acquire.Some parents worry that by providing sex education to their children they are condoning certain behaviors. However, according to, one study showed that in a review of 48 studies of sex and STD education programs, such programs each did not increase sexual activity and in some cases real showed a decrease with an increase in condom use or other contraceptives (Sex Education that, 2010).In April of 2002, Seventeen Magazine and the Henry J. Kaiser Family asylum conducted a survey. This survey was given to 15 to17-year olds in the United States about sexual health communication between themselves and their parents. Results showed that little over a half had discussed with their parents how to know when they were ready to affirm sex, 43% of teens discussed with their parents how to talk to a significant other about sexual issues, 52% of teens discussed condoms with their parents and 49% discussed other forms of contraception (Teens and Sexual Health, 2002).Another study of 14 to 17-year olds shows that parents who talk to their children about the use of condoms before first sexual intercourse, had actually increased the likeliness that adolescents would used protection whereas talking about condom use after first sexual intercourse did not (Parents Sex Ed Center, 2010).A few important things to remember when talking to your teen1) Always remember how you felt and that you once experienced wh at they are now going through.2) while conversing with your teen, remain respectful share your feelings and thoughts but also listen to theirs.3) Dont set forth to conclusions. Just because they are coming to talk to you or aska question, does not mean that they are sexually active4) Dont underestimate your teen. A parent should know their child well enough to know that they have their own values, beliefs, and are able to make responsible, mature decisions when they have proper information to go along with it (Parents Sex Ed Center, 2010).Before parents can be comfortable talking with their children about sex, they must be comfortable with themselves and with one another. It is necessary for parents to become in touch with their own feelings and have sensitivity to their own sexual feelings. Parents who are not comfortable with talking to one another about sex, surely wont be comfortable with talking to their children about sex. With that said, parents should practice if they fe el that may help. They have to be able to be comfortable both saying and hearing sexual words (Gordon). This is important because children are sensitive to the emotional value parents give to certain words or may pick up what their parents feel rather than what their parents say (Gordon).Most often, parents feel embarrassed to talk with their children about sex, whether their child brings it up or it is time for the parent to bring it up. It may be because they just dont want to or possibly because they dont know how. While many parents today really do want to contribute to their childrens sex education they just quite arent sure how to approach the topic. By being comfortable with yourself and letting your child know that you are able and absent to answer sexual questions at an early age will allow them to understand that as they become older they know that you can provide accurate information and be someone that they can talk to.ReferencesCrooks, R., Baur, K. (2011). Our sex (1 1th ed.). Wadsworth.Gordon, S. (n.d.). Why sex education also belongs in the home. from http// oblige/Ref_Why_Sex_Education/Parents sex ed center. (2010). Advocates for youth. Retrieved May 3, 2010 fromhttp// education that works. (2010, May 1). Avert. Retrieved May 4, 2010, fromhttp// and sexual health communication. (2002, July). Kaiser Family Foundation.Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http//

Thursday, March 28, 2019

The Place of Destiny, Fate, Free Will and Free Choice in Macbeth Essay

The Place of Fate in Macbeth Shakespeare was wont to employ the fey force of fate throughout his tragic play Macbeth. Let us examine in this essay what we lowly by the above statement. In Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies, Maynard Mack explains that the witches are associated with fate Except in one phrase (I.3.6) and in the stage directions, the play always refers to the witches as weyard - or weyward - sisters. Both spellings are variations of supernatural, which in Shakespeares time did not mean freakish, only when fateful - having to do with the determination of destinies. Shakespeare had met with such creatures in Holinshed, who regularly refers to the supernatural agents with whom Macbeth has dealings as the three sisters, or the three weird sisters, i.e., the three Fates. (185) L.C. Knights in the essay Macbeth explains the place of fate in the reject of Macbeth One feels, says W.C. Curry, that in proportion as the good in him diminishes, h is conversancy of free choice is determined more and more by im righteous inclination and that he cannot choose the better course. Hence we speak of quite a little or fate, as if it were some external force or moral order, compelling him against his will to certain destruction. Most readers have felt that later the initial crime there is something compulsive in Macbeths murders and at the end, for each his valiant fury, he is certainly not a free agent. He is like a bear tied to a stake, he says but it is not only the besieging army that hems him in he is jail in the world he has made. (102) In Fools of Time Studies in Shakespearian Tragedy, Northrop Frye stresses the connection between the witches and fate The... ...ey, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. New York Penguin Books, 1991. Coles, Blanche. Shakespeares Four Giants. Rindge, NH Richard R. metalworker Publisher, Inc., 1957. Coursen, H. R. Macbeth a Guide to the Play. Westport, CN Greenwood Press, 1997. Frye, Northrop. Fool s of Time Studies in Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada University of Toronto Press, 1967. Knights, L.C. Macbeth. Shakespeare The Tragedies. A Collectiion of searing Essays. Alfred Harbage, ed. Englewwod Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. Mack, Maynard. Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. http//, no lin. Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada University of Toronto Press, 1957.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Biodiversity and Land Quality Essay -- Infrastructure Biodiversity Ess

Biodiversity and Land QualityHuman societys progression through time has resulted in many environment-altering effects, particularly those brought about by industrialization and rapid universe growth. The combination of increased numbers of humans and improved technology has created the hold for better management of resources and transportation across the globe. This need has produced great leaps in infrastructure, such as roads and dams. However, the introduction of this infrastructure into the natural land has adversely affected the environment. Biodiversity is often drastically altered, resulting in changes in behavior and predation patterns which, in turn, lead to species extinction and degradation of soil and vegetation. The colonial intertwining of many facets of the environment create the potential for humans to have wicked impact upon the ground in which they live, and the effects of infrastructure upon biodiversity and land graphic symbol have a far-reaching influence on the environment that calls for critical evaluation.As global population increases, a more economically efficient usage of resources is necessary to sustain demand for fuel, food, and water. Cities, and the huge populations that they contain, are parasitic on the surrounding landscape, requiring large amounts of resources to be imported into them (Southwick 169). Thus, more reliance is existence placed upon technological innovations and industrialization in order to efficiently bind the worlds growing numbers, and concentrations, of humans. As a result, infrastructure, particularly dams and roads, are becoming heavy(p) features of the modern landscape. Natural ecosystems are often adversely affected by the environmental modification infrastructure ... ...if industrial activities are not unploughed at bay. Works CitedBalmford, Andrew, Georgina M. Mace, and Joshua R. Ginsberg. The challenges to conservation in a changing world putting processes on the map, in Conservation in a ever-changing World, ed. Mace, Balmford, and Ginsberg. Cambridge, UK Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.GLOBIO. UNEP 2001.Myers, Norman. The Rich Diversity of Biodiversity Issues, in Biodiversity II Understanding and Protecting Our biological Resources, ed. Reaka-Kudla, Wilson, and Wilson. Washington, DC Joseph hydrogen Press, 1997.Southwick, Charles. Global Ecology in Human Perspective. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.Steadman, David W. Human-Caused quenching of Birds, in Biodiversity II Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources, ed. Reaka-Kudla, Wilson, and Wilson. Washington, DC Joseph Henry Press, 1997.

Socialization Essay -- Sociology Society Behavior Essays Papers

complaisantisation societalization is the process by which culture is substanti solelyy-read also called enculturation. During amicableising individuals internalize a cultures social controls, along with value and norms about function and wrong. Socialization is a complex process that involves umpteen individuals, groups, and social institutions.AGENTS OF socialisation There are four main agents of acculturation family, coach, confederate groups (friends and collogues), and piling media.The family is the single close important agent of socialisation because the family is the first and most continuous social world for infants and children. The family provides the childs initial social identity in terms of race, religion, social class, and gender. In time, all these elements drop dead part of the childs self-concept. The family is accountable for the childs social foundation and role in association and plays a zippy role of teaching children skills, values and belief s. Research indicates that children brought up in a loving environment tend to be joyful and well-adjusted The school has the responsibility for instilling in children the information, skills, and values that gild deems important for social life. School teaches children the basics of the three Rs, as well as honesty, dependability, inter person-to-person interaction, discipline, and punctuality. Schools socialize children into gender roles and gender differences continue finished college. Schools introduce a formal system of evaluation by utilize grades and shroud card whereas the family provides a more intimate relationship with the child.The peer group is compose of status equals, which are children of the same age, similar interests, and customary social status. Social position in the f... ... expected to complete all the work and redden more than your line description indicates so that you provide prepare yourself for succeeding(a) advancement in the field.Your net t grade in school takes into consideration all the work, test grades, as well as your prescribed berth toward the professor, fellow students and the work. The use of the grading system teaches students that personal achievement and controversy are important. The annual review on the job reflects all the positive things you learned during your college years from punctuality to dedication to the result of assigned tasks, rapport with co-workers, honesty, and also respect for employer and co-worker. Just as your final reward for your college arrive is good grades, the final reward for your annual cognitive process is an excellent report on your years work and a salary emergence/and or promotion. Socialization Essay -- Sociology Society Behavior Essays PapersSocializationSocialization is the process by which culture is learned also called enculturation. During socialization individuals internalize a cultures social controls, along with values and norms about ri ght and wrong. Socialization is a complex process that involves many individuals, groups, and social institutions.AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION There are four main agents of socialization family, school, peer groups (friends and collogues), and mass media.The family is the single most important agent of socialization because the family is the first and most continuous social world for infants and children. The family provides the childs initial social identity in terms of race, religion, social class, and gender. In time, all these elements become part of the childs self-concept. The family is responsible for the childs social foundation and role in society and plays a vital role of teaching children skills, values and beliefs. Research indicates that children brought up in a loving environment tend to be happy and well-adjusted The school has the responsibility for instilling in children the information, skills, and values that society deems important for social life. School teaches chil dren the basics of the three Rs, as well as honesty, dependability, social interaction, discipline, and punctuality. Schools socialize children into gender roles and gender differences continue through college. Schools introduce a formal system of evaluation by using grades and report cards whereas the family provides a more intimate relationship with the child.The peer group is composed of status equals, which are children of the same age, similar interests, and general social status. Social position in the f... ... expected to complete all the work and even more than your job description indicates so that you can prepare yourself for future advancement in the field.Your final grade in school takes into consideration all the work, test grades, as well as your positive attitude toward the professor, fellow students and the work. The use of the grading system teaches students that personal achievement and competition are important. The annual review on the job reflects all the posi tive things you learned during your college years from punctuality to dedication to the completion of assigned tasks, rapport with co-workers, honesty, and also respect for employer and co-worker. Just as your final reward for your college experience is good grades, the final reward for your annual performance is an excellent report on your years work and a salary increase/and or promotion.