Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Green Management Activities and Performance free essay sample

Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / Green Management Activities and Performance The scope of global data in this section is all operation sites include Korea as well as overseas. 02 08 16 24 35 Green Management Framework Climate Change Response Eco-Products Green Operation Sites Green Communication / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 1 Green Management Framework Green Management Strategy Establishing a Green Management Strategy Samsung Electronics is implementing green management practices for sustainable development by actively analyzing the impact we make on the environment and assessing management risks associated with those impacts. We considered a wide range of our economic, social and environmental impacts and formulated a systematic green management strategy to adapt to changes in the market environment. We conducted materiality tests to assess key risks identi? ed while developing our green management strategy and prioritized them for more effective management. Details on our green management strategy formulation process and priority risk management activities follow. Strategy Development Process Identi? cation of key environmental issues Risk analysis Internal capacity analysis Strategy development Economy/society/technology Identi? cation of priority on environmental issues Stakeholder consultation Physical risk Regulatory risk Indirect risk Social/cultural risk Internal capacity analysis Identi? cation of external best practices and gap analysis Formulation of short/mid/longterm strategy; Identi? ation of key tasks and key performance indicators Key Risks and Management Activities Type Physical risks Key Issues Rise in price of raw materials and oil Management Activities Installation of high energy ef? ciency facilities Development of energy use reduction policies Intensi? ed water shortage Implementation of water resource management strategies and water-related risk management structure Regulatory risks Implementation of national energy /greenhouse gas reduction policies Strengthened product-related regulations Operation site GHG reduction activities Energy ef? ient product development and sales Regular monitoring and compliance activities of energy/hazardous materials/recyclingrelated regulations Indirect risks Change in market and industry Increased competition for eco-technologies Development of Eco-Products and strengthening of green marketing Development and utilization of eco-friendly materials Release of innovative Eco-Products Social/cultural risks Changes in consumer preference Expansion of consumer green marketing Environmental communication with local community residents Increased stakeholder demands Increased stakeholder communication and response to demands Responsive information disclosure 2 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / Green Management Vision and Mid-term Goals Vision and Slogan Our green management strategy enables us to grow sustainably and invest in the future of both humanity and nature. We will write a custom essay sample on Green Management Activities and Performance or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Samsung Electronics established its green management vision based on our underlying philosophy of helping to build a prosperous society and preserving the environment through business activities that give due respect to people and nature. Our green management activities are reinforced under our slogan of ‘PlanetFirst. Green Management: Basic Philosophy, Vision, Slogan Basic Philosophy Contribute to building a prosperous society and preserving the environment through business activities that give due respect to people and nature based on the concept of reverence for life Vision Creating new value through eco-innovation Slogan ‘PlanetFirst’ represents Samsung Electronics’ commitment to sustainable development and social responsibility through eco-driven business and management activities. Green Management Policies Samsung Electronics is committed to leading the realization of a sustainable society. Through our green management activities, we are contributing to the prosperity of humanity and the conservation of the natural environment. Global Green Management System Establish a top-class global green management system, ensure full compliance of all environment safety and health regulations in all our operation sites and enforce strict internal standards. Zero-Accident Green Operation Sites Create recycling-centric production facilities and safe workplaces where wastes are recycled and accident prevention measures are implemented to ensure the health and safety of all employees. Life Cycle Responsibility for Products and Services Take full responsibility for ensuring minimum environmental impact and the highest safety in all stages of the product life cycle including purchasing of parts/raw materials, development, manufacturing, transfer, product use and end-of-life. Preservation of the Global Environment Take actions to tackle climate change and protect local communities as well as the global environment. Disclose green management policies and achievements to both internal and external stakeholders. Green Manufacturing Process Establish manufacturing processes that minimize the release of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants by employing bestavailable clean manufacturing technologies that enable ef? cient resource and energy management. / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 3 Mid-term Target: Eco-Management 2013 Eco-Management 2013 outlines our mid-term targets announced in 2009. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions relative to sales by 50% from 2008 levels and designing 100% of Samsung Electronics products as Eco-Products are the two core objectives. To reach the stated goals, we have developed 19 speci? c actions under the three categories of green operations, green products, and green communication. We are taking actions to minimize the negative impact on the environment associated with our business activities and disclosing our environmental achievements against mid-term targets to bolster our commitment to green management. EM2013 Core KPIs and Achievements Area GHG reduction (Korea) Indicator GHG emissions relative to sales (tons CO2 /KRW 100 million) Proportion of Good Eco-Products (%) 011 Target 4. 62 96 85 2011 Actual 4. 46 97 85 2012 Target 4. 21 97 87 2013 Target 3. 72 100 100 Eco-Product development ratio Proportion of Good Eco-Devices (%) Investment in Green Management Samsung Electronics is making regular investments in green management practicesin two separate categories of investment in green facilities and site operation expenses. In 2011, Samsung Electronics invested KRW 703 billion in green management practices, which is an 86% increase from 2010. Green Management Investment Investment in green facilities Site operation expenses (USD million) Total 266 150 310 311 294 379 461 604 2009 2010 2011 113 1 USD=1,164. 30 KRW (base year: 31st. Dec. 2011) Green Investment Detail Indicator Investment in green facilities Details Investment in air and water quality, waste management and pollution prevention facilities (Extension of air pollution control in semiconductor) Expenses paid to operate pollution prevention and treatment facilities (Power consumption, chemical, labor, accreditation, etc) Site operation expenses Environmental Awards and Achievements Samsung Electronics has received international recognition for sustainability performance. For example, Samsung Electronics was selected as a sector leader in environmental performance in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. It was also selected for the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index for three consecutive years by the Carbon Disclosure Project. Samsung Electronics won 22 awards including ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year by the U. S. EPA. Awards and recognition from external stakeholders indicates the strength of our environmental regulation compliance and stakeholder communication efforts. 4 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 2011 Recognition for Excellence in Environmental Management Name of Award Green company assessment Best Global Green Brands Ranking Environmental, Social, Governance Assessment Sustainability Index Dow Jones Sustainability Index Interbrand Korea Corporate Governance Service Kyunghyang Daily SAM Given by China Europe International Business School (CEBIS) Date April July August August September Details Selected as the greenest company among the top 100 foreign companies in China Ranked 25th in the Global 50 Green Brands rankings Received A+ grade in environmental management among 800 listed companies Selected as 2nd best environmental performer among the top 100 companies in Korea Named as the most sustainable technology company in the 2011 Dow Jones Sustainability Index Named as top environmental performer in the semiconductor sector Carbon Disclosure Project Green Ranking Green Ranking CDP Committee Newsweek Joongang Daily September October December Included in the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index for three consecutive years Ranked 22nd among Global Top 500 companies Ranked 4th in Tech. Equipment sector Ranked 2nd among top 100 companies, Ranked 1st in IT sector 2011 Environmental Awards Received Region Korea Name of Award Green Star Certi? cation Award Korea Green Management Award Energy Winner Award Korea Consumer Well-being Index certi? ation award Green Product of the Year CDP Korea 200 Report Launch Awards National Green Technology Award Given by Korea Management Association Ministry of Knowledge Economy/ Ministry of Environment Consumers Korea Korea Standard Association Green Purchasing Network CDP Committee Ministry of Knowledge Economy U. S. Consumer Electronics Association U. S. Environmental Protection Agency TreeHugger International Electronics Recycling Conference Expo Global Green USA’s i nitiatives Buyers Laboratory Inst. Boys Girls Clubs of America U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Northeast Recycling Council International Forum Design Hannover Which magazine Green Organization Green Business Enterprises China Energy Saving Association WEF, IOD Date June June July August October October November January April April May June August September October October March September November November May June Details Washing machine, refrigerator, Kimchi refrigerator and air conditioner. IT solutions division was awarded with a medal for solar powered note PC. 10 products were awarded for high energy ef? iency including the grand award for smart air conditioner. Samsung Anycall brand ranked 1st in mobile phones Solar powered note PC (NT-NC215), low-power monitor (S23A550H) Included in the Carbon Management Industry Leader Low-power mobile semiconductor technology Washing machine, electric oven, monitor, memory chip, LCD panel, HDD Selected as Partner of the Year Restore (SPH-M570) mobile phone Leadership in Recycling Program SPH-M580 Replen ish mobile phone Eco-Product award for printers with eco-driver technology Recognition for donation of high energy ef? iency products Recognition for contribution made in reducing mercury in LED display Recognition for support made in Recycling Association activities Eco-friendly materials used in note PC (NT-NC10) Energy Ef? cient LED TV (55D8000) Eco-friendly product award for Eco Bubble Washing Machine Eco-friendly innovative product award for Eco Bubble Washing Machine Received awards for two consecutive years Eco Innovation award for eco-friendly note PC 900X3A U. S. CES Eco-Design Award Energy Star Award TreeHuggers Best of Green Awards Sustainability Leadership Award Green Millennium Awards Outstanding Achievement Award BGCA Partnership Award Mercury Reduction Award State Electronics Challenge Award for Sustainability Germany UK iF Material Award Which Energy Saver Award Green Apple Award International Green Award China India Energy Saving Contribution Award Golden Peacock Award / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 5 Green Management Implementation Structure Organizational Structure Samsung Electronics has a structured organization in place for effective implementation of green management. The CS Environmental Center, which reports directly to the CEO, is in charge of mid-term target setting and monitors green management KPIs. It is also responsible for the development of climate change responses, life cycle GHG emissions management and the provision of supplier support. The CS Environment Center is also esponsible for overall green management issues including Eco-Design, eliminating hazardous materials in products, and energy ef? ciency standards regulations. The Environment, Health and Safety Center is responsible for ensuring the green operations of all production plants through close collaboration with the Environment Health and Safety (EHS) team at each production plant. The center is responsible for analyzing environment and safety risks monitoring changes in global environmental regulation s and national policies, and improving Samsung Electronics’ EHS practices. Each plant also has an environmental affairs manager and a team of experts to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and the implementation of green management improvement measures. Corporate Green Management Committee We are aware of the environmental impact associated with our business activities and the strategic importance of implementing green management practices. This understanding led to the establishment of the Green Management Committee which meets twice a year to con? rm green management policies, assess performance and make decisions on the establishment of improvement measures. Samsung Electronics also has a Climate Change Response Committee in charge of supporting GHG emissions and energy management, as well as an Eco Council in charge of supporting Eco-Product development and green operations at facilities. We also hold regular EHS strategy meetings for reviewing changes to EHS regulations and formulating responses. Corporate Green Management Consultation Group Name Green Management Committee Eco-Product Council GHG/Energy Executive Council EHS Strategy Council Frequency Half-yearly Half-yearly Half-yearly Quarterly Details Headed by CEO. Makes decisions on global green management policies and plans Composed of product development team in business divisions. Consults on Eco-Product development strategy Consults on company-wide GHG and energy management strategy Consults on corporate EHS strategy Employee Training Samsung Electronics offers 32 green management training courses in four categories: basic, legal, job function and overseas. The basic course is designed for all employees and provides an introduction to Samsung’s green management policies. The legal courses are designed for EHS affairs managers at production plants and are focused on the prevention of accidents and risk management as required in relevant laws and regulations. The courses in the job function category are designed for EHS managers at product and plant management levels to enhance their in-depth understanding of EHS affairs. The overseas classes provide staff at overseas plants with information on EHS requirements that must be observed. 6 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / Environmental Achievement Management Achievement Management and Rewards Samsung Electronics developed a Global EHS System (G-EHS) for integrated management of EHS data. The system played a pivotal role in boosting our green management capacity into a top-tier program in energy and GHG reduction, product environmental regulation compliance, workplace accident reduction goals and achievement monitoring. We created reward schemes, including the Samsung Green Management Award and the Samsung Electronics Annual Award, to internally promote green management practices. The Samsung Green Management Award is given by the Samsung Corporation to recognize exemplary production plants and suppliers with excellent green management practices. The Samsung Electronics Annual Award is a cash bonus and an extra point in annual reviews given to organizations and employees that made key contributions in green management areas. Environmental Audit Samsung Electronics is participating in environmental audits conducted by internal and external experts in order to identify areas of improvement and take appropriate actions. For example, we have been conducting internal audits on all production plants in regards to hazardous materials and energy management. We have implemented an eco-partner policy which mandates regular assessments on the status of suppliers’ environmental management and implementation of improvement measures. We also have an internal mandate on the installation and testing of environmental management equipment at facilities, ISO14001 environmental management certi? cation, and an OHSAS18001 safety and health management system for all existing plants and new plants to be constructed. All plants are subjected to regular audits by third party certi? cation agencies. Information Disclosure Samsung Electronics publishes annual sustainability management reports to share information on our environmental management including targets, strategies, GHG emissions data, Eco-Product information, green production plants, and stakeholder communication programs. The information on our green management practices is disclosed on our global web site for easy access by stakeholders. (http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/sustainability/environment/environment. tml) We are actively participating in the Carbon Disclosure Project to share our detailed activities and achievement in our carbon management practices. Global-EHS System Environmental Expense Management Samsung Electronics is managing environmental expenses in an integrated and cost effective manner using the G-EHS. The investment in environmental safeguards at facilities and the operation costs of each production plant is managed by environmental managers at each site. The cost data is then collected by the Environmental Strategy team of the CS center annually for calculation of total expenses spent on environmental management. We are following the Ministry of Environment’s guidelines on environmental data collection and report the data to relevant stakeholders, including the Bank of Korea. Environmental costs are budgeted during an annual corporate business planning process and spent accordingly. / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 7 Climate Change Response Climate Change Response Strategy Risks and Opportunities Risks and Opportunities Analysis Process Samsung Electronics determines materiality and priority of issues by using ? ve criteria, as listed below, when determining climate change related risks and pportunities. Criteria of Risk and Opportunity Analysis Criteria Signi? cance to stakeholders Industry (competitor) benchmarking Signi? cance to the company Readiness Likelihood Peers and competitors’ reaction to the issue Impacts to the company wide policy, strategy, goal and others, as well as direct ? nancial impacts (short/medium/long-term ? nancial impacts) Having reaso nable control over the issue or not, and degree of readiness in capital (HR asset) to deal with related issues Probability of events and amount of time left (before potential regulation enforcement) Details Concerns of stakeholders such as customers, evaluators and NGOs. Risk Management Samsung Electronics identi? ed the following climate change risks and response activities for their management. Risk Management Activities Category Regulatory risks Type of Risks Emission trading scheme Emission reporting obligations Product ef? ciency regulations and standards Product labeling regulations and standards Uncertainty on new regulations Risk Management Activities Developing CDM project within semiconductor manufacturing process Improving transparency on GHG emissions data through third party veri? ation Increasing RD on energy ef? ciency improvement on products and receiving energy marks Increasing number of eco-label certi? ed products Monitoring on global environmental regulations Identi? cation of risks and response manuals on site facilities through regular/special review and 3rd party audit Strategic response to Eco-Product exhibition and evaluations Developing products using insight f rom consumer research Physical risks Change in precipitation and drought Other risks Reputation change in consumer behavior Capitalizing on Opportunities Opportunities associated with climate change and its impacts on Samsung’s operation as follows. Opportunity Creation Activities Category Regulatory risks Opportunities GHG Emissions trading scheme Product ef? ciency regulations and standards Voluntary agreements Opportunity Creation Activities Development of CDM projects using reductions made at semiconductor production plants and products Introduction of energy mark certi? ed products Voluntarily participating in GHG reduction activities Strengthening system air conditioner business Developing/upgrading of indoor air puri? rs, development of water puri? cation technologies Increased number of Eco-Products and related RD Strategic participation in Eco-Product exhibitions and climate change related evaluations Physical risks Extreme weather events Air and water pollution Other risks Increased consumer demand on low carbon products Increase of brand value as a low carbon and energy ef? cient product provider Reduction in operation cost by improving energy ef? ciency of equipments Corporate energy cost management 8 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / Management Targets and Strategies Based on the environmental mid-term strategy ‘Eco-Management (EM) 2013,’ Samsung Electronics manages its climate change mitigation activities through two management systems. Our Eco-Design System (EDS)evaluates GHG emissions from a product’s life cycle (from designing to disposal of a product) and our G-EHS manages corporate GHG reduction activities from all facilities around the world. We also have gathered GHG emissions data, including GHG data from employee business travels, logistics, and suppliers, in order to manage Scope 3 GHG emissions. Climate Change Response Strategy We have created GHG management strategies for all relevant divisions in order to achieve GHG reduction targets in production facilities, product development, and its suppliers. Climate Change Response Strategy Category Incorporation of GHG reduction facilities Product Energy Ef? ciency Improvement Implementation of Energy Management System Details Reduction of F-gas emissions from the semiconductor and LCD manufacturing process Reduction average energy consumption of products by 40% and achieving 0. 5W of standby power by 2013, in comparison to 2008 ? ures. Implementation of energy management system and establishment of internal energy ef? ciency certi? cation system subjected to all business sites in Korea Support for the establishment of global supplier’s GHG inventory system by offering training and expertise sharing to global suppliers Supplier support International Initiative Membership Status Initiative World Semiconductor Council (WSC) W orld Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Korea Business Council for Sustainable Development (KBCSD) Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) KPI on GHG Emissions Reduction and Achievements Samsung Electronics designated GHG emissions intensity at Korean plants as its KPI for GHG management, a ? gure that accounts for 90% of Samsung Electronics’ global emissions. The mid-term target is a 50% reduction in GHG emissions intensity by 2013 compared to the 2008 baseline. Samsung Electronics has been meeting annual GHG emissions reductions targets since 2009. We reduced intensity by 40% in 2011 compared to the 2008 baseline and expect to achieve the 2013 target. We have selected GHG reduction during the product use phase as our second KPI to be achieved by manufacturing energy-ef? ient products. The 2013 mid-term target is to reduce GHG emissions by 85 million tons (accumulated) from 2008 levels. We aim to achieve this through a 40% reduction in average electricity consumption of Samsung Electronics products compared to a 2008 baseline. We are currently on track to achieve this goal, meeting annual targets since 2009. GHG KPI and Achievements KPI GHG emissions intensity (production in Korea, Target tons CO2 /KRW 100 million) Actual Reduction Ratio (%, 2008 baseline) Cumulative GHG emissions reductions over ? e years (Global, 10,000 tons) Target Actual Indicator 2009 6. 85 5. 83 22 334 444 2010 5. 65 5. 11 31 1,169 1,529 2011 4. 62 4. 46 40 2,695 3,292 2013 3. 72 50 8,468 GHG emissions intensity: Total CO2 emissions1 ? (Sales[Korea] / price index2) 1 Total GHG emissions from production plants in Korea, expressed in CO2 -equivalent 2 Producer price index in Bank of Korea public notice (Base year 2005: PPI=1) / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 9 Management Structure Samsung Electronics’ GHG emission management structure is as follows. GHG Management Committee Name Green Management Committee Detail Discuss and make decisions on corporate-level strategic decisions on climate change response Set development goals and implementation strategies on high energy ef? ciency and low power-consumption products Establishment and implementation of production plant GHG reduction strategy Climate change risks analysis and monitoring CEO Host Frequency Twice a year Eco-Product Council Head of CS Environmental Center Twice a year GHG/Energy Executive Committee Head of CS Environmental Center Twice a year GHG/Energy Committee Head of Environmental Strategy team Five times a year Scope 1, 2 Emissions Management Scope 1, 2 Emissions Management Process Emission Management Structure The operation sites included in the GHG emission management scope are production plants and buildings under direct operational control of Samsung Electronics. Monthly GHG emission data from eight Korean plants and buildings, 30 overseas production plants, and 76 non-production subsidiaries (sales, logistics, and RD centers) are collected through the environmental management system, G-EHS. The emission data from each site are checked against targets and improvement measures are formulated. The GHG emissions data and reduction achievements against targets are reported to environmental managers at each site, in addition to the corporate environmental affairs management team and top management. Emission Calculation Method GHG emissions were calculated with management data at each site and the national guidelines of each country as well as international standards including the IPCC Guidelines, ISO 14064 were used as reference for matters not speci? d in the national guidelines. GHG Emissions (Scope 1, 2) Samsung Electronics’ GHG emissions intensity in 2011 was reduced to 4. 46 tons/KRW 100 million. which was 13% lower than 2010 ? gures. We have taken various measures including the installation of facilities for reducing GHG emissions from indutrial processes, improvement in energy ef? ciency of production facilities, installation of high ef? cient facilities and wil l continue to implement various GHG reduction measures. GHG Emissions Intensity Category Korea Target Actual Global Actual tons CO2/KRW 100 million) Indicator 2009 6. 85 5. 83 4. 35 2010 5. 65 5. 11 4. 15 2011 4. 62 4. 46 3. 70 GHG emission intensity: Total CO2 emissions1 ? (Sales[Korea] / price index2) 1 2 Total GHG emissions from production plants in Korea, expressed in CO2 -equivalent Producer price index in Bank of Korea public notice (Base year 2005: PPI = 1) Calculation Method (Global): Global total CO2 emissions / Global Sales 10 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / GHG Emissions Region Korea Scope 1 Scope 2 Total Global Scope 1 Scope 2 Total (1,000 tons CO2) Scope 2009 3,564 5,008 8,572 3,750 5,875 9,625 2010 4,057 5,552 9,609 4,155 6,500 10,655 2011 3,924 6,031 9,955 4,045 7,259 11,304 Adjustment was made to Korean GHG emissions data between 2009 and 2011 as a result of third party verification in June 2011 following guideline in national GHG target management policy. Data scope is 100 percent of both Korea and global emissions by Samsung Electronics GHG Emissions by Type (Global) 2009 CO2 SF6 PFC S N2O HFC CH4 Total 6,340 2,037 912 170 164 2 9,625 (1,000 tons CO2) 2010 7,012 2,397 901 212 131 2 10,655 011 8,378 1,738 859 220 108 2 11,304 Third Party Veri? cation of GHG Data Our GHG reduction has been veri? ed by a third party agency in compliance with relevant Korean government policy. The Korean Foundation for Quality has recently completed veri? cation of GHG emissions data between 2007 and 2011 of eight operation sites in Korea. We also voluntarily received GHG emission data veri? cation for overseas production plants. GHG Reduction Activities Samsung Electronics succeeded in reducing 1. 4 million tons of CO2 in 2011. The reduction of 1. 3 million tons was achieved with the installation of PFC, SF6 emissions reduction facilities. The introduction of high energy-ef? ciency facilities and the optimization of utilities contributed to a reduction of 28,000 and 188,000 tons of CO2 respectively. Implementation of a waste heat recovery system resulted in 24,000 tons of CO2 emissions reduction. A collection of improvement measures also contributed to a reduction of 130,000 tons of CO2 emissions. Third Party Veri? cation of GHG Data / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 11 Scope 3 Emissions Management Scope 3 Emissions Management Process Samsung Electronics’ Scope 3 GHG emissions include GHG emissions associated with suppliers, product use, transport of parts and products and business travel by Korean employees. Supplier GHG emissions are calculated using the activity data submitted by suppliers. Emissions associated with logistics and business travel are automatically calculated by the G-EHS. GHG emissions associated with product use are estimated using energy consumption information and typical use scenarios for each product. The GHG emissions of product use are correlated to the energy ef? iency of products. The GHG emissions data of each scope can be managed by environmental managers in each division, the corporate environmental affairs management team, and top management. Boundary of Scope 3 Management Raw material Parts Manufacturing Logistics Consumer use Disposal/ recycling Employee business travel Scope 3 GHG emissions are calculated as per related international st andards including ISO 14064, IPCC guidelines, WBCSD Scope 3 guidelines and carbon footprint labeling standard of Korea. GHG Emissions in Product Use Samsung Electronics de? es †GHG Emissions associated with product use† as the amount of GHG emissions caused by electricity consumption of Samsung Electronics products. The emissions associated with product use have not increased despite an increase in the number of products sold due to the increased energy ef? ciency of newer products. We achieved 17,630 thousand tons of GHG emission reductions in 2011 compared to the 2008 levels. Improvement Rate of Product Energy Ef? ciency Target Actual (%) GHG Emissions Reduction in Product Use Target Actual Cumulative (1,000 tons CO2) 32,920 23. 1 15. 7 7. 7 8. 4 15. 25. 6 15,290 15,270 4,440 4,440 8,350 10,850 17,630 3,340 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Product Energy efficiency improvement rate = (2008 average power consumption–2011 average power consumption) / (2008 average po wer consumption) ? 100 Target is made by 10% of annual increasing in product sales volume Scope: All consumer products sold globally (excluding parts) 12 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / GHG Emissions associated with transport of parts and products Samsung Electronics is monitoring CO2 emissions associated with transport of materials, parts and products. The emissions have been increasing by 15% per year on average due to the establishment of new overseas production facilities and an increase in overseas production volume. Efforts are being made to reduce product weight and optimize transport routes to achieve reductions in emissions related to transport. A modal shift to lower GHG emissions is also employed to achieve further reduction. Modal shift (Change in means of transport): Samsung Electronics is changing air transport to maritime transport and road transport to railroad transport to achieve reductions in GHG emissions. Business Travel Emissions Samsung Electronics is monitoring GHG emissions associated with business travel. The emissions have increased by more than 10% due to the establishment of new overseas operation sites and an increase in the number of employees. We are making an effort to reduce business travel-related emissions through measures including the encouragement of the use of mass transportation and video-conferencing systems. GHG Emissions Associated with Business Travel (Korea) (1,000 tons CO2) 113 101 Emissions Associated with Transport of Parts and Products (1,000 tons CO2) 8,440 1 7,430 4,340 5,690 2009 Calculation formula 2010 2011 Air travel: ? [Distance(Km) ? No. of employees travelled ? GHG emissions conversion factor by class] Land transport: ? [No. of employees travelled ? cost (KRW) per travel ? distance 2008 2009 2010 2011 conversion factor (km/KRW) ? emissions conversion factor (ton CO2 /employee ·km)] Management scope: Based on global business travel data by Kore a-based employees Management method: Emission data is automatically calculated using the G-EHS system on a monthly basis and G-ERP Calculation formula: Distance (Km) ? Weight (Kg) ? GHG emission conversion factor by emission sources Management scope: transport of products, materials and parts (transport service paid by business partners are also included) Management method: Monthly emissions are calculated based on logistic data Data scope is 100 percent of global emissions by Samsung Electronics Suppliers’ GHG Emissions Samsung Electronics manages suppliers’ GHG emissions data associated with Samsung Electronics’ business; total GHG emissions of a supplier multiplied by the ratio of sales to Samsung Electronics. Samsung Electronics began monitoring and analysis of GHG emissions from its supplier companies since 2009. We provided training courses to help the suppliers report their GHG emissions. Supplier GHG Emissions 2009 2010 812 4,502 (1,000 tons CO2) Compilation of 2011 supplier data has not been completed as of May 2012. Scope of 2009 and 2010 supplier emissions data is accountable for 40% and 63% respectively of total purchases by Samsung Electronics. Only Korea-based suppliers participated in the 2009 data collection. / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / 13 Corporate GHG Emissions Break-down 2011 GHG Emissions Break-down (1,000 tons CO2) Employee business travel 113 Manufacturing 11,304 Logistics 8,440 Consumer use 32,412 On-site Energy Management Energy Management Structure in Operation Sites The CS Environmental Center at Samsung Electronics created climate stratrgy part to manage energy use at operation sites by conducting tasks including the collection of monthly data and the analysis of the cause of changes in emissions. Bi-monthly GHG and energy working group meetings are also held to share success stories and news on energy saving activities. Energy KPI and Achievements Samsung Electronics has adopted an energy cost rate (%) to assess the ? nancial bene? ts of energy consumption reduction. The 2013 target is 0. 878% with a goal of achieving a 2. 5% reduction per year. We have optimized the operations of manufacturing and utility equipment, introduced energy ef? cient equipment and waste heat recycling facilities to achieve the target. The energy cost rate increased in 2011 compared to 2010, due to an increase in energy consumption and energy price. However, we succeeded in achieving the 2011 target set in 2008. Energy Cost Rate (Korea) Target Actual %) Energy Consumption Intensity Korea Global (tons CO2/KRW 100 million) 0. 982 0. 910 0. 956 0. 849 0. 929 0. 928 74. 7 56. 1 54. 3 66. 1 50. 6 59. 7 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Energy cost rate (%) = energy cost in manufacturing site (Korea) / Sales (Korea) ? 100 Data scope is 100 percent of both Korea and global emissions 14 / Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012 / Electricity and LNG Consumption Category Korea Indicator Electricity (Gwh) LNG (Mil. Nm ) 3 2009 10,729 148 12,180 174 2010 11,894 170 13,435 197 2011 12,925 197 15,047 237 Global Electricity (Gwh) LNG (Mil. Nm3) Data scope is 100 percent of both Korean and global emissions by Samsung Electronics Energy Saving Activities and Ahievements Samsung Electronics achieved energy use reductions by 171,000 TOE through optimization of manufacturing and utility equipment, installation of high energy ef? ciency equipment, and waste heat recovery. It is equivalent to savings of KRW 70 billion in energy cost and reduction of 370,000 tons CO2. Need for systematic energy management is increasing with the introduction of new policies such as the GHG/Energy target management system enforced by Korea government in 2011. Responding to the change, we implemented the Energy Management System (EnMS) for analysis of energy use status, management of reduction targets, and promotion of energy saving activities in systematic manner. Implementation of the EnMS and other energy management initiatives enabled five production plants in Gumi, Giheung, Hwasung, Onyang and Tangjung to receive international energy management certi? cation (ISO 50001) in 2011. We also implemented ‘Pre-certi? cation of Energy Ef? ciency’ for all energy using devices, equipment, and raw materials to induce energy ef? iency improvement by equipments suppliers and to contribute to energy savings at operation sites. Our ultimate goal is to achieve of GHG emissions reduction and cost reduction at the same time. Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Expansion Plan and Activities Samsung Electronics is developing 1MW of hydro power plant and 1. 4MW scale of solar power system in Korea. we are also expanding the investment on solar cell, smart grids and geothermal heating system. We are investing in the development of photovoltaic cells, smart grid technology, and geothermal heating/cooling systems as a sustainable growth opportunity.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

About Christianity

About Christianity Free Online Research Papers All Christian religions strive for the same goals to live their lives for God or the Holy Spirit. Over the years, members of religions have interrupted the texts differently from other members. This has caused many members to start or find new religions where the religion believes the same ways as they do. Some feel if people are true to their hearts and love all humankind, as God wants them to then it does not matter what religion they belong. Others feel God judges people by their actions not what religion they are. Christianity is the largest religion in the world. People look to God for answers, help, and to find meaning in his, or her life. Christianity is the largest religion of the world, and has followers from all over the world. Christianity started in Israel. Christianity has survived for 1800 years and today translated into many different languages (Parker T., 1996). On the Believe Jesus is the son of God, and he will forgive humankind of their sins. Jesus is the savor of all humankind and died for the sins of others to please God. In Christianity, there is only one God, and he will return to take his followers to his kingdom of heaven. Sunday is a day of resurrection, confession, and prayer. Followers of Christianity live his, or her lives by the teachings of Jesus through the New Testament, Old Testament, and the Trinity. There are many different religions associated with Christianity such as Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant. Each branch of Christianity has different rules and laws, and members engorged to follow. Christianity is made of many different religions combined into one for the same believes an d goals. Through the years of Christianity, the meaning is different in parts of the world and practiced differently by the followers. The name Christianity is the only thing that is the same. The interpretation of the words God spoke is different in every set of eyes of his followers. Of all the religions and members around the world, 33 percent are Christians (adherents, 2007). Christians believe there is one God, and he created Earth, all humankind, and wilderness. Even though Christianity is the largest religion, many people argue that the faith is full of myths and no facts to back them up. One of the biggest myths is Jesus was born by a virgin by a miracle of the Holy Spirit. Another myth is he went into the desert and fasted for 40 days with no water or food. Many believe there is no way even with the help of God anyone could survive this long. Another myth is that Jesus walked on top of water. To other religions, the Christian faith is nothing but lies and false hope. To Christians believing and hope is what will get one to heaven. While researching Christianity a local pastor took time out of his busy schedule to answer a few questions about Christianity. There were 10 questions asked to the pastor. What does Christianity mean to him personally? Answer= Christianity has given him a believe system, an organized life with meaning. God made him, and loves him for who he has become. Christianity has given him the feeling usefulness with his life, and has helped change rationality with others believes. Is Christianity more than a religion in his eyes? How or why? Answer= yes, what religion means to him: humankind’s attempt to connect with God. Please God and become one with the lord. What distinguishes Christianity from other religions? Answer= Jesus paid for the penalties and sins of others, to please God. Christians accept and forgive others of their sins. They believe within his, or herself without God their life has no structure. How and why would someone want to join this religion? Answer= anyone wanti ng a live change, and deciding to give themselves to God. People join the Christian faith for purpose and structure in their lives. To join all they need to be being true to themselves and live for God and the rules he has set forth. Is there a particular time of the day that members pray? How do they pray? Answer= members can pray anytime they feel the need. There is no certain time of the day that Christians must pray. Christians are suggested to pray anytime members are making a life changing decision or any major decision. When members decide to change jobs many pray to God to see them through this time. What are some of the rules that members have to follow? Answer= In the Christian religion there are no mandatory rules members must follow. Members have to believe in God with all their heart. Mathew 22: 36-39 (love the lord their God and others) sums it up the best for all Christians. Can anyone join the Christianity religion? Answer= Yes, anyone can join the Christian religio n no matter the color of skin or ethnic group he, or she belongs. People who believe in God and are willing to accept him into their hearts and souls are welcome to join. Since becoming a Christian has he been treated differently by members or friends of another religion? Answer= at first with friends that where nonreligious, and members of other religions. His parents where Roman Catholic and told him he was going to hell for joining a different religion. This made no sense to him after going to ministry school and finding out that Roman Catholics are a division of Christianity. People who are uneducated on religions treated him deferent. Is there a particular way that he would try to convince someone his religion and believes is the right way to god? Answer= Yes, sins puts them in hell, and breaks the faith between God, and themselves. Joining the Christian faith allows them a chance for forgiveness from God. Describe to people the changes that have taken place in his live since h e has given himself to God completely. Do members of his religion have the freedom to figure out what is true, and what is not? How does his religion handle question about Christianity believe? Answer= Yes, all members have the right to figure out what is right and wrong. At his church, they have discussion groups once a week to discuss Sunday’s services and he is always open to answer questions of members who are confused about the scripts and service. In this, church members are encouraged to discuss with one another what passage means to them personally. To him understanding what the passage means and putting it into an actual life experience from the past or today is one way members will truly understand the passage. Having open discussion is another way he sees if the way he is preaching is right for the members or if he needs to change his way of preaching or teaching the word of God. The Christian religion and Islam religion differ in many ways. Islam is the second largest religion in the world with 1.5 billion members, which is about 21 percent ( Muslims believe as do Christian Jesus is the son of Mary, but Muslims do not believe Jesus is God. Jesus is one of Gods prophets just as Mohammed. Christians believe Jesus is a Trinity, three people in one (Legenhausen M. Dr. 2007). Muslims must pray five times a day, in Christianity there is no set number of times a day to pray. Muslims govern themselves by the laws and believes of Allah; the 10 Commandments govern Christians. Both religions agree on some believes such as the importance of family, fair treatment for all and living their lives for the King (God or Allah). One of the biggest differences between Christians and Muslims is the education of the two religions among the members. Christians state that Jesus is the son of God, while others call Jesus God. Muslims state that if Jesus is the son of God then he is a prophet just like Mohammed not God. This is one reason Muslims believe Christians are living the life of lies and false hope. Christians believe Jesus is the only way to salvation, as Muslims believe Mohammed is the only way to salvation. The one thing both religions can agree on is that in order to get salvation members must follow the laws and believes of the Holy Spirit or the all mighty one God or Allah. Both agree that the prophets are the true messengers of God and the only way to get into heaven is to follow the laws and believes set forth to them by these prophets. Hinduism is the world’s oldest religion still practiced today. Hinduism believes in more than one God. In the Hindu faith, believe in continuing cycles of birth, life, death, and rebirth. The souls and spirit of every person is eternal in the eyes of Hindu followers. Kama, artha, Dharma, and Moksha are the main goals of life in Hinduism. Hinduism is different from Christianity by not being slotted into any central believe system (Das S., 2008). Hinduism is a way of life not believes of one individual. Members of the Hindu faith believe in truth, honesty, non-violence, and prayer. With the question of Christianity true or false and Mohammed being the last prophet, Hinduism could become the largest faith in the world. Hinduism strives from many different religions and faiths. Believes of Hinduism are the same as many other religions. Christians believe in being true to oneself, and Hindu followers believe that the actions of one will get them to heaven or the afterlife. Both faiths are different in so many ways but the same in other ways. In any religion there is going to be disagreements between them. The laws and rules one must follow will be different. The biggest thing all religions can agree upon is that their members live for the creator of land, water, humankind, and heaven. No matter what the religion one is born, lives life for the exceptional one, asks forgiveness of sins, and prepares for resurrection. Education will play a big part in the future to understanding religions of the world. When members become educated to the laws and believe of another religion, he, or she will see that most religions are very similar in origin. God wants his followers to be true to one ’s self and follow his, or her heart, treat others with respect. Many religions disobey this rule by telling members that other religions are not as superior as their religion. Believe and hope for a better life after death is the main goal of most religions. Older believes and practices changed in Christianity and so will the future. On ly time will tell if Christianity can survive the same believes and practices of the future followers. Research Papers on About ChristianityComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionGenetic EngineeringAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementQuebec and CanadaThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseMind TravelThe Hockey GameThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationPersonal Experience with Teen Pregnancy

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Write a report on the environmental activities Coursework

Write a report on the environmental activities - Coursework Example Corporations operating globally need to undertake various environmental activities in order to conserve the environment and provide a sustainable society. The environmental policies are prepared so as to promote these activities in the organization (Hirata Corporation, 2014). The main purpose of the report is to highlight the environmental activities that are undertaken by a European Carbon Intensive Industries Company, Arcelor Mittal. The report also investigates the level of disclosure that is provided by the company with respect to the specific environmental activities in the past 2 years. The level of disclosures is provided with the help of disclosure index, which includes General Environmental Activities and Specific Environmental Disclosure as per GRI indicators. The individual activities that are highlighted in the Appendix are detailed in the report along with the level of disclosure. The methodology indicates the process employed to elaborate the environmental activities and how the data are collected. The section, analysis of the results, depicts the comparative evaluation of data obtained in the last two years. The analysis is followed by a general discussion regarding the environmental activities that are undertaken by the companies. The general discussion is based on the activities that are disclosed by the selected company. This part of the report is prepared with the help of academic literature that are provided by different authors regarding the disclosed topic. The recommendations are provided based on the research and conclusion, which is a good source of information for further researches. The methodology includes the methods and principles that are employed in collecting information regarding the environmental activities of Arcelor Mittal (AM). The information pertaining to the different disclosures of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The films Rush Hour and Rush Hour 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The films Rush Hour and Rush Hour 2 - Essay Example Rush Hour – The Scene When Carter and Lee Meet for the First Time The first scene that will be examined will be the scene in Rush Hour, where Jackie Chan’s character, Chief Inspector Lee, is getting off the plane to meet Carter, played by Chris Tucker, for the very first time. The scene opens with an overhead shot of Carter sitting on the roof of a black car, with the words â€Å"Snake Boss 24† overlaid on the scene in large red letters. The scene then cuts to a medium shot of a plane that is coming in on the runway. Then, a medium shot of Carter, in a full length body shot, as he checks his watch. After this shot is a long shot of the same plane that was shown in the very first shot, but, this time, the plane is shot through a window pane, and the plane is seen down below. The words â€Å"is back with† is overlaid on the window pane, in red, in the same writing as â€Å"Snake Boss 24† as the plane coming in on a long shot on the other side of the window pane. These three shots are edited and cut so that they are very c lose together – the original shot of the plane, which was the medium shot, was about seven seconds long, the shot of Carter checking his watch was about three seconds long, and the long shot of the plane was also about seven seconds long. ... The next shot is a close up of Inspector Lee, as he looks around, with the words â€Å"Rush Hour† overlaid on that shot, then a medium shot of Lee as he descends the stairs. When he gets to the bottom of the stairs, the camera cuts immediately to Carter, in a medium shot, as he is walking towards Lee. The shot of Carter walking towards Lee is about three seconds long. The shot after the shot of Carter walking towards Lee, is another medium shot of Lee, who is looking towards Carter, then turns to a woman next to him and speaks Chinese. During this entire sequence, there is no speaking, until Lee greets the Chinese woman next to him – rather, there is music that sounds Chinese. The pacing of this sequence is extremely rapid, as there is cutting away to show different parts of the shot – the plane, Carter, the plane, Carter, and the plane. After Carter reaches Lee, the first dialogue is spoken in the scene, while a bass guitar plays in the background. When Carter f irst reaches Lee, he is shot from the back, then the camera immediately cuts to a close up of Carter’s face, and now Lee is being shot from the back. This shot alternates between a close up of Carter, as he is talking to Lee, thinking that Lee doesn’t speak English, and a close up of Lee’s face, which first looks perplexed, then he is smiling, then back to Carter close up, then back to Lee closeup, then a medium shot of both of them as Carter is turning towards the camera. The camera is of the two men in a medium shot, from the waist up, as Carter talks about how he can’t believe that he got stuck with this assignment. This shot, where Carter is facing the camera and talking to himself is the slowest shot of the sequence, as this shot is around 12 seconds long.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

History of H&M Essay Example for Free

History of HM Essay H M, (Hennes Mauritz AB) is a Swedish multinational retail-clothing company, known for its trendy fashion clothing for men, women, teenagers and children. It started out as a single womenswear store in 1947, and subsequently transformed to a global company offering fashion for the whole family, and their home. The business concept is to give the customer unbeatable value by offering fashion and quality at the best price. HM ensures the best price by having few middlemen, having a broad, in-depth knowledge of design, fashion, textiles, buying the right products from the right markets, and being cost-conscious at every stage. HM is driven by seven core values, namely; Keep it simple, Straight forward and open-minded, Constant improvement, Entrepreneurial spirit, Cost conscious, Team work, Belief in people. HM’s quality testing is extensive, coupled with hard work to make sure goods are produced with least possible environmental impact and under good working conditions. Production is outsourced to independent suppliers as HM does not own any factories. Apart from this, HM does not own any of its stores, as they rent store space from international and local landlords. HM is present in 43 countries and has employed about 94,000 people as of 2011. It has 2,325 stores at end of 2011 and 2,629 stores at end of August 2012. It is ranked the second largest global clothing retailer behind Zara and No. 1 user of organic cotton worldwide. Current Logistics process of HM HM does not own any factory, they have outsourced to external suppliers that managed two departments: Procurement and Production. The Procurement function focuses on customers, fashion and composition of the range. The clothing designs are created in Sweden by around 100 internal designers, 50 pattern designers and an estimated 100 buyers. HM’s method of production is customer-driven. The company puts emphasis into research and forecasting of emerging trends, both through traditional research methods and innovative ones such as street trends. This activity is conducted by central staff and national offices which are responsible for detecting new trends. The production function involves 21 production offices. HM purchases garments from about 750 suppliers, in which 60% of production takes place in Asia and the rest mainly in Europe. The production offices have a mediating function between the internal buying department and external suppliers. They ensure that the buyers’ orders are sent to the right supplier, the goods produced are of the correct price and quality and that the suppliers adhere to the company’s code of conduct. Additionally, production offices also deal with the checking and testing of sample garments, which contributes to reducing lead times. The decision of determining which supplier is the right one is not only a matter of cost-efficiency but is dependent on other factors such as transport times, import quotas and quality control aspects. To reduce risk, buying is carried out on an ongoing basis throughout the year. Continuous IT developments over the years have helped to support HM logistics. While the inventory management is primarily handled within the HM organisation, transport is outsourced to third parties. In terms of distribution, HM adopts sea transportation where their finished products are shipped to a distribution centre in Germany, which will serve as a transit terminal. The transit terminal will be en-routed to receive the goods from all the suppliers across the world. Upon arrival at the designated location, goods are inspected and allocated either in a store or in the centralised warehouse. The role of the warehouse is to hold and replenish inventory levels in stores according to selling trends.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Technical Report on Internet of Things

Technical Report on Internet of Things Abstract: Internet of things is changing our world. It is a massive global network that allows people to communicate with each other. Nowadays, Internet of things are using in every field whether it is communication or transportation. Key words: Transportation, Internet of things, Technology, Transmission. TECHNICAL REPORT ON INTERNET OF THINGS   Ã‚   The Internet of Things is a computing concept that describes a future where everyday physical objects will be connected to the internet and be able to identify themselves to other devices. This term refers to devices that collect and transmit data via internet. Nowadays, the internet of things is changing our world this vast rapidly growing network of devices enable us to since our world far beyond the walls of the businesses interconnecting things coming together at scale in real-time build a high resolution awareness of whats happening all around us to what should be happening but it applying smart analytics to this flood of big data creates fresh insights that can help enable new ways of working, sharing information and interacting with the world. Whereas transportation, Accidents are increasing in the world. Around 1, 37,000 people were killed in road accidents thats more than people killed in all wars together. There are various reasons ranging from bad road conditions, over speeding, Poor Street lighting to road rage, drunken driving, improper road designs and few others. People are scared to go out on the road because people are abusing traffic signals, autos driving in the wrong direction, people cutting lanes and lane cutting resulting in very dangerous driving scenario. How different technology help to reduce the accident rates or slightly help better manage emergencies during accidents. Smart Helmet Smart Helmet for bikers even if motorcycle and bicycle it is crucial to wear a helmet and safeguard against head injuries. Smarter helmet also communicates with the other drivers and vehicles. For instance, Helmet having LED lights on it that are connected with the bike handle through Bluetooth and when light turn RED that means breaks are applied on bicycle. When LED on the left or right side of the helmet blinks that means the bicycle making left or right turn. Moreover, we also put a little GPS connection between the smart phone and the helmet which can allow biker to direction on the road. Most essential helmet is connected to smart phone and in case of a accident, which sensor connected on helmet can sense easily, sends a message to relative or family members configured inside the phone app. Global Positioning System The GPS is a design of approximately 30 satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to place their geographic location. The GPS is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense but is available for general use around the world. 21 GPS satellites and three satellites are in orbit at 10,600 miles over the Earth. Each satellite contains a computer, an atomic clock, and a radio. On the ground, any GPS receiver contains a computer that triangulates its own particular position by getting headings from three of the four satellites. If the receiver is also equipped with a show screen that shows a map, the position can be appeared on the map. If you are moving, your receiver may as well be able to calculate your speed and direction of travel and give you evaluated times of entry to specified destination. The GPS is being used as a part of science to provide information that has never been available before in the amount and degree of accuracy that the GPS makes possible. Scientists are using the GPS to measure the movement of the arctic ice sheets, the Earths tectonic plates, and volcanic movement. (techtarget) Types The GPS L1 band (1575.42 MHz) has turned to be the most essential band for navigation purposes. (navipedia) GPS is transmitting in the L2 band (1227.60 MHz) a remake civil signal known as L2C together with the P(Y) Code and the M-Code. (navipedia) The GPS L5 (1176.45 MHz) signal will be transfer for the first time on board IIF satellites. (navipedia) Connected Cars Connected Highways Nowadays, everyone talks about the connected cars, as per some research, near about 70% of cars coming in the market from Jan 2018 onward. Once your vehicle is connected to the internet and with you through a mobile app, there can be plethora of information exchange from two ways, which helps in control the road accidents. Deutsche Telekom Connected Car concept(Deutsche Telekom Connected Car concept) Just think once how the connected cars and connected highways help to secure or minimize accidents. As the heavy fog in the winter, recently on the express highways between Delhi Agra, 50 cars banged into everyone. A highway and car joined with each other could have felt the accident. Firstly, two cars crashed with each other and instantly informed through a central server to every vehicles on the highway about what is the actual accident location. This is due to RFID chip (Radio frequency identification) which is read by RFID reader at the toll gate. It is the system who knows which car is enter on the highway and add them to the warning database, when the car leaves the highway from an exit, then a reader remove it from the system. One more feature is Auto lock built in the car which avoid over speeding In which if speed goes over 100 KM on a 70 KM lane, the car will steadily slow down the first time, if it do the same again then it will send a warning message to the driver the second time and third time if its happen then result is a car being locked down and will sent a message to the closest patrolling station or cops to control the situation manually. (linkedin) Conclusion All of the above, we can see that nowadays, the internet of things is changing our world. It is the vast rapidly growing network of devices. It helps us in many ways in transportation and others. Ratio of accidents is decreased due to Internet of Things. Moreover, cars are connected with internet so its easy to go anywhere just set your destination in GPS it will show you the way. At last, Internet of Things makes our life easily and safely as well. ACKNOWLEGDEMENT With utmost sincerity, we would like to convey our thankfulness to Deutsche Telecom for giving me the opportunity to do the research on Connected Cars Concept. We would also take the privilege to express deep sense of gratitude to Margaret Rouse for giving us a brief knowledge about the GPS from Tech Target and encouraging us towards the technology. We would express our sincere gratitude towards all the teachers and faculty guides for sharing their exceptional knowledge in the domain of Internet of Things, along with the members, who facilitated this learning opportunity for us. Our sincere thank to Gautham Sambaraju for their valuable guidance and direction in successful completion of the report. Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to express our deepest gratitude to all those who have directly or indirectly contributed in the completion of this report. References Deutsche Telekom Connected Car concept. (n.d.). connected cars. Retrieved from slide share: linkedin. (n.d.). Iot managung road accident. Retrieved from linkedin: navipedia. (n.d.). navipedia. Retrieved from navipedia: navipedia. (n.d.). navipedia. Retrieved from navipedia: navipedia. (n.d.). navipedia. Retrieved from navipedia: techtarget. (n.d.). techtarget. Retrieved from techtarget:

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

A Princess Life along the Silk Road

Susan Whitfield’s semi-fictionalized stories of about 10 selected people who once lived along the Silk Road gives us a clearer picture on how does the culture goes during its golden days of trading. China protected these ancient interconnected trade routes through all means. Such physical evidence of this protection they gave was the building of its Great Walls that then disallows intrusion of bandits within China’s proclaimed boundaries. This made the half part of the merchant’s journey half-safe.So as to ensure that their commodities would reach their final destination, China made pacts to their neighbor states who could give them military assistance. To strengthen these pacts, beside of the China’s promise to pay their purchases with silk, its ruler’s gave some of their royal princesses as a tribute to the neighbor states majesty. Looking ahead†¦ A Princess Life along the Silk Road Susan Whitfield’s Life along the Silk Road, a semi-fi ctionalized story of 10 selected people who once lived along the Silk Road gives us a clearer picture on how does the culture goes during its golden days of trading.China protected these ancient interconnected trade routes through all means. Such physical evidence of this protection they gave was the building of its Great Walls that then disallows intrusion of bandits within China’s proclaimed boundaries. This made the half part of the merchant’s journey half-safe. So as to ensure that their commodities would reach their final destination, China made pacts to their neighbor states who could give them military assistance. To strengthen these pacts, beside of the China’s promise to pay their purchases with silk, its ruler’s gave some of their royal princesses as a tribute to the neighbor states’ majesty.Basing on surviving scripts about some historical personages of China, Whitfield had retold the princesses’ experiences through Taihe and her Princess Tale. The journey of Taihe, an imperial princess started in the autumn of 821. Taihe was the sister of the Tang emperor by that time and daughter of its predecessor. Taihe needed to travel westward to meet and be wed with the Kaghan of the Uighur. Taihe was the fourth princess that been sent to their so-called â€Å"land of the nomads†. Taihe could not refuse since it became a tradition to their empire to send a â€Å"tribute† to the Kaghan or emperor of the Uighur.She was not the original princess to be sent by that time, but due to the unexpected death of the former Kaghan, her elder sister Princess Yong’an had escaped her turn and rather made a decision to become a Daoist priestess. To honor the original agreement, Taihe replaced her to marry the next Kaghan. Though Taihe had never left her country before, she was denoted as very familiar with the many influence brought by neighbor states like of Uighur. She was a good horsewoman like any other palac e ladies and she uses this skill in her playing of polo, an import from the western origin. On her journey, she was riding a Bactrian camel.Female attendants of Taihe during their journey rode with Ferghana horses which are said to have mythical strength. These horses are few, that is why China still has to import cavalry ponies from Uighur. That is why Taihe was made as a tribute. During the journey, Taihe uses personal ornaments like her jade pins from Khotan, and decorations made of tortoiseshell from Vietnam and lapis lazuli from Badakhstan. She has her Buddhist rosary beads made of amber, probably coming either from the Baltic or northern Burma. She carried perfumes and breath freshener, many originating in India.She was fond of playing the Kuchean music which she could continue to enjoy in Kaghan’s palace. By her time in China, western music was extremely popular and its tunes were adapted with Chinese lyrics. Before her journey, she was also thought with the whirling d ance, which is usually performed by Sogdian girls. Though all of this are only influences, and she is very much unaware of how would be her life with the Uighurs, as she remembered the words by a Chinese princess sent to the west as a bride eight hundred years ago, â€Å"My family married me to a lost horizon†¦ I wish I were a brown goose and could fly back home.† As she continued her journey throughout the dessert, she could do nothing but to be dressed and be brought with food by her attendants. When they managed to passed an oasis they could then recharged their supplies that made their journey faster. At each known camp wherein they could build their tent, princess Taihe could then take a rest. After that they would again proceed with their travel but sometimes they were hampered by bad weather along the road. The lunar new year is approaching when then had reached the borders of the capital of the Uighur, Karabalghasun near the left bank of the Orkhon river.It was d eep winter by that time but it was more of warmth because of the glamorous welcome of the Uighurs to the princess. She was offered with wines, tea, and fruits served more delicate than in the Chinese court. But she noticed that the silverware used is only an imitation from those coming from Persia. But all in all, there were only few flaws and more of extravagance brought by the luxuries of the Uighur. She was first taught with Uighur traditions by the sent Uighur princesses. And then the journey delegation of Chinese ministers selected a suitable day of her wedding with the Kaghan.She had first her Chinese dress influenced with a Turkic fashion at the beginning. As of the Chinese tradition, her hair was elaborately styled and the toes of her red embroidered slippers were curled up so that it could be seen peeping out below the robe. But she was requested to wear Uighur clothes in the ceremony. At the first part of the ceremony, she wore an ordinary Uighur dress and bow to the Kagha n at his tent. After that, she changed clothes with a Uighur exquisite dress, though it had many features contrast to the Chinese tradition. Then the ceremony proceeded as she and the Kaghan presented themselves with the Manichean clergy.Finally, they had been legalized as husband and wife and princess Taihe was then entitled to be the khatun, queen of the Uighur. She did not only symbolize the alliance of China and the Uighur, her khatun position gave her a power in the Uighur court. But she felt mad when Tanim ibn Bahr, an envoy sent by the leader of the Arab forces in Transoxania had failed to mention her when his husband let him stop over in Uighur. Many other things then had happened after years had passed but it all ended with Taihe’s going back to China when the Uighur had a civil war.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Assess the view that ethnic differences Essay

?An Ethnic minority background increases your chances of arrest and conviction, some people argue that police racism in itself results in higher suspicion against black people in general. According to official statistics there are significant ethnic differences in the likelihood of being involved in the criminal justice system. Black and Asians are overrepresented in the system. For example black people make up 2. 8% of the population, but 11% of the prison population. Contrastingly whites are underrepresented. However such statistics do not tell us whether members of one ethnic group are more likely than members of another ethnic group to commit an offence in the first place; they just tell us about involvement in the criminal justice system. For example differences in stop and search or arrest rates may be due to police racism, while differences in rates of imprisonment may be the result of courts handing down harsher sentences on minorities. There are other sources of statistics to reveal link of ethnicity and offending. Victim surveys ask individuals to say what crimes they have been victims of. We can get information on ethnicity and offending from surveys when we ask what ethnicity of the person who committed the crime against them. For example in the case of mugging blacks are overly represented among those indentified by victims as offenders. Victim surveys show much crime is intra-ethnic; it takes place within rather than between ethnic groups. For example the British crime survey (2007) found 90% of where the victim was white; at least one of the offenders was also white. However while victim surveys are useful in identifying ethnic patterns of offending, they have several limitations. They rely on a victim’s memory of events. Ben Bowling and Coretta Phillips (2002) found whites may over identify blacks, saying the offender was black even when not sure. They only cover personal crimes, which make up 20% of all crimes. They exclude under 16s; minority ethnic groups contain a higher proportion of young people. They exclude crimes by big business; thus tell us nothing of ethnicity of white collar criminals. Thus victim surveys only tell us about the ethnicity of a small proportion of offenders, which may not be representative of offenders in general. Self report studies ask individuals to disclose their own dishonest and violent behaviour. Graham and Bowling (1995) found that blacks and whites had similar rates of offending, while Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis had lower rates. Similarly Sharp and Budd (2005) note that the 2003 offending, crime and justice survey of 12,000 people found whites and mixed ethnic origin groups were more likely than blacks and Asians to say they had committed offences. The Home Office have conducted nine self report studies on drugs since the early 1990s, all with similar findings. Sharp and Budd (2005) found 27% of mixed ethnicity individuals said they had used drugs in the last year, compared to 16% of blacks and whites, and 5% of Asians. Use of class a drugs, such as heroin or cocaine was 3 times higher among whites than blacks and Asians. The findings of self report studies challenge stereotypes of blacks more likely than whites to offend, though they support the widely held view Asians are less likely to offend, however self report studies have their limitations in relation to ethnicity and offending. Overall the evidence of ethnicity and offending is inconsistent. For example while official statistics and victim surveys point to the likelihood of higher rates of offending by blacks; this is generally not the results of self report studies. There are ethnic differences at each stage of the criminal justice process. To explain them we need to look at main stages of the process that an individual may go through, possibly culminating in a custodial sentence. Phillips and Bowling (2007) argue since the 70s there have been many allegations of oppressive policing of minorities, including stop and search, deaths in custody, police violence and failure to respond effectively to racist violence. Minorities are more likely to be stopped and searched by police. Statistics show Asians were three times more likely to be searched under this act. Its thus unsurprising minorities are less likely to think police acted politely when stopped, or think they were stopped fairly. Phillips and Bowling (2007) argue these communities feel over policed and over protected and have limited faith in the police. There are three possible reasons for the disproportionate use of stop and search against minorities. Police racism; the Macpherson Report (1999) on the police investigation of the racist murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence concluded there was institutional racism in the Metropolitan police. Other have found deeply ingrained racist attitudes among individual officers. For example Phillips and Bowling point out that many officers hold negative stereotypes about ethnic minorities as criminals, leading to deliberate targeting for stop and search. Such stereotypes are endorsed and upheld by the canteen culture of rank and file officers. Ethnic differences in offending; an alternative explanation is that the disproportionality in stop and searches simply reflects ethnic differences in levels of offending. However it’s useful to distinguish between low discretion and high discretion stops. In low discretion stops police act on relevant information about a specific offence, for example a victim’s description of the offender. In high discretion stops police act without specific intelligence. It is in these stops police can use stereotypes that disproportionality and discrimination are more likely. Demographic factors; ethnic minorities are over represented in the population groups who are most likely to be stopped such as the young, the unemployed, manual workers and urban dwellers. These groups are all more likely to be stopped, regardless of their ethnicity, but they are also groups who have a higher proportion of ethnic minorities in them, so minorities get stopped more. Figures in England and Wales show that in 2006/07, the arrest rates for blacks was 3. 6 times higher than for whites. Contrastingly once arrested blacks and Asians were less likely to receive a police caution. One reason for this may be more likely to deny the offence and likely to exercise their right to legal advice. However not admitting the offence means they cannot be let off with a caution and are more likely to be charged instead. The crown prosecution service is the body responsible for deciding whether a case brought by the police should be prosecuted in court. In doing so CPS must decide whether there is a realistic prospect of conviction and whether the prosecution is in the public’s interest. Studies suggest the CPS is more likely to drop cases against minorities. Bowling and Phillips (2002) argue this may be because the evidence presented to the CPS by the police is often weaker and based on stereotyping of ethnic minorities as criminals. When cases do go ahead minorities are more likely to elect trial before a jury in the Crown Court rather than the magistrates court, perhaps due to mistrust of magistrates impartiality. However crown courts can impose more severe sentences if convicted. Thus is interesting to note minorities are less likely to be found guilty. This suggests discrimination, in that the police and CPS may be bringing weaker or less serious cases against ethnic minorities that are thrown out by the courts. In 2006/7 custodial sentences were given to a greater proportion of black offenders (68%) than white (55%) or Asian offenders (59%), whereas whites and Asians were more likely than blacks to receive community sentences. This may be due to differences in seriousness of the offences or defendants previous convictions. However a study of 5 crown courts by roger Hood (1992) found even when such factors were taken into account, black men were 5% more likely to receive a custodial sentence, and were given sentences of an average of 3 months longer than whites. Another reason for harsher sentences id pre sentence reports (PRs) written by probation officers. A PRs is intended as a risk assessment to assist magistrates in deciding on the appropriate sentence for a given offender. However Hudson and Bramhall (2005) argue that PRs allow for unwitting discrimination. They found reports on Asian offenders were less comprehensive and suggested that they were less remorseful than white offenders. They place this bias in the context of demonising Muslims in the wake of 9/11 attacks. In 2007, one quarter of the male prison population was minorities. Blacks were five times more likely to be in prison than whites. Black and Asians were more likely to be serving longer sentences. Within the total prison population all minorities had a higher than average proportion of prisoners on remand. This is because minorities are less likely to be granted bail whilst awaiting trial. There are similar patterns in other countries, for example in USA two fifths of prison population is black. There was large scale migration from the Caribbean and Indian subcontinent in the 50s, at this time it was agreed minorities had lower crime rates. However by the 70s there was conflict between blacks and the police meaning â€Å"black criminality† became more of a problem. Contrastingly by the 90s Asian crime also became viewed as a problem. Events e. g. 9/11 cemented the idea that Asians were a threat to public order. There are two main explanations for ethnic differences in crime; left realism and neo-Marxism. Left realists Lea and Young (1993) argue ethnic differences in statistics reflect real differences in the levels of offending by different ethnic groups. Left realists see crime the product of relative deprivation, subculture and marginalisation. They argue racism had led to economic exclusion of ethnic minorities who face higher unemployment, poverty and poor housing. At the same time the Medias emphasis on consumerism promotes a sense of relative deprivation by setting materialistic goals that many minorities are unable to reach by legitimate means. One response is formation of delinquent subcultures, especially by young unemployed blacks. It produces higher utilitarian crime to cope with relative deprivation. Furthermore as these groups are marginalised and have no groups to represent their interests their frustration is liable to produce non utilitarian crime such as rioting. Lea and Young acknowledge police often act in racist ways and results in unjustified criminalisation of some members of minorities. However they don’t believe discriminatory policing fully explains the statistics. For example over 90% of crimes known to the police are reported by the public rather than discovered themselves. Under these circumstances even if police act discriminatory it’s unlikely it can account for ethnic differences in statistics. Similarly Lea and Young argue we cannot explain differences in minorities in terms of police racism. For example blacks are more criminalised than Asians. The police would have to be selective in their racism for racism to cause these differences. Lea and Young thus conclude that the statistics represent real differences in levels of offending between ethnic groups and these are caused by real differences in levels of relative deprivation and marginalisation. However Lea and Young can be criticised for their views on the role of police racism. For example arrest rates may be lower for Asians because police stereotype them differently. Stereotypes may have changed since 9/11, explaining rising criminalisation of this group. While left realists see official statistics reflecting real differences in offending between ethnic groups, other sociologists have argued differences in statistics do not reflect reality. These differences are the outcome of a process of social construction that stereotypes ethnic minorities as inherently more criminal than the majority of the population. The work of neo Marxists Paul Gilroy (1982) and Stuart Hall (1979) illustrates this view. Gilroy argues the idea of black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes of African Caribbean’s and Asians. In reality these groups are no more criminal than any other. However as a result of the police and criminal justice system acting on these racist stereotypes, ethnic minorities came to be criminalised and thus to appear in greater numbers in official statistics. Gilroy argues ethnic minority crime can be seen as a form of political resistance against a racist society, and this struggle has roots in earlier struggle against British imperialism. Gilroy holds a similar view to that of critical criminology which argues working class crime is a political act against capitalism. Most blacks and Asians in the UK originated from former colonies where their anti imperialist struggles taught them how to resist oppression, for example through riots and demonstrations. When they found themselves facing racism in Britain they adopted the same form of struggles to defend themselves, but their political struggle was criminalised by the British state. However Lea, Young and Gilroy are criticised on several grounds. First generation immigrants were very law abiding, so it’s unlikely they passed their anti colonialist struggle onto their children. Most crime is interethnic, criminals and victims usually have similar ethnic backgrounds, so it can’t be seen as anti colonial struggle against racism. Lea and Young argue Gilroy romanticises street crime as revolutionary. Asian crime rates are similar to or lower than whites. If Gilroy were right then the police are only racist towards black and not Asians, which seems unlikely. Stuart Hall et al adopt a neo Marxist perspective. They argue the 70s saw a moral panic over black muggers that served the interests of capitalism. Hall et all argues the ruling class can normally rule the subordinate classes through consent. However in times of crisis this becomes more difficult. In the early 70s British capitalism faced a crisis. High inflation and rising unemployment provoked widespread industrial unrest and strikes. When opposition to capitalism was growing the ruling class may need to use force to keep control. However the use of force needs to be legitimated or provoke more resistance. The 70s also saw a media driven panic of the growth of mugging. In reality mugging was a new name for street robbery and Hall et al suggest there was no significant increase of this crime at the time. Mugging was soon to be associated by the media, police and politicians with black youth. Hall et al argues that the emergence of the moral panic about mugging as a specifically black crime at the same time as crisis of capitalism was no coincidence; the moral panic and crisis were linked. The myth of the black mugger served as a scapegoat to distract attention from the true cause of problems of unemployment, namely the crisis of capitalism. The black mugger symbolised disintegration of social order. By presenting black youth as a threat to the fabric of society the moral panic served to divide the working class on racial grounds and weaken opposition to capitalism as well as winning popular consent to authoritarian forms of rule to suppress opposition. However Hall et al do not argue that black crime was solely a product of media and police labelling. The crisis of capitalism was increasingly marginalising black youth through unemployment and drove them to a lifestyle of hustling and petty crime to survive. However Hall et al have been criticised on several grounds. Downes and Rock (2003) argue that Hall et al are inconsistent in claiming that black street crime was not rising, but also that it was rising because of unemployment. They do not show how a capitalist crisis led to a moral panic, nor do they provide evidence that the public were in fact panicking or blaming crime on blacks. Left realists argue inner city residents fears about mugging are not panicky but realistic. Until recently the focus of the ethnicity and crime debate was largely about the over representation of blacks in the criminal justice system. However recently sociologists have studied racist victimisation of ethnic minorities. Racist victimisation occurs when an individual is selected as a target because of their race, gender or religion. Racist victimisation is nothing new, but brought into public view with the racist murder of Stephen Lawrence in 1993 and the subsequent Macpherson inquiry into the police investigation. Information of victimisation comes from two main sources; the British crime survey and police recorded statistics. These generally cover racist incidents, any incident perceived to be racist by the victim or another person. They also cover racially or religiously aggravated offences where the offender is motivated by hostility towards members of a racial or religious group. The police recorded 60,000 racist incidents in England and Wales in 2006/7, mostly damage to property and verbal harassment. However most incidents go unreported; the British crime survey estimates there were 184,000 racially motivated incidents in 2006/7. The police recorded 42,600 racially or religiously aggravated offences on 06/7, mostly harassment. 10,600 people were prosecuted or cautioned for racially aggravated offences in 2006. The risk of being a victim of any sort of crime varies by ethnic group. The 2006/7 British crime survey shows people of mixed ethnic background had a higher risk of becoming a victim of crime than blacks, Asians or whites. The differences may be partly the result of factors other than ethnicity. For example for violent crime factors such as being young, male and unemployed are strongly linked to victimisation. Ethnic groups with a high proportion of young males are thus likely to have higher rates of victimisation. However some of these factors such as unemployment are themselves partly due to discrimination while the statistics record the instances of victimisation they don’t capture the victim’s experience of it. As Sampson and Phillips (1992) note racist victimisation tends to be over time with repeated minor instances of abuse with periodic physical violence. The resulting long term psychological impact needs to be added to the physical injury and damage to property caused by offenders. Members of minority ethnic communities have often been active in responding to victimisation. Responses range from situational crime prevention measures such as fireproof doors to organised self defence campaigns. Such responses need to be understood in the context of accusations of under protection by the police who often ignore the racist dimension in victimisation and fail to investigate incidents properly. For example the Macpherson enquiry (1999) concluded the police investigation into the death of black teenager Stephen Lawrence was marred by incompetence, institutional racism and failure of leadership by senior officers. Others have found deeply ingrained racist attitudes among individual officers.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Eastern State Penitentiary Field Visit Essays - Free Essays

Eastern State Penitentiary Field Visit Essays - Free Essays Alexandra Swim LEN 101 Eastern State Penitentiary Field Visit On this day of Saturday, November 16th, we know weve arrived at the right place at this medieval castle seems very out of place. Our tour guide meets us right outside of the front gate and proceeds to tell us that when Eastern State Penitentiary was opened two miles outside downtown Philadelphia in 1829, it was built as a gothic fortress to deter crime. Architect John Haviland said of the building, it should strike fear into the hearts of those who thought of committing a crime. Before entering the prison, we learn the brief history of the beginning of Eastern State. In 1787, a group of powerful Philadelphians gathered with Ben Franklin. The members of The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons was formed, and spoke to see the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania build a revolutionary new prison designed to create genuine regret and penitence in a prisoners heart on farmland outside Philadelphia. Eastern abandoned corporal punishment and ill treatment, adopting a system of spiritual reflection and change while being punished. Inmates were hooded whenever outside of their cells to prevent any distraction, interaction, or knowledge of the prison. They were to focus only on thought of their behavior and the ugliness of their crimes. This made Eastern State Penitentiary the most famous prison in the world. The first stop we make as we walk into the prison is the front tower. This is where multiple guards were at all times to watch over the whole prison. From here, you can get a birds eye view of the whole 11-acre prison complex. The front tower housed the alarm bell and the only clock visible to prisoners when they were outside in their private exercise yards. Down from this main tower and to the left, we traveled up another set of tight stairs in the West Tower to a door under lock and key: the administration building office, also known as the Wardens office. Between 1872 and 1885, the Warden had his office relocated to the main prison building between cell blocks 1 and 9. However, because of security concerns with the prisoners, the office had to be relocated back to the West Tower in the administration office building in 1923, where it stayed until the Penitentiarys closing in 1970. Still untouched in the office lies the remains of many filing cabinets strewn around that once held t he files of each of Easterns prisoners. We have now finished our introduction to the penitentiary with the main gate, which means we are ready to move to the main prison building. As we leave the gate building, Havilands masterpiece is before us. Eastern was initially built to house 250 of the harshest criminals; the job was to create blocks where prisoners could be kept completely isolated from each other in surroundings not injurious to their health but secure from escape and easily accessible to constant inspection by guards. To carry out this revolutionary task in prison reform, Haviland chose to build Eastern State Penitentiary as a radial layout, with a central hub with seven wings converging on it and connecting to the center building by covered passageways. The center building served as an inspection hall for vantage point guards to view all corridors of the prison. The first three wings built were single story, each containing about forty cells each. Entry to these cells was not through the corridor, but through t he private exercise yard connected to each cell. The remaining four cell blocks were two stories in height. Access to the cells was through double doors opening into the corridors. Each cell contained a toilet, water tap, a bunk on chains, and equipment for the prisoners work activities. The only light came from an 8-inch window in the ceiling. Eastern State Penitentiary had become the tangible symbol for the emerging system of solitary confinement through Havilands design. The first stop we make in the main building of the penitentiary is the rotunda. This is the physical and symbolic center of the prison. Designed for maximum surveillance into all corridors, the idea was copied in hundreds of prisons throughout the 19th century, and provided a very powerful

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Process Essay Topics

Process Essay Topics Selecting a Topic for a Process Analysis Essay Writing a process analysis essay demands consummate skills. It is necessary to use an analytical approach in order to produce a top-notch work. When preparing such a paper, it is very important to present reliable data. The point is that your piece of writing has to be based on accurate facts and not your personal opinion. At the same time, your work should be interesting and capture readers’ attention. That is why you need to pick a superior topic for your essay. Do your best to explore the subject in detail. Below, you will find valuable ideas for doing your academic writing project. Simple Paper Subjects The list given below provides easy topics for preparing works. In order to understand how to write a process analysis essay properly, it is necessary to choose an appropriate subject. However, it can be not as easy as it seems. Consider the following: Describe how to use a search engine. Explain how bad habits are developed. How to take care about pets? Steps to making a cup of coffee. It should be admitted that it is a great topic for those who just start writing process essays. How to choose a delightful book? Basic rules of driving. Explain how to teach a toddler to use a toilet. An efficient way of making an ice-cream. Preventing a fire. How to conduct an interview successfully? Talk about moving from one place to another. Explain how to take care about contact lens. Describe the process of training a dog. The best way to remove stress. Logical steps to knitting a sweater. Fundamental rules of playing chess. Analyze the process of making bread. Choosing a computer. What to pay attention for? How to stop smoking? Explain how to wash silk shirts. Clear direction on training police dogs. How to fly a kite? What is a process analysis essay? Provide detailed instruction on writing it. How to stop suffering from jet lag? Being a great writer. Describe the process of changing a car tire. How to amuse guests. Analyze the procedure of making soap. What is a landscape design? How to look fashionable without spending large sum of money? Making a PowerPoint presentation. Describe the procedure of making superior photos using Photoshop. Key steps to creating origami. How to change motor engine oil? How to use Google Maps? Explain how to find a leading magazine publisher. Describe the way of designing gardens. Where to get creative ideas for producing academic works? Explain how to play a cricket. Complicated Topics Papers written on complex subjects are focused on examining scientific processes. In order to write a work of superior quality, a writer should understand the matter completely. Here are some interesting process essay ideas: What is a Global Positioning System? How to overcome economic difficulties? Making a detailed analysis of handwriting. How to deal with insomnia? The process of minting coins. How does a blender work? Repairing watches. The ways of overcoming addiction. Athletes’ training. By the way, you can always turn to to get useful tips for writing exclusive process analysis essays. Selecting a university. How to build a telescope. Describe environmental-friendly tendencies. Basic rules of packing a parachute. Making wonderful photographs. How to create web design? How to use a CD player? Repairing a small engine. Providing the first aid. Living in the forest with a small amount of water and food. Explain the process of riding a bike. Fascinating Essay Topics It is understandable that subjects differ from each other. Some of them are considered interesting, others – boring. Below, we have created a list of fantastic process essay topics for college. Every student would like to prepare a paper on one of them. How to make a cake? Steps to cutting hair. Washing a parrot. Developing self-confidence. Making chocolate pudding. Getting ready for vacation. Provide clear guidelines to writing a process analysis essay? How to create a Facebook account? You can find the first part of process analysis essay topics.