Wednesday, October 30, 2019


LITERARY ANALYSIS OF THE TELL-TALE HEART OF EDGAR ELLEN POE - Essay Example In the very start of the story, the narrator accepts that he has grown nervous and oversensitive to the environment around him. He considers it a disease but is happy that it has made his senses more responsive. He says, â€Å"Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth† (Poe). The narrator explains that his hearing is too much sharp. He uses elaborative remarks to express the sharpness of his hearing. He further informs that this proves that he is not mad. However, being sharp in hearing does not prove him to be not mad as there is no association between being mad or excellent hearing power. He is not mad, but he has some kind of psyche issue, which encourages him to kill an innocent person. He is disturbed by the stare of the old man and starts considering himself in danger due to which, he decides to eradicate this threat (Ki 30). He regards himself witty but he is bothered by the staring eye of the old man. He considers him s trong because of his eye. He narrates the whole story as to how he visits the old man at midnight and moves so slowly and cautiously that he makes no noise at all. However, he continuously monitors the sleeping routine of the old man but every time, he gets disappointed and is unable to attack because he is unable to see the old man’s eye opened (Ki 31). Eighth day when he was judging the old man sleeping, he made a slight noise unintentionally that made the old man frightened. He was unable to sleep again. The narrator enjoyed the threat felt by the old man and acted as a wild beast waiting for the victim to be fully terrorized. The old man was aware of his coming death, which intimidated him. The narrator took a long time analyzing the old man’s situation. He only allowed a minute beam of lamp light directed towards the old man’s eye. During his noticing the old man’s eye, he started hearing intense heart beat and according to

Monday, October 28, 2019

Export Finance in India Essay Example for Free

Export Finance in India Essay Credit and finance is the life and blood of any business whether domestic or international. It is more important in the case of export transactions due to the prevalence of novel non-price competitive techniques encountered by exporters in various nations to enlarge their share of world markets. The selling techniques are no longer confined to mere quality; price or delivery schedules of the products but are extended to payment terms offered by exporters. Liberal payment terms usually score over the competitors not only of capital equipment but also of consumer goods. The payment terms however depend upon the availability of finance to exporters in relation to its quantum, cost and the period at pre-shipment and post-shipment stage. Production and manufacturing for substantial supplies for exports take time, in case finance is not available to exporter for production. They will not be in a position to book large export order if they don’t have sufficient financial funds. Even merchandise exporters require finance for obtaining products from their suppliers. This term paper is an attempt to throw light on the various sources of export finance available to exporters, the schemes implemented by ECGC and EXIM for export promotion and the recent developments in this field. Concept of Export Finance: The exporter may require short term, medium term or long term finance depending upon the types of goods to be exported and the terms of statement offered to overseas buyer. The short-term finance is required to meet â€Å"working capital† needs. The working capital is used to meet regular and recurring needs of a business firm like purchase of raw material, payment of wages and salaries, expenses like payment of rent, advertising etc. The exporter may also require â€Å"term finance† for medium and long term financial needs such as purchase of fixed assets and long term working capital. Export finance is short-term working capital finance allowed to an exporter. Finance and credit are available not only to help export production but also to sell to overseas customers on credit. Objectives of Export Finance: †¢ To cover commercial Non-commercial or political risks attendant on granting credit to a foreign buyer. †¢ To cover natural risks like an earthquake, floods etc. An exporter may avail financial assistance from any bank, which considers the ensuing factors: a) Availability of the funds at the required time to the exporter. b) Affordability of the cost of funds. Appraisal: Appraisal means an approval of an export credit proposal of an exporter. While appraising an export credit proposal as a commercial banker, obligation to the following institutions or regulations needs to be adhered to. Obligations to the RBI under the Exchange Control Regulations are: †¢ Appraise to be the bank’s customer. †¢ Appraise should have the Exim code number allotted by the Director General of Foreign Trade. †¢ Party’s name should not appear under the caution list of the RBI. Obligations to the Trade Control Authority under the EXIM policy are: †¢ Appraise should have IEC number allotted by the DGFT. †¢ Goods must be freely exportable i.e. not falling under the negative list. If it falls under the negative list, then a valid license should be there which allows the goods to be exported. †¢ Country with whom the Appraise wants to trade should not be under trade barrier. Obligations to ECGC are: †¢ Verification that Appraise is not under the Specific Approval list (SAL). †¢ Sanction of Packing Credit Advances. Guidelines for banks dealing in Export Finance: When a commercial bank deals in export finance it is bound by the ensuing guidelines: a) Exchange control regulations. b) Trade control regulations. c) Reserve Bank’s directives issued through IECD. d) Export Credit Guarantee Corporation guidelines. e) Guidelines of Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India. Export-import bank of India (EXIM Bank) The Export-import bank of India (EXIM Bank) was set up in January 1982 as a statutory corporation wholly owned by central government. It is managed by the Board of Directors with repatriation from Government, financial institutions, banks and business community. The main objective of Export-Import Bank (EXIM Bank) is to provide financial assistance to promote the export production in India. The financial assistance provided by the EXIM Bank widely includes the following: †¢ Direct financial assistance †¢ Foreign investment finance †¢ Term loaning options for export production and export development †¢ Pre-shipping credit †¢ Buyer’s credit †¢ Lines of credit †¢ Re-loaning facility †¢ Export bills rediscounting †¢ Refinance to commercial banks The Export-Import Bank also provides non-funded facility in the form of guarantees to the Indian exporters. †¢ Development of export makers †¢ Expansion of export production capacity †¢ Production for exports †¢ Financing post-shipment activities †¢ Export of manufactured goods †¢ Export of projects †¢ Export of technology and software’s Export financing programmes provided by EXIM Bank India EXIM INDIA offers a range of financing programs that match the menu of Exim Banks of the industrialized countries. The Bank provides competitive finance at various stages of the export cycle covering. EXIM INDIA operates a wide range of financing and promotional programs. The Bank finances exports of Indian machinery, manufactured goods, and consultancy and technology services on deferred payment terms. EXIM INDIA also seeks to co-finance projects with global and regional development agencies to assist Indian exporters in their efforts to participate in such overseas projects. The Bank is involved in promotion of two-way technology transfer through the outward flow of investment in Indian joint ventures overseas and foreign direct investment flow into India. EXIM INDIA is also a Partner Institution with European Union and operates European Community Investment Partners’ Program (ECIP) for facilitating promotion of joint ventures in India through technical and financial collaboration with medium sized firms of the European Union. The Export- Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) provides financial assistance to promote Indian exports through direct financial assistance, overseas investment finance, term finance for export production and export development, pre-shipping credit, buyer’s credit, lines of credit, relending facility, export bills rediscounting, refinance to commercial banks. Loans to Indian Entities: †¢ Deferred payment exports: Term finance is provided to Indian exporters of eligible goods and services, which enables them to offer deferred credit to overseas buyers. Deferred credit can also cover Indian consultancy, technology and other services. Commercial banks participate in this program directly or under risk syndication arrangements. †¢ Pre-shipment credit: finance is available from Exim Bank for companies executing export contracts involving cycle time exceeding six months. The facility also enables provision of rupee mobilization expenses for construction/turnkey project exporters. †¢ Term loans for export production: Exim Bank provides term loans/deferred payment guarantees to 100% export-oriented units, units in free trade zones and computer software exporters. In collaboration with International Finance Corporation. Washington, Exim Bank provides loans to enable small and medium enterprises to upgrade their export production capability. †¢ Overseas Investment finance: Indian companies establishing joint ventures overseas are provided finance towards their equity contribution in the joint venture. †¢ Finance for export marketing: This program, which is a component of a World Bank loan, helps exporters implement their export market development plans. Loans to Commercial Banks in India: †¢ Export Bills Rediscounting: Commercial Banks in India who are authorized to deal in foreign exchange can rediscount their short term export bills with Exim Banks, for an unexpired usage period of not more than 90 days. †¢ Refinance of Export Credit: Authorized dealers in foreign exchange can obtain from Exim Bank 100% refinance of deferred payment loans extended for export of eligible Indian goods. †¢ Guaranteeing of Obligations: Exim Bank participates with commercial banks in India in the issue of guarantees required by Indian companies for the export contracts and for execution of overseas construction and turnkey projects. Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) Government of India came forward to set up the Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) in July 1948 under a Special Act. The Industrial Development Bank of India, scheduled banks, insurance companies, investment trusts and co-operative banks are the shareholders of IFCI. The Government of India has guaranteed the repayment of capital and the payment of a minimum annual dividend. Since July I, 1993, the corporation has been converted into a company and it has been given the status of a Ltd. Company with the name Industrial Finance Corporations of India Ltd. IFCI has got itself registered with Companies Act, 1956. Before July I, 1993, general public was not permitted to hold shares of IFCI, only Government of India, RBI, Scheduled Banks, Insurance Companies and Co-operative Societies were holding the shares of IFCI. Management of IFCI: The corporation has 13 members Board of Directors, including Chairman. The Chairman is appointed by Government of India after consulting Industrial Development Bank of India. He works on a whole time basis and has tenure of 3 years. Out of the 12 directors, four are nominated by the IDBI, two by scheduled banks, two by co-operative banks and two by other financial institutions like insurance companies, investment trusts, etc. IDBI normally nominates three outside persons as directors who are experts in the fields of industry, labour and economics, the fourth nominee is the Central Manager of IDBI. The Board meets once in a month. It frames policies by keeping in view the interests of industry, commerce and general public. The Board acts as per the instructions received from the government and IDBI. The Central Government reserves the power up to the Board and appoints a new one in its place. IFCI also has Standing Advisory Committees one each for textile, sugar, jute, hotels, engineering and chemical processes and allied industries. The experts in different fields appointed on Advisory Committees. The chairman is the ex-officio member of all Advisory Committees. All applications for assistance are first discussed by Advisory Committees before they go to Central Committees. Financial Resources of IFCI: The financial resources of the corporation consist of share capital bonds and debentures and borrowings. a) Share Capital: The IFCI was set up with an authorized capital of Rs. 10crores consisting of 20,000 shares of Rs. 5,000 each. This capital was later on increased at different times and by March, 2003 it was Rs. 1068 crores. b) Bonds and Debentures: The Corporation is authorized to issue bonds and debentures to supplement its resources but these should not exceed ten times of paid-up capital and reserve fund. The bonds and debentures stood at a figure of Rs.15366.5 crores as on 31st March 2003. c) Borrowings: The Corporation is authorized to borrow from government IDBI and financial institutions. Its borrowings from IDBI and Govt. of India were Rs. 975.6 crore on March 31, 2003. Total assets of IFCI as on March 31, 2003 aggregated Rs. 22866 crore. Functions of IFCI: o Granting loans or advances to or subscribing to debentures of industrial concerns repayable within 25 years. Also it can convert part of such loans or debentures into equity share capital at its option. o Underwriting the issue of industrial securities i.e. shares, stock, bonds, or debentures to be disposed off within 7 years. o Subscribing directly to the shares and debentures of public limited companies. o Guaranteeing of deferred payments for the purchase of capital goods from abroad or within India. o Guaranteeing of loans raised by industrial concerns from scheduled balls or state co-operative banks. †¢ Acting as an agent of the Central Government or the World Bank in respect of loans sanctioned to the industrial concerns. IFCI provides financial assistance to eligible industrial concerns regardless of their size. However, now-a-days, it entertains applications from those industrial concerns whose project cost is about Rs. 2 crores because up to project cost of Rs. 2 crores various state level institutions (such as Financial Corporations, SIDCs and banks) are expected to meet the financial requirements of viable concerns. While approving a loan application, IFCI gives due consideration to the feasibility of the project, its importance to the nation, development of the backward areas, social and economic viability, etc. The most of the assistance sanctioned by IFCI has gone to industries of national priority such as fertilizers, cement, power generation, paper, industrial machinery etc. It has sanctioned nearly 49 per cent of its assistance for projects in backward districts. IFCI introduced a scheme for sick units also. The scheme was for the revival of sick units in the tiny and small scale sectors. Another scheme was framed for the self-employment of unemployed young persons. The corporation has diversified not only merchant banking but also financing of leasing and hire purchase companies, hospitals, equipment leasing etc. were the other new activities of the corporation in the last few years. Promotional Activities: The promotional role of IFCI has been to fill the gaps, either in the institutional infrastructure for the promotion and growth of industries, or in the provision of the much needed guidance in project intensification, formulation, implementation and operation, etc. to the new tiny, small-scale or medium scale entrepreneurs or in the efforts at improving the productivity of human and material resources. (a) Development of Backward Areas: –IFCI introduce a scheme of confessional finance for projects set up in backward areas. The backward-districts were divided into three categories depending upon the state of development there. All these categories were eligible for concessional finance. Nearly 50 per cent of total lending of IFCI has been to develop backward areas. (b) Promotional Schemes:- IFCI has been operating six promotional schemes with the object of helping entrepreneurs to set up new units, broadening the entrepreneurial base, encouraging the adoption of new technology, tackling ‘the problem of sickness and promoting opportunities for self development and Self employment of unemployed persons etc. These schemes are as such: 1. Subsidy for Adopting Indigenous Technology 2. Meeting Cost of Market Studies 3. Meeting Cost of Feasibility Studies 4. Promoting Small Scale and Ancillary Industries 5. Revival of Sick Units 6. Self-development and Self employment Scheme Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) In order to provide export credit and insurance support to Indian exporters, the GOI set up the Export Risks Insurance Corporation (ERIC) in July, 1957. It was transformed into export credit guarantee corporation limited (ECGC) in 1964. Since 1983, it is now know as ECGC of India Ltd. ECGC is a company wholly owned by the Government of India. It functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce and is managed by a Board of Directors representing government, Banking, Insurance, Trade and Industry. The ECGC with its headquarters in Bombay and several regional offices is the only institution providing insurance cover to Indian exporters against the risk of non-realization of export payments due to occurrence of the commercial and political risks involved in exports on credit terms and by offering guarantees to commercial banks against losses that the bank may suffer in granting advances to exports, in connection wi th their export transactions. Objectives of ECGC: †¢ To protect the exporters against credit risks, i.e. non-repayment by buyers †¢ To protect the banks against losses due to non-repayment of loans by exporters Covers issued by ECGC: The covers issued by ECGC can be divided broadly into four groups: âž ¢ STANDARD POLICIES: issued to exporters to protect them against payment risks involved in exports on short-term credit. âž ¢ SPECIFIC POLICIES: Designed to protect Indian firms against payment risk involved in (i) exports on deferred terms of payment (ii) service rendered to foreign parties, and (iii) construction works and turnkey projects undertaken abroad. âž ¢ FINANCIAL GUARANTEES: Issued to banks in India to protect them from risk of loss involved in their extending financial support to exporters at pre-shipment and post-shipment stages. âž ¢ SPECIAL SCHEMES: such as Transfer Guarantee meant to protect banks which add confirmation to letters of credit opened by foreign banks, Insurance cover for Buyer’s credit, etc. STANDARD POLICIES ECGC has designed 4 types of standard policies to provide cover for shipments made on short term credit: †¢ Shipments (comprehensive risks) Policy: to cover both political and commercial risks from the date of shipment. †¢ Shipments (political risks) Policy:- to cover only political risks from the date of shipment †¢ Contracts (comprehensive risks) Policy:- to cover both commercial and political risk from the date of contract †¢ Contracts (Political risks) Policy :- to cover only political risks from the date of contract RISKS COVERED UNDER THE STANDARD POLICIES: 1. Commercial Risks a) Insolvency of the buyer b) Buyer’s protracted default to pay for goods accepted by him c) Buyer’s failure to accept goods subject to certain conditions 2. Political risks a) Imposition of restrictions on remittances by the government in the buyer’s country or any government action which may block or delay payment to exporter. b) War, revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer’s country. Cancellation of a valid import license or new import licensing restrictions in the buyer’s country after the date of shipment or contract, as applicable. c) Cancellation of export license or imposition of new export licensing restrictions in India after the date of contract (under contract policy). d) Payment of additional handling, transport or insurance charges occasioned by interruption or diversion of voyage that cannot be recovered from the buyer. e) Any other cause of loss occurring outside India, not normally insured by commercial insurers and beyond the control of the exporter and / or buyer. RISKS NOT COVERED UNDER STANDARD POLICIES: a) Commercial disputes including quality disputes raised by the buyer, unless the exporter obtains a decree from a competent court of law in the buyer’s country in his favour, unless the exporter obtains a decree from a competent court of law in the buyers’ country in his favour b) Causes inherent in the nature of the goods. c) Buyer’s failure to obtain import or exchange authorization from authorities in his county d) Insolvency or default of any agent of the exporter or of the collecting bank. e) loss or damage to goods which can be covered by commerci8al insurers f) Exchange fluctuation g) Discrepancy in documents. SPECIFIC POLICIES The standard policy is a whole turnover policy designed to provide a continuing insurance for the regular flow of exporter’s shipment of raw materials, consumable durable for which credit period does not normally exceed 180 days. Specific policies are issued in respect of Supply Contracts (on deferred payment terms), Services Abroad and Construction Work Abroad. 1) Specific policy for Supply Contracts: Specific policy for Supply contracts is issued in case of export of Capital goods sold on deferred credit. It can be of any of the four forms: a) Specific Shipments (Comprehensive Risks) Policy to cover both commercial and political risks at the Post-shipment stage b) Specific Shipments (Political Risks) Policy to cover only political risks after shipment stage. c) Specific Contracts (Comprehensive Risks) Policy to cover political and commercial risks after contract date. d) Specific Contracts (Political Risks) Policy to cover only political risks after contract date. 2) Service policy: Indian firms provide a wide range of services like technical or professional services, hiring or leasing to foreign parties (private or government). Where Indian firms render such services they would be exposed to payment risks similar to those involved in export of goods. Such risks are covered by ECGC under this policy. The policy covers 90%of the loss suffered. 3) Construction Works Policy: It covers civil construction jobs as well as turnkey projects involving supplies and services of both with private and foreign government. This policy covers 85% of loss suffered on account of contracts with government agencies and 75% of loss suffered on account of construction contracts with private parties. FINANCIAL GUARANTEES Exporters require adequate financial support from banks to carry out their export contracts. ECGC backs the lending programmes of banks by issuing financial guarantees. The guarantees protect the banks from losses on account of their lending to exporters. Six guarantees have been evolved for this purpose:- (i). Packing Credit Guarantee (ii). Export Production Finance Guarantee (iii). Export Finance Guarantee (iv). Post Shipment Export Credit Guarantee (v). Export Performance Guarantee (vi). Export Finance (Overseas Lending) Guarantee. These guarantees give protection to banks against losses due to non-payment by exporters on account of their insolvency or default. The ECGC charges a premium for its services that may vary from 5 paise to 7.5 paise per month for Rs. 100/-. The premium charged depends upon the type of guarantee and it is subject to change, if ECGC so desires.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

America :: essays research papers

America, the "Revenge-Minded Nation," has created the conditions for a rising crime rate, and "invited her people in." Crime in America has become a multibillion dollar Corporation for the Judicial System. The Corporation itself breeds white collar Criminals. The little man is nothing more than a tax slave who, at the cost of being revenge-minded, has bought into the problem, and not the solution. Good people in the middle are held in prisons of fear is the crime rate rises around them. Soma say, "build more prisons", "give longer sentences", "make the prisoner do more of his/her sentence", "execute the nearly 3,000 men on death row", "treat the troubled youth as adults and sentence them as such", etc. The truth is that you can build more prisons until half of America is locked up, and the other half their victims. Longer sentences are no cure-all. Time has no more power to change a man than space does. Five or fifteen years really matters not, because for whatever reasons a person commits a crime and is sent to prison, there is no rehabilitation. The hostility of a prison environment that serves as little more than a warehouse to store bodies in, works to harden the character of the person forced to survive in it, and when the time comes to release this person, he/she is released back into society without any rehabilitation or readjustment, made much the worse than when they were first in society. Of course the many released on parole commit further crimes. What is parole, something that has power over a person's hardened character? "Correctional facility" is a lie. Where is the "correctional" influence in storing bodies for a period of time? Prisons are deprivation units. It's sad, but because of the hostilities within the prison environment, many prisoners are deprived of emotional stimulation, except for fear, anger and hate. In some cases a released person will even kill his victim to eliminate a threat to his survival in the world life's events have created for him; something it's doubtful he could have done before his conditioning experiences with hostile prison. There are circumstances when human life becomes secondary to survival, right or wrong. The teenagers sent to Vietnam and Desert Storm didn't hate the so-called "enemies", but killing them was done most often as an act of fear and survival. Much could be said concerning cause and effect, but executing nearly 3,000 people on death row won't solve America's problem with rising crime rate.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Digital Fortress Chapter 94-99

Chapter 94 Midge Milken stood fuming at the water cooler near the entrance to the conference room. What the hell is Fontaine doing? She crumpled her paper cup and threw it forcefully into the trash can. There's something happening in Crypto! I can feel it! Midge knew there was only one way to prove herself right. She'd go check out Crypto herself-track down Jabba if need be. She spun on her heel and headed for the door. Brinkerhoff appeared out of nowhere, blocking her way. â€Å"Where are you headed?† â€Å"Home!† Midge lied. Brinkerhoff refused to let her pass. Midge glared. â€Å"Fontaine told you not to let me out, didn't he?† Brinkerhoff looked away. â€Å"Chad, I'm telling you, there's something happening in Crypto-something big. I don't know why Fontaine's playing dumb, but TRANSLTR's in trouble. Something is not right down there tonight!† â€Å"Midge,† he soothed, walking past her toward the curtained conference room windows, â€Å"let's let the director handle it.† Midge's gaze sharpened. â€Å"Do you have any idea what happens to TRANSLTR if the cooling system fails?† Brinkerhoff shrugged and approached the window. â€Å"Power's probably back on-line by now anyway.† He pulled apart the curtains and looked. â€Å"Still dark?† Midge asked. But Brinkerhoff did not reply. He was spellbound. The scene below in the Crypto dome was unimaginable. The entire glass cupola was filled with spinning lights, flashing strobes, and swirling steam. Brinkerhoff stood transfixed, teetering light-headed against the glass. Then, in a frenzy of panic, he raced out. â€Å"Director! Director!† Chapter 95 The blood of Christ†¦ the cup of salvation†¦ People gathered around the slumped body in the pew. Overhead, the frankincense swung its peaceful arcs. Hulohot wheeled wildly in the center aisle and scanned the church. He's got to be here! He spun back toward the altar. Thirty rows ahead, holy communion was proceeding uninterrupted. Padre Gustaphes Herrera, the head chalice bearer, glanced curiously at the quiet commotion in one of the center pews; he was not concerned. Sometimes some of the older folks were overcome by the holy spirit and passed out. A little air usually did the trick. Meanwhile, Hulohot was searching frantically. Becker was nowhere in sight. A hundred or so people were kneeling at the long altar receiving communion. Hulohot wondered if Becker was one of them. He scanned their backs. He was prepared to shoot from fifty yards away and make a dash for it. El cuerpo de Jesus, el pan del cielo. The young priest serving Becker communion gave him a disapproving stare. He could understand the stranger's eagerness to receive communion, but it was no excuse to cut inline. Becker bowed his head and chewed the wafer as best he could. He sensed something was happening behind him, some sort of disturbance. He thought of the man from whom he'd bought the jacket and hoped he had listened to his warning and not taken Becker's in exchange. He started to turn and look, but he feared the wire-rim glasses would be staring back. He crouched in hopes his black jacket was covering the back of his khaki pants. It was not. The chalice was coming quickly from his right. People were already swallowing their wine, crossing themselves, and standing to leave. Slow down! Becker was in no hurry to leave the altar. But with two thousand people waiting for communion and only eight priests serving, it was considered bad form to linger over a sip of wine. The chalice was just to the right of Becker when Hulohot spotted the mismatched khaki pants. â€Å"Estas ya muerto,† he hissed softly. â€Å"You're already dead.† Hulohot moved up the center aisle. The time for subtlety had passed. Two shots in the back, and he would grab the ring and run. The biggest taxi stand in Seville was half a block away on Mateus Gago. He reached for his weapon. Adios, Senor Becker†¦ La sangre de Cristo, la copa de la salvacion. The thick scent of red wine filled Becker's nostrils as Padre Herrera lowered the hand-polished, silver chalice. Little early for drinking, Becker thought as he leaned forward. But as the silver goblet dropped past eye level, there was a blur of movement. A figure, coming fast, his shape warped in the reflection of the cup. Becker saw a flash of metal, a weapon being drawn. Instantly, unconsciously, like a runner from a starting block at the sound of a gun, Becker was vaulting forward. The priest fell back in horror as the chalice sailed through the air, and red wine rained down on white marble. Priests and altar boys went scattering as Becker dove over the communion rail. A silencer coughed out a single shot. Becker landed hard, and the shot exploded in the marble floor beside him. An instant later he was tumbling down three granite stairs into the valle, a narrow passageway through which the clergy entered, allowing them to rise onto the altar as if by divine grace. At the bottom of the steps, he stumbled and dove. Becker felt himself sliding out of control across the slick polished stone. A dagger of pain shot though his gut as he landed on his side. A moment later he was stumbling through a curtained entryway and down a set of wooden stairs. Pain. Becker was running, through a dressing room. It was dark. There were screams from the altar. Loud footsteps in pursuit. Becker burst through a set of double doors and stumbled into some sort of study. It was dark, furnished with rich Orientals and polished mahogany. On the far wall was a life-size crucifix. Becker staggered to a stop. Dead end. He was at the tip of the cross. He could hear Hulohot closing fast. Becker stared at the crucifix and cursed his bad luck. â€Å"Goddamn it!† he screamed. There was the sudden sound of breaking glass to Becker's left. He wheeled. A man in red robes gasped and turned to eye Becker in horror. Like a cat caught with a canary, the holy man wiped his mouth and tried to hide the broken bottle of holy communion wine at his feet. â€Å"Salida!† Becker demanded. â€Å"Salida!† Let me out! Cardinal Guerra reacted on instinct. A demon had entered his sacred chambers screaming for deliverance from the house of God. Guerra would grant him that wish-immediately. The demon had entered at a most inopportune moment. Pale, the cardinal pointed to a curtain on the wall to his left. Hidden behind the curtain was a door. He'd installed it three years ago. It led directly to the courtyard outside. The cardinal had grown tired of exiting the church through the front door like a common sinner. Chapter 96 Susan was wet and shivering, huddled on the Node 3 couch. Strathmore draped his suit coat over her shoulders. Hale's body lay a few yards away. The sirens blared. Like ice thawing on a frozen pond, TRANSLTR's hull let out a sharp crack. â€Å"I'm going down to kill power,† Strathmore said, laying a reassuring hand on her shoulder. â€Å"I'll be right back.† Susan stared absently after the commander as he dashed across the Crypto floor. He was no longer the catatonic man she'd seen ten minutes before. Commander Trevor Strathmore was back-logical, controlled, doing whatever was necessary to get the job done. The final words of Hale's suicide note ran through her mind like a train out of control: Above all, I'm truly sorry about David Becker. Forgive me, I was blinded by ambition. Susan Fletcher's nightmare had just been confirmed. David was in danger†¦ or worse. Maybe it was already too late. I'm truly sorry about David Becker. She stared at the note. Hale hadn't even signed it-he'd just typed his name at the bottom: Greg Hale. He'd poured out his guts, pressed print, and then shot himself-just like that. Hale had sworn he'd never go back to prison; he'd kept his vow-he'd chosen death instead. â€Å"David†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She sobbed. David! At that moment, ten feet below the Crypto floor, Commander Strathmore stepped off the ladder onto the first landing. It had been a day of fiascoes. What had started out as a patriotic mission had swerved wildly out of control. The commander had been forced to make impossible decisions, commit horrific acts-acts he'd never imagined himself capable of. It was a solution! It was the only damn solution! There was duty to think of: country and honor. Strathmore knew there was still time. He could shut down TRANSLTR. He could use the ring to save the country's most valuable databank. Yes, he thought, there was still time. Strathmore looked out over the disaster around him. The overhead sprinklers were on. TRANSLTR was groaning. The sirens blared. The spinning lights looked like helicopters closing in through dense fog. With every step, all he could see was Greg Hale-the young cryptographer gazing up, his eyes pleading, and then, the shot. Hale's death was for country†¦ for honor. The NSA could not afford another scandal. Strathmore needed a scapegoat. Besides, Greg Hale was a disaster waiting to happen. Strathmore's thoughts were jarred free by the sound of his cellular. It was barely audible over the sirens and hissing fumes. He snatched it off his belt without breaking stride. â€Å"Speak.† â€Å"Where's my pass-key?† a familiar voice demanded. â€Å"Who is this?† Strathmore yelled over the din. â€Å"It's Numataka!† the angry voice bellowed back. â€Å"You promised me a pass-key!† Strathmore kept moving. â€Å"I want Digital Fortress!† Numataka hissed. â€Å"There is no Digital Fortress!† Strathmore shot back. â€Å"What?† â€Å"There is no unbreakable algorithm!† â€Å"Of course there is! I've seen it on the Internet! My people have been trying to unlock it for days!† â€Å"It's an encrypted virus, you fool-and you're damn lucky you can't open it!† â€Å"But-â€Å" â€Å"The deal is off!† Strathmore yelled. â€Å"I'm not North Dakota. There is no North Dakota! Forget I ever mentioned it!† He clamped the cellular shut, turned off the ringer, and rammed it back on his belt. There would be no more interruptions. Twelve thousand miles away, Tokugen Numataka stood stunned at his plate-glass window. His Umami cigar hung limply in his mouth. The deal of his lifetime had just disintegrated before his eyes. Strathmore kept descending. The deal is off. Numatech Corp. would never get the unbreakable algorithm†¦ and the NSA would never get its back door. Strathmore's dream had been a long time in the planning-he'd chosen Numatech carefully. Numatech was wealthy, a likely winner of the pass-key auction. No one would think twice if it ended up with the key. Conveniently there was no company less likely to be suspected of consorting with the U.S. government. Tokugen Numataka was old-world Japan-death before dishonor. He hated Americans. He hated their food, he hated their customs, and most of all, he hated their grip on the world's software market. Strathmore's vision had been bold-a world encryption standard with a back door for the NSA. He'd longed to share his dream with Susan, to carry it out with her by his side, but he knew he could not. Even though Ensei Tankado's death would save thousands of lives in the future, Susan would never have agreed; she was a pacifist. I'm a pacifist too, thought Strathmore, I just don't have the luxury of acting like one. There had never been any doubt in the commander's mind who would kill Tankado. Tankado was in Spain-and Spain meant Hulohot. The forty-two-year-old Portuguese mercenary was one of the commander's favorite pros. He'd been working for the NSA for years. Born and raised in Lisbon, Hulohot had done work for the NSA all over Europe. Never once had his kills been traced back to Fort Meade. The only catch was that Hulohot was deaf; telephone communication was impossible. Recently Strathmore had arranged for Hulohot to receive the NSA's newest toy, the Monocle computer. Strathmore bought himself a SkyPager and programmed it to the same frequency. From that moment on, his communication with Hulohot was not only instantaneous but also entirely untraceable. The first message Strathmore had sent Hulohot left little room for misunderstanding. They had already discussed it. Kill Ensei Tankado. Obtain pass-key. Strathmore never asked how Hulohot worked his magic, but somehow he had done it again. Ensei Tankado was dead, and the authorities were convinced it was a heart attack. A textbook kill-except for one thing. Hulohot had misjudged the location. Apparently Tankado dying in a public place was a necessary part of the illusion. But unexpectedly, the public had appeared too soon. Hulohot was forced into hiding before he could search the body for the pass-key. When the dust settled, Tankado's body was in the hands of Seville's coroner. Strathmore was furious. Hulohot had blown a mission for the first time ever-and he'd picked an inauspicious time to do it. Getting Tankado's pass-key was critical, but Strathmore knew that sending a deaf assassin into the Seville morgue was a suicide mission. He had pondered his other options. A second scheme began to materialize. Strathmore suddenly saw a chance to win on two fronts-a chance to realize two dreams instead of just one. At six-thirty that morning, he had called David Becker. Chapter 97 Fontaine burst into the conference room at a full sprint. Brinkerhoff and Midge were close at his heels. â€Å"Look!† Midge choked, motioning frantically to the window. Fontaine looked out the window at the strobes in the Crypto dome. His eyes went wide. This was definitely not part of the plan. Brinkerhoff sputtered. â€Å"It's a goddamn disco down there!† Fontaine stared out, trying to make sense of it. In the few years TRANSLTR had been operational, it had never done this. It's overheating, he thought. He wondered why the hell Strathmore hadn't shut it down. It took Fontaine only an instant to make up his mind. He snatched an interoffice phone off the conference table and punched the extension for Crypto. The receiver began beeping as if the extension were out of order. Fontaine slammed down the receiver. â€Å"Damn it!† He immediately picked up again and dialed Strathmore's private cellular line. This time the line began to ring. Six rings went by. Brinkerhoff and Midge watched as Fontaine paced the length of his phone cable like a tiger on a chain. After a full minute, Fontaine was crimson with rage. He slammed down the receiver again. â€Å"Unbelievable!† he bellowed. â€Å"Crypto's about to blow, and Strathmore won't answer his goddamn phone!† Chapter 98 Hulohot burst out of Cardinal Guerra's chambers into the blinding morning sun. He shielded his eyes and cursed. He was standing outside the cathedral in a small patio, bordered by a high stone wall, the west face of the Giralda tower, and two wrought-iron fences. The gate was open. Outside the gate was the square. It was empty. The walls of Santa Cruz were in the distance. There was no way Becker could have made it so far so quickly. Hulohot turned and scanned the patio. He's in here. He must be! The patio, Jardin de los Naranjos, was famous in Seville for its twenty blossoming orange trees. The trees were renowned in Seville as the birthplace of English marmalade. An eighteenth-century English trader had purchased three dozen bushels of oranges from the Seville church and taken them back to London only to find the fruit inedibly bitter. He tried to make jam from the rinds and ended up having to add pounds of sugar just to make it palatable. Orange marmalade had been born. Hulohot moved forward through the grove, gun leveled. The trees were old, and the foliage had moved high on their trunks. Their lowest branches were unreachable, and the thin bases provided no cover. Hulohot quickly saw the patio was empty. He looked straight up. The Giralda. The entrance to the Giralda's spiral staircase was cordoned off by a rope and small wooden sign. The rope hung motionless. Hulohot's eyes climbed the 419-foot tower and immediately knew it was a ridiculous thought. There was no way Becker would have been that stupid. The single staircase wound straight up to a square stone cubicle. There were narrow slits in the wall for viewing, but there was no way out. David Becker climbed the last of the steep stairs and staggered breathless into a tiny stone cubicle. There were high walls all around him and narrow slits in the perimeter. No exit. Fate had done Becker no favors this morning. As he'd dashed from the cathedral into the open courtyard, his jacket had caught on the door. The fabric had stopped him mid stride and swung him hard left before tearing. Becker was suddenly stumbling off balance into the blinding sun. When he'd looked up, he was heading straight for a staircase. He'd jumped over the rope and dashed up. By the time he realized where it led, it was too late. Now he stood in the confined cell and caught his breath. His side burned. Narrow slats of morning sun streamed through the openings in the wall. He looked out. The man in the wire-rim glasses was far below, his back to Becker, staring out at the plaza. Becker shifted his body in front of the crack for a better view. Cross the plaza, he willed him. The shadow of the Giralda lay across the square like a giant felled sequoia. Hulohot stared the length of it. At the far end, three slits of light cut through the tower's viewing apertures and fell in crisp rectangles on the cobblestone below. One of those rectangles had just been blotted out by the shadow of a man. Without so much as a glance toward the top of the tower, Hulohot spun and dashed toward the Giralda stairs. Chapter 99 Fontaine pounded his fist into his hand. He paced the conference room and stared out at the spinning Crypto lights. â€Å"Abort! Goddamn it! Abort!† Midge appeared in the doorway waving a fresh readout. â€Å"Director! Strathmore can't abort!† â€Å"What!† Brinkerhoff and Fontaine gasped in unison. â€Å"He tried, sir!† Midge held up the report. â€Å"Four times already! TRANSLTR's locked in some sort of endless loop.† Fontaine spun and stared back out the window. â€Å"Jesus Christ!† The conference room phone rang sharply. The director threw up his arms. â€Å"It's got to be Strathmore! About goddamn time!† Brinkerhoff scooped up the phone. â€Å"Director's office.† Fontaine held out his hand for the receiver. Brinkerhoff looked uneasy and turned to Midge. â€Å"It's Jabba. He wants you.† The director swung his gaze over to Midge, who was already crossing the room. She activated the speaker phone. â€Å"Go ahead, Jabba.† Jabba's metallic voice boomed into the room. â€Å"Midge, I'm in the main databank. We're showing some strange stuff down here. I was wondering if-â€Å" â€Å"Dammit, Jabba!† Midge came unglued. â€Å"That's what I've been trying to tell you!† â€Å"It could be nothing,† Jabba hedged, â€Å"but-â€Å" â€Å"Stop saying that! It's not nothing! Whatever's going on down there, take it seriously, very seriously. My data isn't fried-never has been, never will.† She started to hang up and then added, â€Å"Oh, and Jabba? Just so there aren't any surprises†¦ Strathmore bypassed Gauntlet.†

Wednesday, October 23, 2019


Classrooms no longer have to be In a building In a school. Students can now take classes at schools around the country and world without actually having to attend In person. This has given students the ability to reach more goals. Those who want to go back to school are no longer limited to local universities and colleges but now can choose from a broad range of programs. This lack of limitations is making it easier for people to get the education they need.It opens them up to possibilities they might to have had otherwise. The ability to earn your degree online has made It possible for people with other commitments to still get the education they want and need. This technology has made it possible for them to take classes and complete them on their own time fitting it into their schedule. They are able to design a course load that allows them to care for their family and even work a full time Job and still get the education they are looking for.For many, making the decision of what school to attend Is the hardest art of the process. Taking the time to visit remedying. Com could prove to be very helpful in your decision making process. There Is no doubt that technology has become heavily Integrated Into our everyday lives. Classes at schools around the country and world without actually having to attend in choose from a broad range of programs. This lack of Limitations Is making it easier for people to get the education they need.It opens them up to possibilities they might The ability to earn your degree online has made It possible for people with other It into their schedule. They are able to design a course load that allows them to care looking for. For many, making the decision of what school to attend is the hardest There is no doubt that technology has become heavily integrated into our everyday Classrooms no longer have to be in a building in a school. Students can now take The ability to earn your degree online has made it possible for people with other

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Strategic Research Project Essays

Strategic Research Project Essays Strategic Research Project Essay Strategic Research Project Essay Strategic Research Project Name: Course: Institution: Instructor: Date: Strategic Research Project Vodafone Group is a British transnational company that engages in telecommunications. It has its mother company in Newbury, United Kingdom. Vodafone is the world’s largest telecommunication company in terms of revenue and second in terms of the number of users. It operates in over thirty countries having a vast base of associate companies. The company has a slogan â€Å"Everybody’s welcome† displaying how they have made efforts to accommodate all kinds of clients with different backgrounds having the same of interest of using Vodafone products. True to their mission, Vodafone have extended their branches to cover at least all the continents in the world. The company has strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that apply to its operations, in addition to its structures. The major strengths of Vodafone Group are that Vodafone has a wide, geographical portfolio covering much of Africa, the Middle East, plus to a small level, the US. Therefore, they enjoy a strong customer base that provides it with increasing revenue each financial year. This large customer base also becomes the consumers for Vodafone products. Vodafone has also invested substantially in their network infrastructure with signal masts to serve consumers within their vicinity. Vodafone also managed to entrench their presence in most developing states like India and Kenya. Lastly, Vodafone provides reliable data and voice services especially in cities making it a preference for corporate groups. (Vodafone Group Plc, 1900) Some of the weaknesses plaguing Vodafone include non exploitation of other markets. Owing to their heavy investment in Europe, Vodafone misses out on benefiting from the rest of the untapped markets in The Americas and East Asia which still have a large demand for mobile phones along with other Vodafone products. Vodafone has also invested very little in extending their signal range to cover most of rural areas thereby missing out on the huge rural consumers. Vodafone has also not focused their business operations in the US. Therefore, they do not maximize on the thriving demand created by mainstream American firms and entrepreneurs. In terms of opportunities, Vodafone have developed innovations in mobile commerce that seek to fuse banking with mobility that will see an increase in their revenues. Vodafone launched the mobile money transfer service, M-PESA along with Safaricom Kenya, which brought new dimensions to mobile banking. Vodafone has also launched the mHealth Solutions which is the application of mobile communications to healthcare. Apart from these products, Vodafone also launched the cheapest phone aimed for the developing world. The most dominant threat in this market is the constant change in technological approaches. The telecommunications market is characterized by a dynamic competition that constantly seeks to innovate and experiment with new ideas. Consequently, this competitive environment always threatens Vodafone with being edged out of the market. The European Union also poses a threat to the mobile usage across borders in Europe threatening Vodafone as mobile phones are their major product. Lastly, Vodafone still has a lot of ground to catch up with other American telecommunication companies that have cut a niche for themselves as solid competitors. (PLC SWOT analysis, 2011) In terms of market penetration, the Vodafone company has made huge investments in most of Africa as well as the Middle East in a bid to penetrate new markets. It operates in Egypt, in South Africa, in Ghana and in Libya under the partnership with al Madar (Working Nation, 2004). Of interest is the approach of using partnerships as the main method of going into business within Africa. This can be an attempt at mitigating political as well as economic risks that plague most of African states. Within Asia and Latin America, Vodafone has been taking a laid back approach similar to that in Africa by again opting to partner with Verizon Wireless instead of establishing their own offices independently. Within Europe, Vodafone have been more aggressive. It has engaged in past takeovers of telecommunication companies, for example, Elisa, Omnitela plus Cyta alongside other companies. Clearly, Vodafone has invested a larger bulk of their capital in Europe as compared to the rest of the continen ts. Vodafone has three main competitors in the global market namely T-Mobile, Orange as well as O2. Vodafone has taken a strategy of buying out other networks in order to reduce competition within a particular market segment. However, small network operators operating as mobile virtual network operators have lowered this barrier significantly with differentiated products alongside services identifying them as new entrants. Key suppliers of Vodafone have had less muscle to bargain owing to lack of technical advantages as well as the looming Chinese entrants who pursue cost leadership. Vodafone has responded to this by integrating all her key business activities hence leveraging their economies of scale. Vodafone has also countered the threat form substitutes by continuously diversifying its products to meet the consumer’s needs. (Myers, 2010) Vodafone has been actively engaged in domestic politics of their host countries where they possess subsidiaries dragging the firm into many blame games. In order to avoid such complications in the future, Vodafone should revise their policies concerning cooperating with the state in matters of state interest. A good example was the Egypt insurgency where Vodafone, who administers most of the telecommunication infrastructure, shut off all voice and data services to Egypt citizens after orders by the state (William, 2011). Vodafone should also engage in a vigorous campaign to establish themselves in the US where there is a large customer base. Over five years, this should translate into profit margins received by Verizon as well as ATT Mobility. References Global Perspective. (2010). Service Provider VoIP Equipment and Subscribers: Quarterly Worldwide and Regional Market Share, Size, and Forecast. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Myers, D. Vodafone (Firm). (2004). Working nation: Views from people at work. St. Albans: Vodafone. Vodafone Group Plc (Newbury). (2010). Annual report. Newbury: Vodafone Group Plc. Vodafone Group, PLC SWOT Analysis. (2011) (n.d.). (Business Source Complete) Cleveland: Data monitor Plc. Williams, Christopher (28 January 2011). â€Å"How Egypt shut down the internetâ€Å". The Daily Telegraph (London)

Monday, October 21, 2019

America and Nuclear Weapons Testing essays

America and Nuclear Weapons Testing essays American policymakers in the late 1940s debated the very controversial topic of nuclear weapons testing on American soil. Previously, American policymakers such as Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) head Sumner Pike stated that "only a national emergency could justify testing in the United States" (Ball 27-28). As the Soviet Union and communism expanded half a world away, hostilities broke out in Korea, which authorities asserted was a national emergency that would warrant nuclear testing on American soil. Authorities within the AEC believed that to maintain nuclear superiority and preserve national security, nuclear tests would have to be conducted in the continental United States. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was chosen for a few primary reasons: it was a flat area with little rainfall to minimize radioactive fallout, the winds traditionally blew east towards the relatively "uninhabited" portions of Nevada and Utah and away from the heavy population concentrations of the West Coast (Che ney 36). Nuclear weapons' testing was essential for national security, yet it was not necessary for these tests to take place within the continental United States. Testing at the Nevada Test Site began in early 1951, and within the next seven years, 90 nuclear explosions occurred in the Nevada desert. The ominous result of these tests was the distribution of radioactive particles throughout the United States with areas in eastern Nevada and southern Utah especially affected (Some Questions 1). The tests were conducted to enhance the American nuclear arsenal – the goal wasn't only to achieve the biggest bomb, it included the development of tactical nuclear devices that could be used on the battlefield against enemy troops without causing harm to friendly troops. As Glenn Cheney, a radioactivity researcher and author, comments on the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, "To fall behind, to become weaker, might be to practical...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Habitat Loss, Fragmentation, and Destruction

Habitat Loss, Fragmentation, and Destruction Habitat loss refers to the disappearance of natural environments that are home to particular plants and animals. There are three major types of habitat loss: habitat destruction, habitat degradation, and habitat fragmentation. Habitat Destruction Habitat destruction is the process by which natural habitat is damaged or destroyed to such an extent that it no longer is capable of supporting the species and ecological communities that naturally occur there. It often results in the extinction of species and, as a result, the loss of biodiversity. Habitat can be destroyed directly by many human activities, most of which involve the clearing of land for uses such as agriculture, mining, logging, hydroelectric dams, and urbanization. Although much habitat destruction can be attributed to human activity, it is not an exclusively man-made phenomenon. Habitat loss also occurs as a result of natural events such as floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and climate fluctuations. Although habitat destruction primarily causes species extinctions, it can also open up new habitat that might provide an environment in which new species can evolve, thus demonstrating the resiliency of life on Earth. Sadly, humans are destroying natural habitats at a rate and on spatial scales that exceed what most species and communities can cope with. Habitat Degradation Habitat degradation is another consequence of human development. It is caused  indirectly by human activities such as pollution, climate change, and the introduction of invasive species, all of which reduce the quality of the environment, making it difficult for native plants and animals to thrive. Habitat degradation is fueled by a fast-growing human population. As the population increases, humans use more land for agriculture and for the development of cities and towns spread out over ever-widening areas. The effects of habitat degradation not only affect native species and communities but human populations as well. Degraded lands are frequently lost to erosion, desertification, and nutrient depletion. Habitat Fragmentation Human development also leads to habitat fragmentation, as wild areas are carved up and split into smaller pieces. Fragmentation reduces animal ranges and restricts movement, placing animals in these areas at higher risk of extinction. Breaking up habitat can also separate animal populations, reducing genetic diversity. Conservationists often seek to protect habitat in order to save individual animal species. For example, the Biodiversity Hotspot program organized by Conservation International protects fragile habitats around the world. The groups aim is to protect biodiversity hotspots that contain high concentrations of threatened species, such as Madagascar and the Guinean Forests of West Africa. These areas are home to a unique array of plants and animals found nowhere else in the world. Conservation International believes that saving these hotspots is key to protecting the planets biodiversity. Habitat destruction is not the only threat facing wildlife, but it is quite likely the greatest. Today, it is taking place at such a rate that species are beginning to disappear in extraordinary numbers. Scientists warn  that the planet is experiencing a sixth mass extinction that will have serious ecological, economic, and social consequences. If the loss of natural habitat around the globe does not slow, more extinctions are sure to follow.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Law - Affirmative Action Policies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Law - Affirmative Action Policies - Essay Example iduals with no consideration of race, sex, color, national origin, religious creed, ancestry, marital status, mental disability, sexual orientation, age, physical disability or learning disability (Schmidt, 2008). Therefore, organizations will not demand for genetic information from its employees or job applicants. The demand for such information leads to discrimination against the person on the foundation of hereditary information in an employment situation (Schmidt, 2008). Furthermore, anyone with a previous criminal conviction will not be discriminated or aligned with the crime in employment conditions. It is therefore, the goal and purpose of action policies to ensure equal opportunities to all. Organizational policies, which entail employment applications, job specifications, job structuring, job qualifications, recruitment practices, counseling, grievances procedures, layoffs and terminations should be undertaken without discrimination of any form (Sander, 2004). In order to ensure that there is no discrimination; affirmative action policies will help monitor the whole process. The hiring difficulties that are experienced by the older persons and those who are physically disabled are recognized by these policies through establishment of a plan of action that eliminates employment obstacles and actively recruit members from the discriminated minority group (Sander, 2004). This is aimed at protecting such group of persons and achieving their full participation in the workplace and therefore, such policies are still needed. Affirmative action policies give favored treatments to the minorities in the society and should be retained because of the desirability of diversity in the society (Sander, 2004). Such diversity will be completely lost if it is left to probability. Through these policies, the disadvantaged in the society will get a boost and thus be able to stand on their own. Furthermore, affirmative action policies represent people at areas of learning

Concert review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Concert review - Essay Example The emperor notes that while the sun is full of majesty and that its rays are all ablaze with ever- living glory he is not intimidated by this for he knows his worth. The emperor further compares himself with the moon which rules the night sky and which by all accounts is not ashamed of its lowly position even given that it only reflects the suns light. By declaring that he knows his worth and that of the moon, the emperor accepts although indirectly that the sun is a greater master. The song paints an ambitious emperor who would like to equal the sun in all its celestial majesty. The Mikado was set in Japan although its target audience was in Europe. At the time, contact between the Japanese and the Europeans had been properly grounded and the Europeans knew a lot about Japanese culture and were eager for more. Being very satirical and targeting British institutions in its satire, the choice of Japanese culture and themes made it easier for the opera to more harshly criticize British institution. As a piece of art however, the Mikado and as an extension The sun, whose rays stands out in many ways no wonder they are loved to this day. The lyrical composition of the song was superb and the theme and setting

Friday, October 18, 2019

Answer 2 discussion questions and write a 2-3 page paper from uploaded Research

Answer 2 discussion questions and write a 2-3 page from uploaded information - Research Paper Example Therefore, one strongly believes that it is possible that there are customers who visit these two stores, as evident from the example indicated herein. Chapter 12: Discussion Question 9 For instance, if one would like to establish a new restaurant, the restaurant or food service industry should be evaluated in terms current status and condition of the market. As such an external analysis should be made of the market’s customers, competitors, suppliers, and potential partners (Spulber, 2009). In addition, the potential entrant must be able to assess and comprehensibly evaluate current competitors that are firmly entrenched in the market, their core competencies, strategies applied, and the clientele that they specifically cater to. Therefore, the strategies that must be designed to effectively compete with incumbent firms are as follows: (1) determine the strengths and weaknesses of these competitors. As emphasized, â€Å"companies should concentrate their strength against the weaknesses of their competitors† (Spulber, 2009, p. ... Likewise, if the incumbent firms exhibit cost advantages, the potential entrant could design strategies which include â€Å"process innovation, increased efficiency, outsourcing, and contracts with customers† (Spulber, 2009, p. 372). In addition, the potential entrant could also apply entry strategies to address differentiation advantages through focusing on product innovation and tailoring the services or products offered to the needs, demands, and preferences of customers. Also, the potential entrant could apply entry strategies which address transaction advantages of competitors through â€Å"innovation in transaction technology, development of new forms of transactions, and creation of new combinations of buyers and sellers† (Spulber, 2009, p. 372), as deemed necessary. Therefore, expected challenges that the potential entrant could face include: immediate response and reaction from the competitors; being recognized in the market through the application of strategie s involving the 4Ps; as well as in designing the most appropriate and effective entry strategy according to the core competencies, advantages, and strengths which would cater to the needs, demands, and preferences of the clientele. As such, selection of the most appropriate entry strategy would actually depend on the positioning of the potential entrant; meaning, to which particular market segment they aim to serve. This would specifically determine the competitors or incumbent which the potential entrant should assess; and apply the most needed entry strategy depending on the core competencies and advantages exhibited by these competitors. 2. Essay: What are the key cost drivers and determinants of cost advantage needed by managers when using a price leadership strategy? Students should be

DWC Supply chain Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

DWC Supply chain - Research Paper Example It would be a one-stop destination for the people, whereby the facility can provide residential and all other city related requirements in the same area. This project will emerge as a futuristic mini city (Zawya, 2007). The entire facility’s master plan has been created based on the concept of extreme forward thinking. It is a part of Dubai Strategic Plan 2015. Broadway Malyan, a leading architectural, urbanism and integrated design practice, has partnered with DWC to create this world-class urban city that will be equipped with the most recent and innovative technological solutions. This will be a state-of-the-art facility with new offerings that are completely different from those existing in other economic zones of Dubai and around the world. This would act as a global city that aims to be sustainable as well as progressive. The facility will explore innovative solutions in architecture with least impact on the environment. The designers for this plan will include individuals who have played a key role in developing other major cities around the world such as, New York, Tokyo, Singapore and others. The project is currently developed with the objective of catering to all commercial needs till the year 2050 and beyond. The different segments will offer complete lifestyle solutions and facilities for the inhabitants. The commercial city will become the nerve cell of DWC, catering to all the markets of Dubai and the Middle East. The commercial district will be a hub for the media and creative firms, including office spaces, luxury boutiques and showrooms. The residential area will house sports and leisure clubs. The enterprise and commercial city within DWC will support a number of banking and financial industries. The city shall be connected with the rest of UAE through rail, where DWC will be one of the main stations for the Emirates Express Train set to be developed in future. The

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Human Sleep-Wake Cycle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Human Sleep-Wake Cycle - Essay Example In the decrement of circadian processes, sleep homeostasis takes charge, allowing for sleep opportunities to dominate (Martinez-Rodriguez & Santamaria, 2005). As part of biological rhythm, patterns in sleep-wake cycle may vary, depending on developmental age, but some of its mechanisms remain the same. Anatomical Description Neurological in origin, sleep-wake cycle is governed by brain structures, which in turn regulates neurochemical mechanisms. On structural construct, hypothalamus in midbrain is home to suprachiasmatic nucleus, which primarily controls circadian patterns of being awake and asleep (Conn, 2006). Progressively, arousal states in consciously-aware individuals are governed by several neurological parts: â€Å"brainstem...thalamus, and basal forebrain.† These anatomic landmarks are sources for several neurotransmitters, which chemically influence the sleep-wake cycle--promoting active or passive stimulation. Specifically, wakefulness is generated by chemical reac tions with â€Å"hyprocretin and locus coeruleus in hypothalamus and dopamine in thalamus,† while sleepiness is induced by â€Å"serotonin in brainstem and prostaglandin in forebrain† (Stiller, & Postolache, 2005, p. 2008). Each is either inhibited or exploited in order to maintain balance between wakefulness and sleepiness. If a part malfunctions, other neurochemicals compensate, before disruptions in sleep-wake cycle manifest. ... In stage 1, there is initial drowsiness and progression towards light sleep. On the next stage, light sleep deepens into true sleep--consistently repeated at midnight. In the last two stages, 3 and 4, biologic functions are slower, and slow-wave category of sleep takes place. This frequently occurs early in sleeping episodes and account for less than a quarter of overall sleeping time. As NREM has been through, more active brain activity signals entry into REM. Brain stimulation is intensive compared to previous levels in NREM, with distinctive â€Å"rapid eye movement...muscle paralysis, and dreaming† (Davis & Parker, 2004). As NREM occupies earlier periods of sleeping time, REM is exhibited during early mornings. In cyclical manner, sleep levels must pass from phases in NREM to REM, and constantly repeated as the chain is through--to achieve restful sleep. Sleep-wake Changes in Age Development Between the lengths of staying awake and falling asleep, there is a supposed diffe rence in this aspect for young and older groups. Length of continuous sleep is shortest in newborns, with less than 4 hours, and increases by 2 hours as they get older--totaling to 14-16 hours per day. In adolescence stage, 10 to 12 hours of sleep is common (Davis & Parker, 2004). Nonetheless, shortened sleep in young children lengthens with age augmentation, and declines as old age approaches. Significantly, circadian wake indicator is an hour or two earlier in older ones; hence, the range between staying awake and falling asleep is no longer proportional to that of younger samples (Billiard & Kent, 2003). The source for such alteration is traced back to circadian rhythm, where diminished natural processes change the older generations’ ability to stay asleep. As circadian

Is the Texas Prison System cruel and unusual Research Paper

Is the Texas Prison System cruel and unusual - Research Paper Example Most of the challenges facing the prison system emanate from overcrowding as inmates population have maintained an exponential growth in national levels over the recent past. A law suit has been filed against Texas Prison system after ten inmates succumbed to excessive heating over the summer. In Texas prison, elements of discriminations are evident when former inmates of the prison discuss their ordeal. Some former inmates have asserted that prison warders in Texas prison despise inmates to an extent that they do not value inmates as human beings. They claim that some of their fellow inmates have died out of treatable illnesses that the warders ignore. Some have continued to affirm that Texas prison system have in many occasions prevaricated on the information of murder concerns that are related to the prison system. In Texas prison, inmates are continually committing savage of acts of violence that goes unquestioned. The eminent evidence that these acts of violence are committed in the prison shows that prison officials are perpetuating and condoning the acts. Prison officials have the capability to eliminate all sorts of unethical deed in Texas Prison and which is a commonplace for behaviors such as rape. Texas prison system is suffering from lack of accountability to abuses bestowed to inmates. Lack of accountability is perpetuated by punitive prison policies that have provided a safe haven to breed lawlessness. Most of these policies diminish people’s self-worth, self-esteem that is required to propel an individual to change behaviors in the positive ways that develops productivity once the individual re- enters the society (Clear 270). George Cole is an acclaimed professor majoring in Political Science at the University of Connecticut. He has received a lot of credit in the field of criminal justice. He has received a lot of credit for carrying out research that has led to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Human Sleep-Wake Cycle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Human Sleep-Wake Cycle - Essay Example In the decrement of circadian processes, sleep homeostasis takes charge, allowing for sleep opportunities to dominate (Martinez-Rodriguez & Santamaria, 2005). As part of biological rhythm, patterns in sleep-wake cycle may vary, depending on developmental age, but some of its mechanisms remain the same. Anatomical Description Neurological in origin, sleep-wake cycle is governed by brain structures, which in turn regulates neurochemical mechanisms. On structural construct, hypothalamus in midbrain is home to suprachiasmatic nucleus, which primarily controls circadian patterns of being awake and asleep (Conn, 2006). Progressively, arousal states in consciously-aware individuals are governed by several neurological parts: â€Å"brainstem...thalamus, and basal forebrain.† These anatomic landmarks are sources for several neurotransmitters, which chemically influence the sleep-wake cycle--promoting active or passive stimulation. Specifically, wakefulness is generated by chemical reac tions with â€Å"hyprocretin and locus coeruleus in hypothalamus and dopamine in thalamus,† while sleepiness is induced by â€Å"serotonin in brainstem and prostaglandin in forebrain† (Stiller, & Postolache, 2005, p. 2008). Each is either inhibited or exploited in order to maintain balance between wakefulness and sleepiness. If a part malfunctions, other neurochemicals compensate, before disruptions in sleep-wake cycle manifest. ... In stage 1, there is initial drowsiness and progression towards light sleep. On the next stage, light sleep deepens into true sleep--consistently repeated at midnight. In the last two stages, 3 and 4, biologic functions are slower, and slow-wave category of sleep takes place. This frequently occurs early in sleeping episodes and account for less than a quarter of overall sleeping time. As NREM has been through, more active brain activity signals entry into REM. Brain stimulation is intensive compared to previous levels in NREM, with distinctive â€Å"rapid eye movement...muscle paralysis, and dreaming† (Davis & Parker, 2004). As NREM occupies earlier periods of sleeping time, REM is exhibited during early mornings. In cyclical manner, sleep levels must pass from phases in NREM to REM, and constantly repeated as the chain is through--to achieve restful sleep. Sleep-wake Changes in Age Development Between the lengths of staying awake and falling asleep, there is a supposed diffe rence in this aspect for young and older groups. Length of continuous sleep is shortest in newborns, with less than 4 hours, and increases by 2 hours as they get older--totaling to 14-16 hours per day. In adolescence stage, 10 to 12 hours of sleep is common (Davis & Parker, 2004). Nonetheless, shortened sleep in young children lengthens with age augmentation, and declines as old age approaches. Significantly, circadian wake indicator is an hour or two earlier in older ones; hence, the range between staying awake and falling asleep is no longer proportional to that of younger samples (Billiard & Kent, 2003). The source for such alteration is traced back to circadian rhythm, where diminished natural processes change the older generations’ ability to stay asleep. As circadian

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The US has gone through several keyboom and bust cycles since the Essay

The US has gone through several keyboom and bust cycles since the Civil War - Essay Example There was also the discovery of oil in Pennsylvania, and coal in the Appalachian Mountains. In 1873, there was a recession causing the collapse of the New York Stock market. This recession lasted until 1897. The next period is the progressive era of the 1890 to 1920. This period saw the emergence of a powerful middle class who advocated for the regulation of the American business environment. Due to their efforts, the American congress passed the Sherman antitrust act. This law was meant to prevent large business organizations from controlling a particular industry. It was passed in 1890. In 1912, President Woodrow Wilson introduced the income tax system. It is during this period that saw the creation of the Federal Reserve2. The role of this organization was to regulate the monetary system in America. There was the growth of the American economy between the periods of 1920-1929. This point in time is called the Roaring twenties. It is during this period that the automobile industry grew, and there was a reduction in taxes. The oil industry grew, as well as the glass industry. As a result, millions of people were employed in these industries. However, between 1921 to 1941, the economy of the state came under recession. This period is referred to as the Great depression. There was a failure in the country’s stock market, and money circulation was low3. Due to an increase in the country’s debts, congress raised the rate of income tax. The periods of 1945 to 1973 saw the rise of the American economy. This period is referred to as the post war period. This period saw the emergence of a well educated workforce, and the maturity of $200 billion war bond. This period saw the emergence of labor unions to advocate for the right of workers. The periods of 1972 to 1992 saw an increase in the capital and operational costs of several sectors of the American economy4. This period is referred to as the deregulation and reagonomics phase. This period saw the enac tment of the airline deregulation act, and the monetary control and the depository institution deregulation act. President Jimmy Carter instituted the 1977 stimulus package for purposes of recovering the economy. In 1980, there was a massive unemployment rate, with over 1.1 million people losing their jobs. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan introduced the concept of reagonomics. This concept led to a reduction of the income tax. The rate of reduction was 25%5. Between the periods of 1990, to the late 2000 is the era of globalization. There was the growth of the American stock market, and an increase to its GDP by 69%. This period was followed by the great depression of 2008 to 2010. This period saw the collapse of the construction industry, and the housing prices6. There was a collapse of leading financial institutions such as the Lehman brothers, and AIG insurance company. To bail out the economy, the American congress passed out over $700 billion. President Obama initiated the 2009 Investment and American recovery act. This law was meant to provide a stimulus of about $ 787 billion to the American economy. In conclusion, this paper identifies seven major boom and bust cycles that America had. These are the gilded age, the progressive era, the roaring twenties, the great depression, the age of deregulation and reagonomics, the period of globalization, and the great depress

Monday, October 14, 2019

Enhancing Democracy in the United States of America Essay Example for Free

Enhancing Democracy in the United States of America Essay Democracy: â€Å"1 a: government by the people ; especially : rule of the majority b: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections 2: a political unit that has a democratic government† (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary) With the 2008 elections fast approaching, and a highly fueled and hotly contested primary and general election campaign waning, the public is forced to consider the problems and opportunities in the American democratic system. Is there something wrong with the democratic system in the United States of America? If so, what? If there is a problem with democracy in America, what is it and how can it be fixed? The United States of America was born of an act of legislation designed to promote democracy. The United States has developed into a world superpower by enacting and enforcing legislation designed to enhance democracy. Today, legislation is passed by elected officials who then vote in national, state, and local legislative assemblies. In other words, voting and the electoral system, is the catalyst for maintaining democracy. The United States can improve democracy by improving the voting system that facilitates the democratic process. Federally mandated voter registration Today, many men are the beneficiaries of laws enacted giving their mothers the right to vote. All ethnic minorities are the beneficiaries of laws enacted giving African-Americans the right to vote. Voter registration is still optional, and considered a privilege. But now is the time to make voter registration a responsibility of all American citizens. Voter registration should be treated like Selective Service registration, a must for those who wish to receive any other benefits of citizenship including financial aid and government employment. It is not difficult to keep track of eligible voters, especially in this information age where all children are issued a social security number at birth. This process can be as simple as using the existing social security system to send registrations to those who have reached their 18th birthday and maintaining a national database similar to the social security and selective service rolls. Enforcement can be as simple as cross referencing social security numbers for registration upon application for jobs, financial aid, and public assistance. Compliance can be mandated by withholding benefits pending registration. This is a minimal effort and may not increase voter participation. But this registration plan could eliminate most existing barriers to voter registration. Federal authority over state and local elections This idea expands on the idea of the federal registration system. The Federal Elections Commission already exists. With electronic voting and reporting, federal authorities should require that all state and local elections comply with the same guidelines as national elections. This would work by applying residency requirements to both congressional elections and local elections. In other words, a person registered, residing, receiving benefits in Idaho cannot register to vote in local elections in Columbus, Georgia. This simply uses the wealth of electronic information captured on citizens to manage voting. This system would have to also account for citizens with multiple residences by requiring that everyone declare a primary residence which would be the location for their voting. If they know that they will be in a secondary residence at election time, the registration system should allow them to easily request absentee balloting which could be completed by mail or turned in at a local agency of the federal board of election. Citizen assemblies control re-districting activities Legislative assemblies and committees currently control political re-disctricting plans. In other words, elected officials decide when and how (and if) voters want, need, and get additional elected officials. Rapid economic development causes some districts to grow and change materially and demographically such that a single elected official cannot effectively serve the interests of the entire district. In that case citizens should have the right to send a message, at the voting booth, that they need additional representation. A citizen assembly should bring together elected and public officials, urban and economic planners, and affected citizens together to draw districting plans that represent the interests of all parties without compromising a sitting official’s position or ignoring a constituent’s special needs. A series of re-districting alternatives can be placed on the ballot for voters to decide. Voter responsibility education Schools should be required to include a course that teaches voting rights and responsibility as part of a social studies, American government, and civics curriculum. This course should be repeated at the university level to account for foreign students that will eventually become United States citizens. For older Americans who are beyond the educational system and for older immigrants, community based programs should be implemented that instill that voter registration is a responsibility of citzenship, not just an optional right or privilege. Tax deductible campaign donations Public financing for campaigns is generally not a tangible benefit for lower income voters. Many may see public financing as a way for candidates who do not have their interests in mind to advance their campaigns. Allowing federal and local tax deductions for small campaign donations can help to decrease feelings of disenfranchisement of lower income voters. They have the opportunity to directly support the candidate or issue of choice, and receive a ture public benefit (both the donation and the deduction). This could replace the current system and be managed at the federal level as well. Conclusion The United States can enhance democracy by modifying its election system. By placing activities such as deciding on political districts and adding value to campaign donations, voters are enfranchised in a greater way. Education makes citizens understand the benefits of voting. Consolidating the registration and polling makes the system as fair and not subject to less error. References democracy. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/democracy Gerkin, H. , et al. (2006). Six Ways to Reform Democracy. Boston Review, September/October 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://bostonreview. net/BR31. 5/gerken. php

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Is The Canadian Cable Television Industry a Natural Monopoly :: essays research papers

Chapter  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Outline Preface  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Chapter  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Title  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Page Preface  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Outline  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1 I  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Introduction  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Canadian Cable Television Industry  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 II  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Details  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Model  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Data  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4 III  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Externality Effect  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10 III  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Comparison with Telephone Industry  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12 IV  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  References  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  14 Table  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Title  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Page 1.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2003 Market Share of Canadian Cable Companies.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 2.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Canadian Cable Industry  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  5 2.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rogers Communications Incorporation  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7 2.3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Shaw Communications Incorporation  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  8 2.4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cogeco Cable Company  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9 3.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marginal Private Benefit  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  11 3.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marginal Private Cost  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  11 3.3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Demand Schedule of the market  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12 Figure  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Title  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Page 1.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2003 Market Share of Canadian Cable Companies.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 2.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Conventional Depiction of Natural Monopoly  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4 2.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Measurement of Possibility of Natural Monopoly  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  5 2.3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Canadian Cable Television Indusry  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6 2.4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rogers Communications Incorporations  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7 2.5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Shaw Communications Incorporation  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  8 2.6  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cogeco Cable Company  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10 3.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Externality Effect of Regulation of Cable Industry  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12 Chapter  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Introduction 1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A. THE CANADIAN CABLE TELEVISION INDUSTRY It all started back in 1981 when Vidà ©otron Ltà ©e and La Presse introduce the first electronic newspaper via cable in Montreal. One year later, The Canadian Radio-television Commission licensed Canada's first pay services and 58% of home televisions were connected to the cable television. The majority of industry members have formed an association the CCTA – Canadian Cable Televisions Association, to have a unified word when facing regulators, help promote the industry’s services. Table 1.1 and figure 1.1 show that CCTA have through its members a control over more than 70% of the Canadian cable services. Table 1.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Market Control (2003) ROGERS   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  30.30% SHAW   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  27.20% COGECO   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  11.20% EASTLINK   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3.20% ACCESS   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1.00% MONARCH   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.80% OTHER*   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  26.40% TOTAL   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  100% *less than 50,000 customers each Figure 1.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2003 Market share of Canadian Cable Companies Since its inception, cable television service has been subject of substantial intervention on the part of regulators in Canada. The Cable television operators are licensed by a single federal regulatory authority, the CRTC. It classifies Licensed Service Areas (LSA) based partly on the current subscription level within the LSA and partly on the quality of broadcast reception available to the service provider. The issues to be addressed in this paper are the following:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Was the enforced monopoly provision of basic cable television justified? Chapter  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Details 2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A. MODEL When a monopoly occurs because it is more efficient for one firm to serve an entire market than for two or more firms to do so, because of the sort of economies of scales available in that market. A common example is water distribution, in which the main cost is laying a network of pipes to deliver water. One firm can do the job at a lower average cost per customer than two firms with competing networks of pipes. Monopolies can arise unnaturally by a firm acquiring sole ownership of a resource that is essential to the production of a good or service, or by a government granting a firm the legal right to be the sole producer. Other unnatural monopolies occur when a firm is much more efficient than its rivals for reasons other than economies of scale.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Why was Italy not unified after the Congress of Vienna (1815)? :: essays research papers

Before the Congress of Vienna the French occupation had far reaching affects on Italy. The power of the Church and the Pope was reduced, changes were made in landownership and land was redistributed. A new middle class began to appear. Agriculture was improved and the peasants were freed from their old feudal ties and obligations. Then when Napoleon was defeated and the restoration of the old regime and monarchs was started, Italy again became a country divided into eleven independent states, excluding the tiny principalities and the Republic of San Marino. So Italy was not unified after the Congress of Vienna due to a number of reasons, such as the foreign influence of the Central European Powers, parochialism within the states, the lack of a common language and a strong economy coupled with the poor geography that separated Italy from itself and the rest of Europe.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the major factors that contributed to Italy not being unified after the congress of Vienna was the impact of foreign influence. Before the restoration of the old regime in Italy state boundaries were rearranged a number of times, ending up with a division of the peninsula into only three parts instead of eleven states. One third, including Piedmont, was annexed to France, one third became the Kingdom of Italy, and Napoleon’s brother, Joseph, as the Kingdom of Naples, ruled the remainder. Yet at the restoration of the old regime in Italy after the Congress of Vienna, the Pope was among those who regained their positions. During the Napoleonic occupation successive Popes had been taken into exile in France, and the temporal power of the Pope as ruler of an Italian state had been declared at an end. But when the Pope returned he was intent on restoring temporal, as well as spiritual, control. The Papal States were divided into seventeen provinces, five of which were under the authority of Papal Legates, or Cardinals, who acted as provincial governors. The remainder, which were nearer Rome, were controlled by priests known as Delegates. The whole administration of the Papal States was in the hands of the clergy. The lay people had no part in government, apart from a few lay members of advisory bodies called ‘congregations’. Politically, Italy was fragmented. Further, half the states were governed by kings or dukes who already occupied or hoped soon to inherit the thrones of the non-Italian countries.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Plts Unit 1

Unit 1- Preparing for an Apprenticeship 1. What are the components of your Apprenticeship? |1. 1 What are the components of your Apprenticeship framework and what is the relevance of each? |Functional Skills Level 1 (English & Maths) – this provides basic skills that will be | |required in day to day activities and support you in life, learning and work | | | |Employment and Personal Learning and Thinking Skills Level 2 (PLTS) | |5 units – Personal learning and thinking encourages the development of being able to generate ideas, tackle problems and find solutions,| |work independently or within teams and understand legal and organisational requirements . | | |Certificate in Healthcare Support Services Level 2 | |9 units (5 mandatory, 4 optional) – The purpose of this qualification is to | |guide and assess the development of Knowledge and skills relating to the health | |workforce. This qualification confirms competence in a range of healthcare support | |se rvice skills. | |1. Describe how each component will be assessed | |Functional Skills Level 1 (English & Maths) | |This is assessed by completion of online or paper based tests achieved within agreed timescale of the first 6 months. | | | |Employment and Personal Learning and Thinking Skills Level 2 (PLTS) | |5 Units | |This is assessed by completion of the PLTS workbook, which is to be completed with YAS training. | | |Certificate in Healthcare Support Services Level 2 | |9 Units | | | |This is assessed through work based learning. Demonstrating knowledge and performance within set criteria using a variety of methods , | |such as: Observations, Work Products, Case Studies, Professional/Guided Discussion). | |1. 3 Describe the purpose of the apprenticeship agreement | | | |This relies on the learner to be very motivated and dedicated to achieve the milestones set. This also relies on the employer providing | |opportunities for learning and guidance to the learner. |The trainin g provider establishing the learners strengths and individual learning style in order to support with efficiency of capturing | |evidence to support achievement of the framework within the timescale set. | 2. Be able to set goals for the coming year. |2. 1 Describe the importance of meeting deadlines | | | |By meeting deadlines this keeps the learner on track with the programme, therefore doesn’t fall behind and have to catch up with work | |that should already have been completed. By agreeing targets on a monthly basis it also encourages the learner to maintain motivation and| |efficiency with meeting targets. | |2. Describe the importance of being organised | | | |Being organised will make the programme a lot easier for everyone involved. This will help me to achieve deadlines set, maintain good | |motivation, enjoyable work etc. | | | |All of this should ensure successful completion of the qualification | |2. 3 Create targets for own skills development and completion of the Apprenticeship. | | |To complete work within deadlines set | |To be organised in all aspects of work and placement | |To maintain a professional appearance at all times | |To uphold a professional attitude/manor | |To adhere to the trust uniform/dress code | |To treat people as individuals and respect their dignity. | |To work cooperatively within teams and respect the skills, expertise and contributions of my colleagues. | 3. Understand the progression routes. |3. 1 What sources of information are available regarding progression routes? | | |If I am wanting to progress into a different job role I can seek advice from my team leader/manager at the base station I am working at. | | | |Information for these roles are available from the YAS intranet or the internet (google). | |3. 2 What are the possible progression routes within YAS? | | | | | | | |There are many different progression routes to possibly go down after completion of the PTS apprentiship.Some of which are; | |â⠂¬ ¢ Band 3 PTS driver | |†¢ Assistant practitioner | |†¢ Paramedic | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |