Thursday, February 28, 2019

Dress for success Essay

Is the way a psyche set upes main(prenominal)? It justt be said yes, it is. It is heavy not only for the impression he creates for the throng around him, simply also there is a more(prenominal) than(prenominal) important factor- that the tog a soul wears come tos them thumb good. Whenever a soul goes somewhere he is same a turtle, and his clothes are his lecture, and when he goes somewhere he needs to be croped-up well, and even if the joint is not important, and he average goes for a walk with his dog, understanding that his shell aspects minute, and perfectly meets him makes him tactile property more comfortable. So, a mortal who wears nice clothes is more successful and self-confident. Unfortunately, according to what we bottom of the inning see not altogether lot in society are following this straight antecedent principle. Most of them just dont care well-nigh how they look, and thusly some of them might complain closely being unsuccessful.Maybe this disuse could be a reason for their failures. Some people may beseech that clothes are not so important, and it depends on a person, and how wise he is, and that only hard work can influence success. However, it does matter, and it is in truth(prenominal) important to nurse a nice clothes How people dress affects the way they feel well-nigh themselves and the situation in which they perform. Dating and dash coach and the founder of the Fashion Experts Ne 2rk, Sheila Dicks, wrote in one of her articles, How grooming affects your location and confidence, that we dont have to spend enormous amounts of gold on our clothes, but the way we combine clothes and then confront ourselves in them, may show our self-confidence and assurance.Dressing for many people seems very insignificant, and they dont believe that it can affect attitude. How people dress is related in some way to how they feel, affirms Sheila Dicks. It makes sense, when we feel good we dress well, but when we are not in the toughness we can look very stupid. However when we put on nice things, which we really enjoy, this automatically triggers our mood to be good, so we have more energy for the day, and things seem part for us. In Sheilas article theres written that there are some aspects that can increase attitude 1) if a person knows the occasion where hes breathing out to be 2) if he knows the audience hes going to interact with 3) he knows his own style 4) if he has an idea of how to combine illusions. 1) tailor according to the event is important in order not to look stupid in front of other people.It can be just going shopping or going to a business lunch, but a person has to remember to dress according to the occasion. 2) The people who the separate is in contact with are considered to be an audience. Dress is an image of a person which he leave be introduced in front of his friends, colleagues, enemies and so on. It also has to do with social situation we dont commonly se e a woman working in the supermarket and wearing a cocktail dress, because she has a suitable dress code which he must follow. 3) In everything we do we have our own personal style, which makes us distinguishable from all(prenominal) other. People express their style of clothes in clothes structure, material, shape, as well as accessories. Not all occasions suit a persons personal style, but beingaware of it helps to give clothes for situation occasion.There are people who look better in warm colors and others in cool colors. Each color has different description and can lead to different effect. (Self-Growth) The go around accl mystify that some embody can make to another person is to say, You look waste. It means that the job that somebody did with his outfit is successful, and he succeed in impressing others. This compli ment about the overall outfit, is even better than hearing about a specific part of the outfit, for example, the shoes, or a bag, or a coat This compliment means that the persons attire was successfully combined, with his self- confidence make the person look fantastic. Its especially important when making a first impression.Because when first meeting someone a good impression allow be made. In a persons life theres a very important and significant step, which may influence their whole life, this step is to find a good job. It means that people should beresponsible about purpose work because nobody wants to lose out on a chance, so a person has to be very concerned about it. Its when first impressions are made as well. According to CNNs reports about what employers demand from people who went to the job interview, we can see that how we dress says a lot about us, and it forms an employers opinion and decides our future in the keep company ( A company may not have a particular dress code, but they would like to see people working in appropriate and suitable clothes the employers want to see a person with clean.Also f rom this CNN survey we can see when an employer has to choose between two applicants, the one who was nicely dressed and feels very confident about himself, will get a job over the applicant whos reanimate is just as good, but he is not well dressed well enough ( Many people can argue with that and say that it is unfair, and an employer should not make decision based just on appearance, but unfortunately its true, and its really taking place. When this well- dressed person gets his dream- job, it doesnt mean that he should stop trying to do his best while dressing every morning. Now hes dressing not only to impress, but also to help himself to increase his productivity and self-confidence during this working period.For example he may have very a important business meeting, and he might be vile aboutit, but since he put on his chic and voguish suit, which seems like it was just made for his body structure he is at least sure that the people he is going to meet wi th will like his look, and will be more friendly and more respectful. Then, when he finally meets them, and he sees their reaction toward him, it gives him more energy and more desire, and the aim is to impress them with his working learnings as well. Basically, this example shows how a good suit can make signing a profitable business direct possible. Women like to impress not only business partners, but theyre also interested in impressing the men they meet socially. Being in a good physical shape and having a nice body is great however it is even better if this body is covered with glossy clothing.There is very good book How to Dress for Success by Edit Head where she gives a lot of good advice and tips about how to dress for success in different areas and also with men. It makes no difference whether a woman is just interested in a man for a relationship or as whether she sees in him a potential husband. In both examples she should put effort into choosing what to wear. Head w rites that women should have an idea where and how the season is going to be, so she can choose the perfect outfit. If they go to a restaurant, or to the cinema, or to the opera, or just for a walk in the park she has to have an idea to what kind of clothes she will feel most comfortable in, and whether it will suit the place.The man should also like her outfit, because if he doesnt the whole mascarade was in vane (Chapter 2). Most men really dont care whether a girl is liable(p) or not, they will find that out later firstly they yield in love with their eyes not with the girls intelligence. We can see that the way we dress is so important and it regulates our attitude. Wherever we go, we have to be dressed perfectly in order to feel more confident, and to make people more attracted to us.Knowing how to combine clothes efficaciously and how to buy the ones that suit us is a very useful skill and knowledge to have if a person finds something very nice, but unfortunately it doesnt suit him, it means he shouldnt buy it. looking good increases our productivity as well when we feel comfortable about our appearance we perform better in the work place. People who bug us also feel it, and they are more attracted to the person, who have toughened self-esteem, and in know what they want. At workthese people are more appreciated, and are more likely to get a good job, which leads to making good money, so basically dressing well helps us to make money. However, we dont really see successful and rich people who dressing bad do we?Work listDicks , Sheila. How Dressing Affects Your mental attitude and Confidence. http// N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar 2014. Head, Edit. How to dress for success . New York Random House, 1967. Web. Haefner, rosemary . how to dress for success at work. human resources vice president. (2008) n. page. Web. 9 Apr. 2014.

Hospital Marketing in North Shore University Hospital

Being one of the foundations of the system of health c are, New Yorks North Shore University Hospital (NSUH) is identified for its 2,700 health specialists, approximately 730 beds facilitated by 10,500 nursesthe biggest in Long Island. With a yearly operating budget amounting to about $4 billion, NSUH is the countrys third-largest, secular and non-profit hospital. With an interview with Theresa Howard, assistant for the hospitals market department, she discussed how North Shore University Hospital came to be a competitive health care provider.Bautista What was inside NSUH before in term of marketing?Howard NSUH functioned similar to an in-house provider, satisfied with satisfying interior requirements and conversing with the staffs, doctors and patients. They didnt throw forth enough attempt to endorse their hospital, certain with idea of existence unwavering. They didnt even have marketing memorandum that plays when clients or directers calls and when they are govern into ho ld.Bautista When did NSUH realized that they have to advertise?Howard Thats when contenders become register and they discovered that the patients were non opening the doors like in previous days and realized that the revenues started to decline. They never realized this till they understood the consequences. Time changes and creation chooses all the surmount for him. They choose the best hospital that would offer the best services they could.Bautista What were the primary steps they did upon seeing the problem?Howard They automatically employ me and my partner Christine Malcolm to think strategies that will get back the sympathy of their clients and will boost the image of the hospital. We didnt do anything new its still that it was new for NSUH. We built a strong strategic program and festering through financial models, convincing NSUH that they assume to exert effort because NSUH was not doing well in terms of revenues. NSUH has to cut its budget and risk for marketing. a nd then after convincing them, we hired Storandt Pann Margolis advertising agency and began to work with marketing planning, doing interviews, and developing the budget for the year 2003. We made advertising campaigns including commercials wit televisions and radios, website and distinguishable kinds of strategies to catch attentions. We even proposed to change the name of NSUH. We in any case conducted our first mass-marketing campaign. . We also redesigned the website for guide consultations for physicians and also for additional ad campaigns. We even include call centers and advertising agents.Bautista After such effort youve done, what were the topics?Howard Finally, campaign was launched in October 2003, using the different kind of media. They didnt used actors in the ads, but instead, put up the actual interview with the doctors, staffs, nurses, researchers with regards to what they does to improve and deliver their quality service. The result after several weeks, theres an increase of volume in the referral line in the redesigned website. From the fourthtop-mind surveys, NSUH went up to 3rd. The have been also an increase of admission to 2-3 percent from the last years record. This campaign had also returned profit which they have loss for the last years. They got a profit of $6.5 M, which was unfeignedly a big improvement. Revenues increased to 9 percent as a result of an effective marketing.This has shown the relevance of having marketing plans. With the highly competitive time, we need to create strategic plans in order to establish a changeless business. Furthermore, having marketing plan doesnt just strengthen the stability of a certain company, but instead, also benefits the consumers with regards to good the opportunities theyll receive upon choosing one.ReferencesMichele Howard, vice president for marketing department of NSUH University Medical Center.http// August11, 2007

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Gender Discrimination Essay

The video is all(a) about the portrayal of comic manual that was released by the United States force in handling situation of homosexuality among its soldiers. The manual is aimed in explaining the incumbent steps and procedures in handling homosexual causes to soldiers. It features a particular case of a low rank soldier that was caught to be engaged in a homosexual acts and how his higher command treat him (professionally) towards his discharge because of his engagement in such(prenominal) acts. As the video had shown, the workplace is not a gender-neutral place.This is amplified in the case of a workplace that is considered to have a armed forces orientation as shown in the video. As concluded by Kristen Schilt in the article, in many workplaces, the masculinity of a male is valued that is why feminine males or homosexuals be being undermined and discriminated. Shown in the video, PFC Williams was laid-off in the war machine because of his engagement in the homosexual acts . As state by Schilt, being a man or masculinity is an pass judgment that is celebrated in many professions especially in the military.This is because of the association of such attribute to other important characteristics and concepts like authority, prestige and instrumentality that are perceived to be related to highly regarded position such as leaders and managers. In this attentiveness, any form of diversion from masculinity or being a man most especially in the military is discouraged. This drops the idea of a having a free world wherein each unmarried are respected whoever he or she is. Scenarios like this remind to us that there is still much work to be done for us to attain as situation wherein every individual get the respect that he or she deserve from the society.References MSNBC (n. d. ) Dont ask, dont tell illustrated. The Rachel Maddow Show. Web. Retrieved from http//www. msnbc. msn. com/id/26315908/vp/3825266238252662 Accessed 2 August 2010. Schilt, K. (2006) Jus t one of the guys? How Transmen Make sex activity Visible at Work. Gender and Society Vol. 20 No. 4. Sociologists for Women in Society. Print. Accessed 2 August 2010. Williams, C. (1992) The Glass Escalator Hidden Advantages for Men in the Female Professions. University of California Press. Print. Accessed 2 August 2010.

Jose Rizal and his Nationalism Essay

Jose Rizal was idealistic, who wants to free his countrymen from ignorance, exploitation and discrimination. With the use of his works and writings especially his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, he reveals to his mickle their experiences and sufferings, sufferings which he brought to light in an effort to stir up his countrymen to the truths that had long remained unspoken, although not totally unheard of.He showed to his people their sufferings friars and well-behaved authorities, how the friars whom were guilty of bribery and corruption had made of the Catholic religion an factor of domination and had prostituted it with exterior practices which foster the appearance of worship. The friars also enriched themselves not and by exhorting excessive fees for church services, but also by unjust acquisition of land estates. They made themselves feared by civil officials.They enjoy priorities oer high government officials whose tenure of office they can control. The go vernment itself sees zero point, hears nothing, and decides nothing except what the parish priests realises it see, hear, and decide. And the civil guards do not protect the citizens like they supposed(p) to but protect the interests of the friars and the Spaniards only. The priests controlled also the acts of the ignorant natives and threatened the indios heads with excommunication for the slightest grade of disrespect and disobedience. many a(prenominal) Filipinos had become victims of human indignities. They were deprived of their correctly. They had no right to question authority they were born only to serve.But Rizal did not puzzle the blame entirely on the religious and civil authorities he also h cardinalstly showed the weaknesses and defects of the Filipinos. The people themselves, by their timidity, fear, and cowardice had shackled their minds and pervert their souls. Contaminated by the airs of superiority of the Spaniards, despise their own countrymen and make th emselves ridiculous with their pretensions at false imitation. Rizal criticized this, the unspoken embarrassments of the natives for their own ancestry, and aspires to become a Spaniard to leave behind any trace of Filipino in them and and so boasts to everyone. With that they gradually allowed the Spaniards to enslave them. As Rizal often said, at that place are no tyrants where there are no slaves.And that Rizal treasured to vindicate his race from the insults and prejudices upon the Filipinos, and that his people were not an anthropoid race, as the Spaniard asserted. Although Filipinos have some vices and defects, the same with another(prenominal) people in the world, they are not those which the Spanish writers attribute them that there is no stimulus to worth or to merit. On the contrary, when Filipinos rise preceding(prenominal) heap they are ridiculed and made the object of mockery unless they serve the friars. Many Filipinos are persecuted in false conspiracies or exil ed from their towns for standing up for their rights.Rizal wanted to bring back the pride in Filipino ancestors, a needful component in the formation of national consciousness, and answer criticisms against Filipinos and their culture. He disproved the Spaniards and showed that the then(prenominal) of the Philippines already had a developed culture.Rizal in all effort essay to convince the Spanish government that there was an urgent need for reforms in the society in the government, and in the Catholic church of the Philippines. And that violence is not the preferred solution and it should come about peacefully and sensibly and that one great solution is education. He tried to show that there was no rebellion or revolution in the Philippines, but there would be, if the abuses and excesses of the friars and the disposition push the Filipinos to their limit.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Human body Essay

A trip to the cinemas or even to the local bookstore will reveal the make generations enchantment with the folkloric undead. This fascination, however, is not a impudently one as most of the present lovable undead characters are actually just old characters that wee been effrontery a make-over. From the charismatic vampires of Anne Rice in her Vampire Chronicles series to the pathological and gruesome zombies in the films, the folkloric undead have taken on a new shape from the early 19th century.Perhaps, the change can be attributed to a more imaginative set of authors and writers but then again more of this change can also be attributed to the developments in science and medicament which have allowed for a deeper ground of the human body and the undead who feast on them. The vampires that Anne Rice creates are more seemingly human than they are vampire. This incarnation allows the reader to identify with the characters.As Anne Rice carefully describes every energy and vei n that runs down the potential victims neck, the reader feels as if he or she were the one taking that fatal bite. Dracula and Frankenstein have also been given more human sides as we see in the movies. The tale of love and revenge has no application to things which are not human. This is something that these writers and directors have realized.In order to capture the attention of the audience, one moldiness be able to personify these characters and give them feelings and even appearances that can be mistaken for human beings. While arguably Frankenstein may be uttermost from being human in the sense of the word, his feelings of revenge and even committedness at times is too human to be mistaken for anything else. By employing the literary device such as personification and developing an understanding of the human body, todays writers have evolved the genre from the simplistic undead of the anterior century.

Haefren-Baum Case

Name of the business Haefren Baum GmgH Nature of the business Haefren Baum is a retailer of advanced quality home article of furniture located in Cologne, Germany. They oblige similarly added three outlet stores in Rhineland, a nearby suburban atomic number 18a. marketing Analysis Haefren retails high quality furniture manufactured by Wiegandt has advertise aggressively in position to build and maintain a good brand image. Haefren public assistanceed tremendously from the successful marketing provided by Wiegandt. Wiegandt has However, because the nature of the convergence is high-end and durable, gross sales be subject to fluctuations of the business cycle.During the economic boom starring(p) up to 1993 Haefren, as well as the exertion in general, enjoyed arduous sales. However, the economic bust in 1993 has slowed sales growth. Decreased consumer confidence caused industry sales growth to decrease from 42. 9% in 1992 to 9% in 1993. Haefren experienced negative sales growth during this period. Haefren has a strong combative position however, it is quickly deteriorating. The auxiliary of 3 outlets give Haefren an opportunity to gravel a wider market than it currently has. However, wise competitors entering the market are all competing for stagnant demand.European retailers are also entering the German furniture market which makes it even harder for Haefren to maintain its competitive advantage. Operations Analysis Haefren obtains its mathematical product directly from the manufacturer, Weigandt. Weigandt has provided fairly liberal credit terms which include a discount for early payment (2% 10, moolah 30). However, they possess jeopardized their lose credit terms because of inefficiencies with their receivables, inventories, and fixed summations. A major issue that Haefren needs to care is the delinquency of their customers accounts.From 1993 to 1995, days sales outstanding pose incrementd to 77 days, which is dramatically higher than the 30-day monthly installment terms. This delay in accrual is creating cash flow problems for Haefren. It is causing them to fall behind on their payments to Weigandt and suffer out on significant savings from the early payment discount. The increase in its collection period was expected in 1993 repayable to the fall prudence. However, the economy is now improving and Haefrens collection period is appease change magnitude. This signals to inefficiencies within the companys collection department.Perhaps, they should even consider increasing the subdue payment required to establish credit. The sluggish sales in the furniture industry can account for the increase in armoury days. Haefren inventory in 1994-1995 stayed on the floor for around 129 days earlier it was sold. The durable period that they are holding inventory is increasing their bell of goods sold. Not only are they holding inventory for a longer period of time, but they are also underutilizing their fixed assets . Fixed asset turn everyplace decreased for Haefren from 1993-1994. They constructed three new outlet stores which should have helped them with sales.However, due to the sluggish demand, these new fixed assets are not returning the sales they were supposed to. Haefren needs to consider whether these outlets are worth the investments. They could potentially benefit from sending inventory from their retail store to the outlet sooner. Even if they have to sell it at a discount, if they do not lose silver on it, the lower revenue would be much beneficial. It appears that Haefren might be experiencing problems with human resources as well. They carry a debt account for notes payables for employees.This account reflects loans that have been made from the employees, or their relatives, to the company. Why are they borrowing from employees? This could potentially sleep together from accrued wages, which would be an even greater issue. Financial Analysis Haefrens funding has come from ban k loans and utilizing credit from its vendors. Funding needs increase due to the addition of 3 new outlet stores. These outlet stores have increased Haefrens debt over the three years in questions. on with this new debt, two of the original partners sold their shares to the other two partners.It seems the like there are too many changes going on at Haefren all at once. In regards to cash flows, Haefren is performing poorly. Cash flows from trading operations are unhealthy and the total cash on hand has declined over the three years in question. Total cash flow from operations is confirming, however, they appear to be drive by depreciation. Their negative net income (net loss), is not driving operations cash flow in a positive direction. They are also carrying a great deal of inventory which is overwhelming their cash. In order for them to drive up net income they need to breakthrough a way to decrease their inventories.Accounts receivables are also impacting cash flows in a ne gative way. A/R have increased each year, which can be attributed to the weak economy. This drag in A/R is causing them to receive cash-in after cash goes out. Their cash flow problems are evident when analyzing their account payable days. Wiegdant has given them competitive terms (2% 10, net 30), however, Haefren cannot meet those terms. Their account payable days have increased to 66 days. It is taking them twice as long to repay their current liabilities. every(prenominal) of these cash flow problems are having a negative impact on their liquidity.Their quick ratio is increasing from year to year, but it is cosmos driven by inventories. Their Current ratio also appears to be ok however, it is being driven by accounts receivables. Although they appear to going in the adjust direction, it is not a good sign for Haefren. Inventories and receivables are also driving down operating margin. The positive cash flow from investments reflects the addition of the three new outlets. Inves ting in long term assets is a good thing. Ideally, the addition of these assets (outlets) should have take to higher revenues for Haefren. However, they invested in those assets at the wrong time.Their sales growth (revenues) cannot support the addition of the outlets. Weak sales led to a negative return on equity and the addition of the three outlets led to a negative net profit margin. The interest being paying(a) on the current debt in 1995 was 3. 08% of their net sales. Haefren cannot handle any more debt without first making significant changes to their operations. Summary A weak economy has led to Haefren poor financial conditions. They expanded at the wrong time, right when the economy went sour. They also need to handle their inventories and accounts receivable in order to avoid further cash flow problems.

Monday, February 25, 2019

F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay

On September 24, 1896, Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was natural to Edward Fitzgerald and Mollie McQuillan Fitzgerald, the product of two vastly different Celtic strains. Edward, who came from tired, elder Maryland stock and claimed distant kinship with the composer of The Star Spangled Banner, (Spencer, 367-81) instilled in his son the old-fashioned virtues of honor and courage and taught by example the sweetie of genteel manners. Fitzgerald was smitten by the sophisticated sixteen-year-old at a St. capital of Minnesota Christmas dance in 1914 during his sopho more than year at Princeton.For the next two years, he conducted a one-sided romance both in someone and through ardent correspondence with a girl who embodied his pattern of wealth and social position. Ginevra, however, was more interested in adding to her collection of suitors than in restricting herself to one. Legend has it, moreover, that Fitzgerald overheard someone, perhaps Ginevras father, remark that poor boys sh ould neer think of marrying rich girls. (Moreland, 25-38) By 1916, the romance had ended, get ahead its effect lingered yen in Fitzgeralds psyche.Fitzgeralds greatness lies as much in the conception as in the achievement. In this way Fitzgerald and his fiction develop some essential quality of the American myth and dream that were the reduce his life historytime of ad hominem and literary effort. Without doubt, Fitzgeralds art was a receipt to his life. He immersed himself in his age and became its chief chronicler, bringing to his fiction a realism that tip overs it the quality of a photograph or, perhaps more appropriately, a documentary film.With the clothing, the music, the slang, the automobiles, the dances, the fads in the specificity of its social milieu-Fitzgeralds fiction documents a heartbeat in time in all its historical reality. Yet Fitzgerald captures more than just the physical evidence of that time. He bring ins with equal clarity the psychology (the dre ams and hopes, the anxieties and fears) reflected in that world because he lived the life he recorded.Autobiography thusly forms the basis of the social realism that is a hallmark of Fitzgeralds fiction, alone it is autobiography transmuted through the deprecative lens of both a personal and a cultural amatory sensibility, a second defining peculiarity of his art. These two strands help to place Fitzgerald within American literary history. (Hindus, 45-50) Fitzgerald came to swelling as a writer in the twenties, a period dominate by the postwar novel, and thus his fiction reflects all the contradictions of his age. World fight I was a defining event for Fitzgerald and the writers of his generation whether or non they saw action in the field.Postwar developments on the home introductory contributed as well to the sense of purposelessness, decay, political failure, and cultural emptiness that pervades the belles-lettres of the 1920s. A new conservatism dominated America. Fit zgeralds fiction of the 1920s reveals the tensions inherent in this mixture of anxious longing for the old certainties and obstinate excitement at the prospect of the new, just as his fiction of the thirties captures the human cost the wasted potential and psychic dislocation of the gay, forte spree and its subsequent crash.His critics argue that he is no more than a stylish chronicler of his age, a mere recorder of the fashions and amusements, the manners and mores of his postwar generation, and he is certainly that. Yet verisimilitude, the truthful rendering of experience, is a distinguishing feature of graphic fiction, and particularly of the novel of manners, a literary form that examines a nation and their culture in a specific time and place and a category into which much of Fitzgeralds fiction fits. Thus, Fitzgeralds ability to convey accurately his own generation is not necessarily a weakness.Fitzgeralds lyricism and symbolist mode of writing reveal an essentially roman tic sensibility that not only gives shape to his worldview, linking it to some traditional attitudes roughly the individual and human existence, but also supports his thematic preoccupations. Critics who complain of Fitzgeralds inability to evaluate the world that he so brilliantly records (and the life that he so intensely lived) need look no further than his third novel, The Great Gatsby (1925), for proof of his double consciousness.Increasingly aware of the intricate social, psychic, and economic forces that were driving his generation to excess and emptiness, Fitzgerald found the literary forms to give them expression in a novel that is now considered a moderne masterpiece. Through his indirect, often ironic first-person narrative, Fitzgerald was able to give the story of Jay Gatsby, a man who reinvents himself to capture a dream, sad nobility, and the novels knotty symbolic landscape reinforces this view.Gatsby may initially be just other corrupt product of his material wo rld, but through the eyes of come off Carraway, readers gradually come to see him as a romantic dreamer who has somehow managed, despite his shadowy past and equally shady present, to anticipate uncorrupted. Fitzgeralds complex symbolic landscape also elevates Gatsbys seek to the realm of myth, the myth of the American Dream, and thus the novel offers a critical perspective on a nation and a people as well as on a generation. When E Scott Fitzgerald died in celestial latitude 1940, his reputation was that of a failed writer who had squandered his talent in inebriation and excess.He may have written the novel that defined a decade, This Side of Paradise ( 1920), and another that exposed the dreams and illusions of a nation, The Great Gatsby ( 1925), but his achievement had been overshadowed and largely blighted by his life. (Frohock, 220-28) Works Cited Frohock W. M. Morals, Manners, and Scott Fitzgerald. Southwest review article 40( 1955) 220-228. Hindus Milton. F. Scott Fitzge rald An Introduction and Interpretation. naked York Holt, 1968. 45-50 Moreland Kim. The Education of F. Scott Fitzgerald Lessons in the Theory of History. southern Humanities Review 19(1985) 25-38. Spencer Benjamin T. Fitzgerald and the American Ambivalence. South Atlantic Quarterly 66( 1967) 367-381. Appendix LITERARY WORKS BY F. SCOTT FITZGERALD This Side of Paradise. new-fashioned York Charles Scribners Sons, 1920 Scribner paper-back book Fiction, 1995. Flappers and Philosophers. in the raw York Charles Scribners Sons, 1920. The Beautiful and Damned. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1922 Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995. Tales of the Jazz Age. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1922. The Vegetable Or, from President to Postman.New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1923. The Great Gatsby. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1925 Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995. All the lamentable Young Men. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1926. Tender is the Night. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 193 4 Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995. Taps at Reveille. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1935. POSTHUMOUS PUBLICATIONS The Last Tycoon. Ed. Edmund Wilson. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1941 The Love of the Last Tycoon. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1994.The Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Malcolm Cowley. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1951. Afternoon of an Author. Ed. Arthur Mizener. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1957. Babylon Revisited and Other Stories. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1960. six Tales of the Jazz Age and Other Stories. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1960. Pat by-line Stories. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1962. The Apprentice Fiction of F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1909-1917. Ed. John Kuehl. New Brunswick, NJ Rutgers University Press, 1965. The Basil and Josephine Stories. Ed. Jackson R.Bryer and John Kuehl. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1973. Bits of Paradise 21 Uncollected Stories by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1973. F. Scott Fitzgeralds St. Paul Plays, 1911-1914. Ed. Alan Margolies. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Library, 1978. The Price Was High The Last Uncollected Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli . New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. The wretched Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. A New Collection. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1989.

Style and Analysis Essay for Soldier

tin Ruskin, an face critic of art and society, wrote a passage arguing that we should be magnanimous precedence to the soldier rather than to the merchant or manufacturer. In at onces world mevery people debate about who deserves to be emphasized in society. Ruskins argument is invalid beca usance of his accustom of everydayization, glowering dilemma, pathos and charged language. He uses a shady and uncontaminating literary argument to show the difference between soldier and manufacturer and generalization to deliver it front as though every last(predicate) soldiers participate for the same reason. The use of pathos and charged language re tout ensembley plays with the readers emotions.In Ruskins passage he argues that the soldier should be more than respected and considered more principal(prenominal) than a merchant or manufacturer. Ruskin, directing his passage to the general society, says a soldier would put him in a fortress breach, with all the pleasures of the wo rld behind him, and only death and his duty in appear of him. This statement, very generalized, uses the logical fallacy of generalization. In this statement John Ruskin describes all the soldiers together as one, instead of individually. Just because all soldiers participate in warfare, does not mean they all are in favor of death, or dying for their country.For example a man could fuddle joined war and become a soldier because he didnt have any skills or simply because he enjoys the act of killing, not because he wants to oppose for his country. Ruskin, using pathos, says that soldiers give up pleasures of the world and put their duty in front. In this quote Ruskin uses charged words to emotionally involve you. occupation is a strong word that many of us take as another word for responsibility. In some perspectives duty is seen as a law one must uphold a moral or legal obligation. Putting death before pleasure makes the reader receive obligated to respond with sympathy.Not only does John Ruskin play on our emotions and delinquency us into making soldiers seem more important, he makes a sullen and white statement about soldiers and merchants/manufacturers. John Ruskin makes a black and white statement by saying soldiers are different from merchants and manufactures because men associated for purposes of force play and for purposes of manufacture in that the former appear capable of self sacrifice. John Ruskin says that the general public should perceive that merchants/manufacturers are nothing if they dont have the willingness to sacrifice themselves as soldiers do. The eaders dont realize that the soldiers would be nothing without the merchants and manufacturers. The soldiers are provided in war, weapons, materials and victualsbut by whom? The manufacturers sacrificed time, materials, and food to support the soldiers. Ruskin is very heavy in using pathos, and once over again tries play with the readers emotions. Using very well diction to empha size emotions and change our view and perspectives, Ruskin draws out pathos. In the first strong belief Ruskin says that the former appear capable of self sacrifice. The word capable portrays as a very strong and demeaning word.It makes readers see the merchants and manufacturers as weak, ridiculous and selfish to not have the courage to die for ones country. Ruskin uses pathos, making the readers have not only guilty and sympathetic, but also proud that they have men willing to fight for their country. John Ruskins statements about soldiers deserving more precedence is invalid due to the use of logical fallacies. Generalizing people can turn out invalid because all people, whether they do the same things or not, have different interpretations of things. The motivations of the soldiers joining war are unknown and can vary depending on the person.Making a black and white statement can also turnout invalid because on that point may be shades of gray in between. The merchants and m anufacturers may seem small compared to the soldiers, but in actuality they are doing something just as important as the soldier. Ruskins argument is flawed with charged and specific filling of language that plays on the readers emotions, causing logic to be unsound. Ruskins use of language creates an impression of sympathy for the soldiers. In society, military position will always be judged and argued by everyone through different understandings.

Study Guide on Communication

1. What is chat? How does communication relate to p atomic number 18nting? Communication is sharing of meaning between twain or more than people, it relates to p arnting because it helps guide and understand their child better. 2. How piece of tail pecuniary issues affect p benting? Financial issues may cause families to spend less clipping together children may spend more time be unsupervised and less quality time with their parents. 3. How does negative communion differ from exacting communication?Positive parenting differ from negative parenting because dictatorial parenting obligate to trade wind with guiding and teaching children and negative need to deal with yelling exclaim and punishment. 4. How can divorce affect children? Divorce affects children differently depending on the suppurate group under five interpret increased temper tantrums, bother sleeping, separation anxiety. School children may feel sadness, guilt, anger and develop phobias. Teens experience insecurity, sadness, and engage in drug use, criminal activities, unsafe sex, etc. . What are three tips that parents can use to improve communication with their children? Three communication tips are 1) Make the child the focus of your attention. 2) Get down to the childs level physically (eye contact). 3) Delay or Pause conversation if you need to. detailed Thinking Questions 1. Why is it important that parents talk to their children about social issues such as divorce, finances, and unemployment? How can parents talk about difficult topics?It is important because children can understand the problems that their family is having. They can sit down and talk to their child in a calm tone without giving negative contact. 2. When teenagers become parents, what are some of the challenges they face? Teens faces challenges such as depression, stress, fitting in with their peers and anxiety. 3. What are at least three techniques that parents can use when they are communicating with a ch ild about a mistake or misdeed? Three techniques parent can use are 1) Wait in the lead criticizing out of anger. )Start a constructive criticism conversation on a positive note. 3) Dont jump to conclusion introductory get full story. Discussion Question 1. Who is someone that you feel you have a positive relationship with? What role do you mobilise bleakness and truthfulness have in making this relationship positive? individual who I have a positive relationship with is my aunt. I think openness and truthfulness play a big role because if it wasnt for those I wouldnt be able to have a positive good relationship with her.2. What accomplishments do you think the various types of media (TV, Internet, newspapers, Facebook, etc) have on your own life and your family? Do you think the overall effect is negative or positive? How can parents reduce the negative effectuate? I think media have a negative effect on my life because I spend more time with the media than I do with my fami ly and thats not good. We are starting to be a teeny distant and not spend quality time with each other. I think my parents can spend less time with media stuff and more time with us.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Gearing and Capital Structure

The profit & loss didactics of Biro Co is inclined belowRevenue 15,000Cost of Sales (3,000)Gross profit 12,000Expenses (2,500) wampum before interest & tax 9,500Interest (2,200)Tax (1,300)Net cyberspace 6,000If 15%Expenses & 50% Cost of sales are variable costs.What is the running(a) gearing of Biro Co. nearest two decimal places using (Contribution PBIT)? (FIB)95256604000(2 marks)Q2. Hutt Co. has a debt of $200m with equity of $400m. The new investors are confused on the gearing take of Hutt Co. If the investors use debt to debt plus equity method which stage of gearing take is Hutt Co at? (MCQ)UngearedNormal accommodateHighly GearedLow Geared(2 marks)Q3. What will be the effect on the pecuniary risk of a company if the interest covers are as follows? (HA)Interest bulk large is 6.5 times HIGH LOWInterest Cover is 3 times HIGH LOW(2 marks)Q4.The habitual lucks of a company mystify a face value of $0.3/ division & are currently traded on the market for $5/share. The bonds have a face value of $100 and currently, trade at $110. The preference shares have a face value of $1 and currently, trade at 60 cents. What is the market value based gearing of the company, defined as prior charge capital/equity using the spare-time activity information give an answer to the nearest %? (FIB)$000 $000Equity Reserves 10,000 Ordinary Shares 4,200 14,200Non-current liabilities Bank loans 5,100 Bonds 3,500 Preference shares 6,000 14,600Current Liabilities Overdraft 2,000 Payables 3,200 5,20034,000-2032014541500(2 marks)Q5.Which of the following ratios relate to either Financial endangerment or Business Risk?(HA)(Debt/Equity) 100 FINANCIAL BUSINESS(PBIT/Interest)FINANCIAL BUSINESS(Fixed Cost/Variable Cost)FINANCIAL BUSINESS(2 marks)Q6.At 15th December 2011, a marketing agency declares an interim general dividend of 9.3c/share and a final ordinary dividend of 10.2c/share. Assuming an ex-div share value of 612c, what is the dividend yield? (MCQ)1.52%1.67%3.19%3.74% (2 marks)Q7. A company has $205m assets and has liabilities of $70m. Current liabilities make up 20% of the total liabilities. The company has a profit after tax of $ one hundred thirty and the corporation tax in the market is 25%. The company has no interest paying loans.What is the income tax return on capital employed? (MCQ)63%68%79%85%(2 marks)Q8. A group of shareholders was expecting an overall bad end for dividends but when the results were announced the results were not as bad as it was expect by the shareholders. This would probably have the following impact (HA)Dividend Yield summation UN-EFFECTED DECREASEPrice/ Earnings ratio INCREASE UN-EFFECTED DECREASE (2 marks)Q9. Warden Co. has a current share price of $8.5/share which was previously $4.7/share. The company paid a dividend of $2.6/share.What return would the shareholders likely to be given on their investment? (FIB)400055461000(2 marks)Q10. Which of the following statement relates to the ratios given below? (P&D)It provides a basic measure of the company military operation This is the basic measure of a companys performance from an ordinary shareholders point of examine An indication of the effect on shareholders wealth RETURN OF SHAREHOLDERS PRICE/ scratch RATIO EARNINGS PER SHARE(2 marks)GEARING AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE (ANSWERS)Q1. 1.38Cost of sales = 3,000 50% = 1,500Expenses = 2,500 15% = 375Total variable cost = 1,875Contribution = 15,000 1,875 = 13,125Operational Gearing = 13,125 9,500 = 1.38 Q2. DGearing = 200 (400+200) 100 = 33.33%Ungeared (0%), Normal Geared (=50%), Highly Geared (50%) & Low Geared (

America (West Side Story) Essay

Introduction This document is the lyrics of the song the States extracts from the movie West Side Story. This movie is a musical order by Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise in 1961. It sets in NY in the 50s. It deals with a confrontation between two rival gangs the Jets (ameri tin) and the Sharks (Portori locoweed). It also deals with a applaud story between Tony and Maria. Their love story is based on Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet as the two lovers belong to different groups. The song the States was save up by Stephen Sondheim and composed by Leonard Bernstein.During the scene, the portorican girls support the life in the States whereas the portorican male childs criticise it. To study this song, Im going to present in a first part the life in Puerto anti-racketeering law and because in a second part the life in the US. And to finish, in a third part, the boys intention. I The life in Puerto Rico (l. 1 to l. 7) = The climate There are a conduct of hurricanes which destroy the h ouses and the plantations. It is also very hot, so hot that it must be difficult to work. = The working conditions In Puerto Rico, they are waiting for jobs.A circle of people are unemployed or all the same if they stir a job, they are low-paid and they contrive to borrow (emprunter) money from the banks. They are exploited and indebted. = The stomach rate The birth rate is very high. The portoricans are Catholic and they put one overt know anything about the birth control or the path of contraception. There are to a greater extent and more mouths to feed and more and more unemployment. Consequently, they have to emigrate, mainly to the US, in order to have a reveal life. It was easy for them to get the American citizenship because Puerto Rico depended on the USA.It is a minus image of Puerto Rico. Maria criticises it and yet she says my hearts devotion (l. 1) moreover she is ironical. She prefers the life in the US and doesnt care if P. Rico disappears because she says permit it sink plunk for in the ocean. II The life in the US (l. 8 to l. 31) ? Girls opinion The girls say that its a better life because there is more slackdom (free to be anything you choose), you can give-up the ghost whoever you want. The life is more comfortable, you can have your own washing machine, and there is more space because you can have big and good apartments.There is no more unemployment because of the fabrication boom (l. 15) so there is more job opportunities, more chances to become someone soci every last(predicate)y. For the girls, the US are a land of freedom and pride. ? male childs opinion For them, everywhere in America, they suffer from racial discrimination. At work because they can just access to low-paid jobs. In housing because their requests to have a house are refused. In the street and shops because of their skin food coloring and their accent. They have low-paid jobs and they cant afford big apartments so they have to live in promiscuity (t welve in a means in america).Moreover they cant afford turn so the washing machine is useless (what will you have, though, to keep exculpated). The life in America isnt as good as the girls say because its violent and dangerous (organized crime in America) and dirty (everywhere grime in America). The girls hope in the American dream whereas the boys are disillusioned and pessimistic. III The boys intention (l. 32 to the end) The boys intends to (ont lintention de) go back to San Juan in Puerto Rico because settling down in America didnt bring any real changes. Moreover, they cant stand the racial discrimination anymore.They expects to be cheerfully welcome in San Juan. Maria pretends not to care about it, she pretends not to be upset (contrariee). She has the last actors line with Everyone there will have moved here l35. She means that all the portoricans are sensible (senses) enough to understand that their future is in the US. cobblers last To conclude the life in the US an d the life in Puerto Rico are confronted because of the situation. The girls support the America just the boys underline the fact that even if they found liberty and pride in the US, they are still confronted to distress and they suffer from racism and violence.Maria conclude with the fact that all the portoricans in Puerto Rico would be in the US. However, I can understand that the boys taket find out good in America and want go back to Puerto Rico because even if they will be poor, its their land. They should feel better with portoricans than with american. Its up to them to make a choice but I think that their survival instinct will lead them to America because they will have more chance to succeed than in Puerto Rico.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

A computer virus Essay

A calculating machine virus is much the same as a humankind virus, but whereas flu affects the human body, the wonderfully named vir spends Antics, stoned, Notepad A, michealangelo all affect the computer in various ways human can carry a virus without even crafty they put on it (measles has an incubation period of a couple of weeks), a piece of computer equipment such as a floppy dice may similarly be carrying a virus without knowing. Unfortunately, the virus carrier may maliciously pass the virus on, knowing that there is an infection.A virus is a computer program that is mean to copy itself to other programs and causes disruption to the infected equipment. There argon antithetical types of virus. The Trojan horse is a virus which hides inside another program, a time bomb is one which is activated on a genuine date, a logic bamboo is one activated by a trusted condition Su as appoint being accessed 10 times, there are literally thousands of viruses around, some have been written maliciously. Others were designed to be skillful, such as displaying the message Happy Christmas, but then unmake information as a side effect.Doctors in the computer area are other programs, known as anti-virus software, or virus cleanup software. Anti-virus software can search plows oft viruses, then disinfect the disk if a virus us found. Gatekeepers exist which forget scan all newly accessed information such as loading a file from floppy, or downloading e-mails from your internet Service Provider. Software is regularly updated to take look of the new viruses which appear daily. Most people update monthly. Anti-virus software is of ingrained importance in the modern ICT world.The only time you are estimable is if you have a stand-alien computer not connected to any network, in which you use no disks, and only use legal software. (Even then I m afraid you are not entirely safe, as viruses have sometimes affected legal software, such as the Notepad A virus which is a macro virus which comes with MS Word 6. 0) Viruses infect computers, we will never get rid of them, and must be aware of their existence, and use our computer equipment sensibly, including wrapping up warm when winter comes

Eu Integration Theories-Neofunctionalism

EEU desegregation TheoriesNeo-Functionalism Any comprehensive theory of consolidation should potenti totallyy be a theory of dis consolidation. (Schmitter, 2002 4) Introduction Neo-functionalism, as the depression desegregation theory of EU to form a regional cooperation, is a theory of collective certificate and collective suppuration but there was a compromise, a cast out side interdependence sometimes excessively? to a supra res publicaal chest of drawers and the risk of by-passing of nation state.The balance of the scale was rather sensitive and it was twain supported and rejected by many passionately. This paper tries to find an settle to the inquire What is the signifi bunsce of the neo-functionalist theory for desegregation assist of the EU and what argon the dynamics and causes of the decline in shopping centre 1960s and its renaissance subsequently(prenominal) 1980s? and deals with the theory from a very limited perspective. Its predecessors and successors lead be kept out of discussion but a close-set(prenominal) cyclorama to the phases of neo-functionalism provide be provided.The chief(prenominal) argument of this paper is that, in its first phase mingled with 1950s until the mid 1960s, neo-functionalism suffered from abstr fermention of the prop iodinnt of nation state in a period in which supra bailiwick boldness was non thoroughly ingrainedized whereas, with the deepening of consolidation attend to and theoretical parcels by scholars, enabled neo-functionalism to see the reality of integration with a more than than realist and come on perspective and to be more comprehensive in terms of realizing the power of myriads of actors in the integration work during its second phase after mid 1980s.In the first part, definition of neo-functionalism and its brilliance in the post WW II scene leave alone be given. In the second part, the theory will be elaborated with its core c oncepts and in the third part, criticism s of the theory will be given from both data-based and theoretical causal agent. In the fourth and termination part, the recent history of neo-functionalism will be evaluated and the revival period will be elabot ared in connection with the recent aspects of European integration. 1. Definition of Neo-functionalism and its immenseness in the post WW II context The Europe after the devil world wars had a catastrophic burden.Although emergences vary, nigh 35 cardinal in the first and around 55 million casualties depicted the highest number of losses in the history of mankind. As a precursor to coupled Nations, League of Nations failed to pr regular(a)t the road to the second world war chiefly delinquent to lacking an armed forces of its own more everywhere, nation states hardly had the inspiration to support any establishment that limited their sovereignty. The pain and destruction after the two wars created an incentive to cooperate for further economic and human losses. Neo-functionalism is purposeualized by Ernst B. Haas in this context to explain boosting of regional cooperation and create interdependence in such a way that any conflict would depart in great economic losses, which prevents rational states from further conflicts. Then came along the indemnity-making project of creating a united Europe, which had the result of creating a myriad of institutions in which very, very many people participated. These institutions developed a permanence through which both French and German learned to do routine railway line with severally other every day.A problem which they experienced was a coarse problem. first comes the traumatic lesson, then comes the institution for learning to deal with each other (Haas, 2000 16 in Risse, 20041). The case of European Coal and vane Community (ECSC) was the pillow slip that Haas took to exemplify this cooperation to integration action. The ECSC was the first organisation establish on inter interior(a) i ntegration, with the states that composed them pooling a whole range of national powers (European Nagivator, The European Communities).Until it was merged to the European Commission in 1967, The High permit governed the ECSC to provide a common market in terms of ember and steel. The Six (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) opted for integration and supranationalism as the means of unification. (Henig, 199712) For Haas, political integration is the process whereby political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations, and political activities toward a new centre, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre- be national states (Haas 1958,16).According to neo-functionalist thinking the fundamental mood was that international relations shouldnt be seen as a naught sum game, and that everybody wins when countries become twisty in processes of economic and political integration (S troby-Jensen in Cini, 200784). The main(prenominal) reason for this arguments is one of the key concepts of neo-functionalism, namely spillover, which will be substantiated in the next part. 2. Main concepts of Neo-functionalist theory The Spillover dissertationNeo-functionalist theory assumes that cooperation in a certain area triggers cooperation in several other areas areas (sometimes non previously planned ones) to achieve a through integration in the original area and creates new political goals (Stroby-Jensen in Cini, 200784). According Neo-functionalism the logical system of spillover is central to explain the expansive logic of European integration and in this part three main types of spill over will be briefly identified to recognise this expansive logic with a closer gain.The first type of spill over is the functional or adept spillover, which suggests some firmaments are so interdependent to each other that, it is undoable to isolate them and further integration i s the key to prevent further problems. In other spoken language, it takes set out when integration in one industry/sector creates its own impetus and necessitates further integration both in the same, and in other industries/sectors (Howell, 200217).The second type is the political spillover according to which form _or_ system of government areas are purposefully linked unitedly due to ideological reasons, sometimes as package deals (Stroby-Jensen in Cini, 200785). With such integration, the actors will realise their benefits in the international level instead of national one and form international coalitions (Haas, 196834). So the elites will learn to pursue their benefits in the international level and refocus their activities, expectations and even loyalties to the new center (Tranholm-Mikkelsen, 19914).The third type of spillover is the cultivated spillover which consecrates ferocity on central institutions like the Commission especially when nation states arent willingful for further integration. So it is assumed that the European Commission will be pro-active in the management of European integration (Howell, 200217). But the important point in time here is that the central institutions such as the Commission act non only as mediators, but besides more directly as agents of political integration or as policy enterpreneurs (Stroby-Jensen in Cini, 200785).Elite assimilation and Supranational Interest Group Thesis The second and the third thesis of neo-functionalism are elite cordialization thesis and supranational use up assort thesis. The elite socialization thesis describes that over time civil servants and politicians involved on a regular basis in the supranational policy process will tend to develop European loyalties and preferences (Mailand, 20056). This loyalty would result in prioritizing the European interests rather than the national ones in the framework of pan-European norms and ideas.This formation of European-minded agents resul t in a common European identity. The latter one, the supranational interest group thesis, argues the presence of interest groups putting pressure on governments to accelerate the integration process based on their economic and political interests. Organized interest groups are also expected to become more European, as corporations and business groups formulate their own interests with an eye to the supranational institutions (Stroby-Jensen in Cini, 200787).They may ally themselves with supranational institutions like the European Commission in pursuing their agendas (Ozcan, 20088). 3. Main criticisms for the Neo-functionalist theory The power of a theory is close related with its accuracy of prediction. That is why neo-functionalism was considered to be quite convincing around 1950s and 1960s. From the substance of 1960 the theory suffered a great deal due to the incompatibilities with reality until its renaissance around mid 1980s due to the developments in integration process.Bu t in this part the main criticisms towards neo-functionalism before its revival will be elaborated with its imperfections under empirical and theoretical crusade. From an empirical grounds perspective, due to its attempt for being a grand theory, neo-functionalist school put forward some great assumptions, the most attention drawing of which is the furiousness on incremental integration rather than with fluctuations during the integration process of Europe.On the one hand, compared to its predecessor functionalism (as mentioned at the beginning of the paper, due to the limitations, the contextual approach to neo-functionalism is absent from this paper), neo-functionalism takes into consideration the non-automated integration but on the other hand, ironically, based on spill over concept, neo-functionalism did not take into consideration the possibility of spill-back until the middle of 1960s, which can shortly be defined as the process of decomposition reaction and withdraw from joint obligations (Schmitter, 200220), and downgrading their commitment to mutual cooperation.The most explicit example would be the release Chair Crisis From 30 June 1965 to 29 January 1966, in variableness with the Commission of the European Communities on the financing of the common agricultural policy (CAP), Frances representatives refuse to attend any intergovernmental meetings of the Community bodies in Brussels (European Navigator, The forsake Chair Crisis). The French president Charles de Gaulle who had a military background created a huge crisis which ended up with the Luxembourg Compromise in 1966.The main reason for this was the gradual transition from unanimous voting to serve-majority voting as provided for in the Treaty of Rome with effect from 1966 (Europa Glossary, Luxembourg Compromise). The crisis due to the intergovernmental go through of French government formed the end of the first phase of neo-functionalism, go forth its place to a nation-state dominated perception of integration. From a theoretical grounds perspective, neo-functionalist school was criticized for the inability to predict the nature of integration.Concerning this, even Haas himself acknowledged that What once appeared to be a distinctive supranational? style now looks more like a huge regional bureaucratic appendage to an intergovernmental convocation in permanent session. (Haas, 19756). As it is mentioned in the empirical grounds part, the concept of spill over was seen not to reflect the realities of integration process all the time. The second important critique from a theoretical point of view is towards the elite socialization thesis, which mainly assumes the development of supranational loyalties and identities.This criticism argues that in fact it is not possible to separate the servants from their national roots and even if they are paid and appointed by a supranational role, they may still have a larger ear (Dihm, 2010 Field trigger off to Brussels Meet ing) for their national backgrounds either due to due their previous networks or nationalist sentiments. The third criticism focuses on the nature of neo-functionalism, which gives the main importance on the supranational character of international relations.Again taking into consideration the empirical criticism, the intergovernmental aspect was underestimated in case of national interests by the neo-functionalist school and the main criticism was towards an analysis which is more centered on intergovernmental aspects. 4. The revival of Neo-functionalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s Although Neo-functionalism lost its popularity after the middle of 1960s (after a period of popularity in 1950s and first fractional of 1960s), it started to gain its popularity due to the revitalization of EU integration process.This renewed interest is closely associated with the Single European Act (1986) which brought forward creation of an internal market in EU until 1992. To facilitate the establishment of the internal market, the act provides for increasing the number of cases in which the Council can take decisions by qualified majority voting instead of unanimity (Europa. eu, Single European Act). This speed up the integration process in many ways besides removing dole out barriers only, making the concept of spillover frequently referred to once again after a long slumber.Nevertheless according to some, this renewal would not be sufficient to understand the linear progression of social events. As social scientists, we wish for theories more or less the social world to build on each other in some linear fashion but more often than not we observe, instead, a cyclical practice session by which different schools of thought alternate each other in commanding out attention over time. Leading figures in the various theoretical traditions follow this same pattern (Orru, 1988115).But this was merely a cyclical pattern in fact when a closer analysis is made concerning the main theoretical aspects of the renaissance of neo-functionalism. after the theory strengthened by the developments in EU, the most hearty contribution came from Alec Stone Sweet and Wayne Sandholtzs European Integration and Supranational brass instrument. Their main argument is given at the beginning of their article as We argue that European integration is provoked and sustained by the development of causal connections between three factors transnational swop, supra-national organization, and European Community (EC) rule-making. (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997297) and their main emphasis is on cross-border transactions and communications that generate a social demand for EC rules and regulation and institutionalization due to EC rules and as endresult this process provokes further integration (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997297). As seen higher up, their theory is based on a sense of causality and their position is in between the intergovernmental and supranational political s cience which is seen as a continuum and the continuum measures the increasing influences of three factors on policy-making processes and outcomes indoors any given policy sector.These factors are (1) supranational organizations (2) supranational rules and (3) transnational society (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997303). Bargaining takes place between a number of actors to settle on which end of the continuum is more predominant during the decision making process nevertheless, since they also take into consideration the intergovernmental aspect, they argue the grand bargains are, by definition, intergovernmental (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997307).They not only take into consideration the intergovernmental policies, but also accept them existing in all stages and parts of the decision making system by saying In fact, intergovernmental decision-making is ubiquitous in the EC, present even at the far right-hand pole of our continuum which is Supranational Politics (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997306).What they take as their start point to their theory constitutes the core point of their argument, which is the society as the determinative actor especially non-state actors who engage in trans-actions and communications across national borders, within Europe (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997306). It will be the people to demand a certain standard of European rules standards and as transnational exchange rises, so does the societal demand for supranational rules and organizational capacity to regulate (Stone-Sweet, Sandholtz, 1997306).Stone-Sweet and Sandholtz also make a check of their argument by looking at Eurosclerosis. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s in the context of European integration is often referred to as an era of stagnation or eurosclerosis. (Awesti, 20062). Stone-Sweet and Sandholtz argue that during this period starting from the Empty Chair Crisis to The Single European Act in other words In the worst days of Eurosclerosis in the 1970s, levels of intra-EC trade and other forms of exchange soared and they point out a direct correlation between the integration process and the exchanges that take place.As seen, transaction based integration theory is depicted as a process which is mainly driven by the playscript of transactions taking place for a thorough integration process by triggering a vast extent of regulations in myriads of areas. Conclusion Mentioned as the first words of this paper Any comprehensive theory of integration should potentially be a theory of disintegration (Schmitter, 20024), Schmitter highlights that the strength and impuissance of neo-functionalism is rather similar and what creates integration may end up with clastic consequences.Being accepted as the first of the integration theories, neo-functionalism has had a very debated place due to its defying characteristics against the sovereignty of nation states. When all the information given above is summed up, it would be possible to say that the time span in which a theory exists in, is crucial for its existence. In other words, the perceptions and conditions of its age is of great importance to decide on the consistency of a theory.Neo-functionalism suffered due to the theoretical assumptions and the realities of integration process in its first phase nevertheless, the notion of supranationality seemed to be breach absorbed and digested by the nation-states in its second phase. Another significant antigenic determinant factor about the life of a theory that one can deduct by looking at the example of neo-functionalism is the level of abstractions. How much a theory shall abstract and accept is a major question and although in the first phase Haas didnt totally deny the authority of nation-states, due to the sensitivities of the age, the theory weakened considerably.Even if they don? t define themselves as neo-functionalists, Stone-Sweet and Sandholtzs approach to integration process as a continuum between the two poles of s overeignty brought a fresh start for the decision-making and integration process of EU. All in all, today neo-functionalism with its renewed form, is one of the most significant theories to observe and understand the dynamics of integration process of EU together with all the bargaining process that takes place between the actors involved.

Friday, February 22, 2019

The Relationships Between Human Health and Agriculture

Spedding (1988) defines floriculture as an activity (of Man), carried out primarily to produce food and fiber (and fuel, as head as many a(prenominal) early(a) materials) by the metrical and controlled use of (mainly terrestrial) plants and animals1. Inherent in this definition is the importance of agriculture and its bear on on the lives of virtually all forgiving beings around the globe. Through their capacity to control and cultivate whole biological systems for their own purposes and extract, agriculture after part be regarded as one of the most revolutionary and distinguishing aspects of mankind.Read in like manner Six Dimensions of Health WorksheetIn this way, it is as sound as directly linked to world welfargon, and one can explore the way advances in the two domains instill one another, building up to an almost symbiotic relationship among human health and agriculture. Even with a cursory thought, there is a significant link between agriculture and huma n health. Raeburn insists that the main p low gear portion out to human social welfare is food, and that mankind depends on almost all supplies on agriculture2.Indeed, humans as heterotrophic organisms are dependent on the expenditure and digestion of organic substances as a source of energy, required for maintaining basic metabolic activities as comfortably as providing chemical substance energy. These organic substances are what we comm plainly refer to as food, provided similarly prerequisite are the dissimilar by-products of agriculture, the main ones being food, fibre, and raw materials for industrial use3 use in our eeryday lives to increase our comfort (e. g. otton and wool used for the action of warm clothes). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a state of complete tangible, mental and social well-being and not scarce if the absence of disease or complaint4. This definition allows us to turnout the impact of agriculture on human health from a count of different perspectives. Undoubtedly, the most significant previous(prenominal)oral products add to the absence of infirmity or illness in human beings are alimentary products.Read this Ch. 22 Respiratory SystemThe fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, meat, milk, produced by cultivation, contain vitamins and minerals as well as proteins, carbohyd appreciates, and lipids, which are indispensable to maintain a healthy, functioning organism. For example, Vitamin C and E (mainly found in fruits and vegetables) act as powerful antioxidants, protecting cells from oerseas toxins and pollutants, as well as cancer-causing agents. Calcium, abundant in dairy products and near green leafy vegetables, is responsible for strong bones and teeth, as well as helping nerve conduction and muscle contraction.They provide a source of fibre as well, which lowers blood cholesterol levels and is believed to prevent legitimate forms of colon cancer. Of these micronutrients, a majority are no t normally produced by our bodies, hence they must be acquired done diet. According to a upstart report from the FAO/WHO Expert Report on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of degenerative Diseases, most populations are still falling short of the recommended intake of fruits and vegetables.An estimated 2. 7 million people die each year from the risks related to low fruit and vegetable intake5. Low fruit and vegetable intake similarly affects ones risks of being affected by Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs), such as modify immune systems, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and miscellaneous cancers. The total world population has recruitn from just under 2 billion to intimately 6. 2 billion in a mere atomic number 66.Read likewise Intro to Public Relations NotesThis is attributed in part to certain proficient innovations in the agricultural domain during the 1950s, collectively referred to as The Green regeneration, Through utilization of high- pay up crops, irrigation and controlled water supply, and fertilizers and pesticides, the world is producing frequently(prenominal) food than ever before, mainly by maximizing the return from every hectare of soil. Major arable crops such as rice, wheat, and corn withstand been experimented on, for they germinate earlier and grow quicker, allowing the harvest of two or three crops a year.New varieties are incessantly being developed, which have led up to a 30% increase in maximum yield, as well as more than resistant varieties of crops (e. g. wheat which has become resistant to rust and mildew). Chickens and pigs yield in two ways as much meat and dairy cows twice as much milk as they did 60 years ago, argues Lomborg. An increased pas magic spell in irrigation and water control has allowed drier areas to cultivate their fair share of crops, as well as increasing soil fertility in some areas of the world and increase the harvesting opportunities.Indeed, irrigated overthrow makes up u nless 18% of the worlds total agricultural landmass, but contributes to 40% of the Earths food7. Fertilizers and pesticides have also proved indispensable for plant growth and warding off disease-causing insects. The Green rotation is provides evidence of the positive contribution of agriculture to human health and welfare food quantity and timberland produced have increased, making it feasible for the agricultural domain to keep up with the nutritional needs of a chop-chop increasing population. A more tragic example of human dependance on proper agricultural methods is the Irish Potato Blight of 1845 to1847.Whitlock (1965) describes how the popularity of potatoes as a farm crop, after having found their way to Ireland originally from south America through Spain, started to increase, for it was a cheap crop perfectly desirable to the needs of a newly urbanized population. Consequently, the Irish population rise from 1 500 000 to 4 000 000 habitants in the course of the eighte enth century. However, the on the job(p) class everywhere-dependency on a potato-based diet resulted in the severe famine that followed the general infection of the potato crops by the fungi Phytophthera infestans.The severe famine over the hobby years and caused a decline of about 1 622 739 Irish citizens between 1841 and 1851 due to the destruction of the staple food supply of the Irish. The physical and social well being of humans is affected by agriculture both at the consumer level, as well as that of the farmers themselves. Farmers and their families face many risks working at the farm, such as zoonoses, overexposure to chemical substances, hearing loss, as well as dangers on the farm.Consumers on the other hand, face more indirect risks of chemical residues and timbre of food produced. Farmers may be clear to zoonoses, diseases transferable from animals to humans. These diseases have captured societys attention often over the course of the past few years, mostly due t o notorious examples such as the human variant of BSE (bovine spongioform encephalopathy), the Creutzfield-Jacob disease, even though in the period of 1981-85 they contributed to only 4% of all fatal accidents in agriculture8.Examples also include Farmers Lung, a respiratory condition caused by inhalation of fungal spores from mouldy make or litter, responsible for an allergic reaction in the alveoli and breathing difficulties. new(prenominal) dangers of normal farm labour include risks of physical injury when working with complicated equipment, like tractors. In 1981-85, about 30% of fatal accidents in agriculture were caused by self-propelled machines, and a kick upstairs 13% by other field machines9. In addition, hearing loss or ageless ringing may occur if working in a tractor for dour periods of quantify without ear protection, for the normal noise level is about 95-105 dB.Possibly, labouring in the agricultural sector is much tougher than most careers in the service sect or, contributing to a higher risk of physical exhaustion and stress, as well as technical risks from different machines. Farmers also risk suffering from printing and marginalization, as well as large differences in income. The number of farmers has lessen dramatically over the last century, and it in this way that social forcing out and depression may threaten farmers, especially in the developed countries where the equilibrium of working population employed in agriculture makes up only around 3%10, and decreasing constantly.Risks for the potential consumer include exposure to chemical residues, mostly from herbicides and pesticides used in the production. After the initial enthusiasm following the success of increased use of fertilizers and pesticides during the Green Revolution, internationally accepted quality standards have been set up in attempt to minimize health hazards of pesticide use, such as the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES).Some famous examples of potenti ally toxic chemicals are DDT and paraquat. DDT, a neurotoxic, has been associated with serious damage to the CNS, as well as reproductive abnormalities, in both humans and other organisms. An investigation carried out on a group of men in close contact with DDT at work showed that they attended to have a decreased fertility rate in addition, a higher rate of stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and congenital effects were prevalent amongst their offspring11.Indeed, the use of DDT was outlaw in 1972 in the USA, due to excessive use and its persistence in the environment and fatty tissues in humans and other animals. Paraquat, an organochlorine herbicide, is admitted to be largely safe provided certain precautions are taken, but at the same time it is considered to be highly toxic. Its effects can be quite hazardous, from lung scarring, kidney and mall failure, and carcinogenic risks in the long run, as well as kowtow irritation, nosebleeds, and eye injury resulting from non-lethal long term exposure.As is the case with many pesticide residues, when consumers are exposed to minute amounts of the substance over a long time period, the chronic effects may have quite a devastating impact on not only human health, but that of other organisms and the environment besides. However, it seems reasonable to say that their use in the fresh decades has greatly increased yields of the major crops like corn, wheat, and rice, contributing to an increase in the average daily calorie intake of populations, especially in evolution countries12.It may be that usage of pesticides and herbicides proves to be more beneficial than insidious to the human population in the long run, for an increase in yield contributes to a decrease in price of fruit and vegetable produce, essential to our health as we have seen in the previous paragraphs. Lomborg (2001) points out that carsinogenic properties of various pesticides and chemicals have been greatly exaggerated by the press, given that in reality, deaths from pesticide-originating cancers have been found to be less than 1% of all cancer-derived deaths.The last century has seen mankind blessed with many inventions and technological advances which have allowed him to even further manipulate and control the world and mechanisms surrounding him. The agricultural domain has also had its fair share of innovations, which have allowed it to become more efficient, more intensive, and more productive. These advances, such as the ontogeny of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and machinery to improve crop yields, appear beneficial to agricultural production, promoting both quality and quantity of food produced.Worries over human health have also reached the point where agriculture is constantly being driven to more intense measures and inventions to increase yield and quality to the products. However, new as these techniques are, their thorough impacts on human health cannot soon enough be fully assessed. Most techniques a ffect us strictly through the food we choose to eat, but some may also affect by-products which are harmful to the environment, thus indirectly affecting our health, as well as that of other organisms and the environment.Thus, we can say that the impact of agriculture on human health is significant. The varied, and often direct relationships that exist between agriculture and our welfare demonstrate to what extent it is present in different areas our casual lives. Each and every human being on the planet is in some way affected by agriculture, for its main contribution is food, indispensable for our health and survival (not to forget other important raw materials).Through the evolution of cultivating land into a wholly organized form of profit-making business, the 20th century has seen the development of agribusiness. We can even consider the relationship between human health and agriculture as being a symbiotic one, where human health works as a guiding force of agricultural inn ovations, while problems encountered with certain agricultural techniques, methods, and products result in a continuous seeking for new solutions to improve the state of human health and agriculture overall.Albeit much progress into human welfare and how to further increase it through output of improved food materials, numerous controversies still exist as to whether too much importance is being attributed to purely human interests, in the stead of more global and environmental ones. Humans must find a compromise between their own welfare interests and those of animal welfare and environmental problems if the expansion and popularity of agricultural innovations is to continue in the future.

Anne Fleche – the Space of Madness and Desire

exnes impose Williams exploits the materializationistic uses of lay in the drama, attempting to represent intrust from the right(prenominal), that is, in its gainal contest to authoritativeistic stability and closure, and in its exposure to risk. Loosening both symbolise and verbal languages from their implicit thirst for closure and digestment, trolley car exposes the danger and the personnel of this entrust, which is al fashions the intrust for the displace of liking. Writing in a cessation when U. S. rama was becoming dis conjuringed with materialism, Williams achieves a critical distance from pragmatic proficiency through his use of allegory. In Blanches bloodline near the highroadcar, the concomitant that she is describing real places, cars, and transfers has the surprising tack of enhancing rather than diminishing the allegoryical parallels in her language. Indeed, streetcars duplicities of expression(3) atomic number 18 nonetheless up more than s triking in the light of criticisms youthful renewal of interest in allegory. 4) For allegory establishes the distance among the congresswoman and the semantic function of language (I89), the liking that is in language to merge (with) experience. Streetcar demonstrates the ways in which distance in the drama roll in the hay be expanded and contr dissembleed, and what spacial relativism reveals close the economy of dramatic representation. Tennessee Williams figure outs, fill up with representative language, seem alike to take a shit a tentative, unfinished address. The metalanguage of desire seems to preclude development, to deny progress.And yet it seems natural to testify A Streetcar Named Desire as an allegorical journey toward Blanches apocalyptic ending at the hands of her executioner, Stanley. The loosenesss fierceness, its baroque names of decadence and lawlessness, promise its au happennce the thrilling destruction of the aristocratic Southern Poe-esque mo th- deal neuraesthenic female Blanche by the ape-like brutish male from the Ameri apprizeister melting-pot. The play is full in f toy of realisms developmental language of evolution, degeneration, eugenics. in look deciding that Stanley is merely an ape, Blanche sees him as an as effectuate Oh, I guess hes tho non the type that goes for jasmine perfume, that maybe hes what we need to mix with our telephone circuit now that weve lost Belle Reve (285). The surprising social function about this play is that the allegorical reading also seems to be the most hardheaded one, the reading that imposes a unity of language and experience to brace structural sense of the play, that is, to make its events organic, natural, inevitable.And yet this feels false, because allegorical language resists being pinned down by earthy analysis it is invariably yet half a story. nonwithstanding it is realistic to close the cleft amongst the language and the show image, between the stage image and its double reality, by a double forgetting first we meet to forget that realism is literature, and thereof already a fiction, and then we mystify to forget the distance between allegory and reality. To say that realisms empiricism is undistinguishable from metaphor is to make it one with a moral, natural laying of events.Stanley is wrongly and Blanche is right, the moralists agree. But the hypocrisy of the priggish reading is soon revealed in its ambivalence toward Blanche/Stanley to order events sequentially requires a reading that finds Blanches strip inevitable, a delay of the nominal mental synthesis she is the erring woman who gets what she asks for (her realistic antecedents ar clear). For the prigs this consequent might non be un geldkable, though it might be what is worsened distasteful. But Williams seems deliberately to be fashioning interpretation a hassle he doesnt exclude the prigs reading, he invites it.What makes Streetcar different from Wi lliams earlier play The looking glass menagerie (I944)(5) is its constant self-betrayal into and out of analytical norms. The realistic set-ups in this play authentically feel like set-ups, a magicians tricks, inviting readings that leave you respite from your own schematic noose. Analytically, this play is a trap it is brilliantly confound yet without following its leads there is no way to get anyplace at all. Streetcar has a map, barely it has changed the street signs, relying on the whimsy of desire to take the play foregone its plots.In a way it is wrong to say Williams does non write endings. He writes elaborate string section of them. Williams has given Streetcar strong ties to the reassuring rhetoric of realism. S eeral references to Stanleys agate line as A Master Sergeant in the Engineers Corps (258) set the action in the present, immediately after the war. The geographical location, as with The Glass zoo, is specific, the neighborhood life represented with a g reater naturalistic faithfulness Above he music of the Blue Piano the give tongue tos of people on the street can be heard overlapping (243).Lighting and sound personal effects may give the exposure a variant of lyricism (243), tho this seems itself a realistic touch for The pull screening (4I2). Even the home(a) set, when it appears (after a similar wipe-out of the fourth wall), resembles The Glass Menagerie in lay-out and configuration a ground-floor apartment, with two rooms separated by portieres, occupied by three characters, one of them male. Yet there atomic number 18 also trouble realistic details, to which the play seems to power point. The mise en circumstance seems to be providing also often bourne to provide for closure there is no place for anyone to go.thither is no fire escape, even though in this play individual does yell Fire Fire Fire (390). In feature, heat and fire and escape are declamatory verbal and visual themes. And the flat does non, as i t seems to in The Glass Menagerie, let out to an new(prenominal)wise(prenominal) rooms beyond the wings, but ends in a cul-de-sac a doorway to the bathroom which becomes Blanches significant place for escape and privacy. Most disturbing, however, is not the increased sense of parturiency but this absence of privacy, of analytical, territorial space.No human beings caller invited for supper invades this age, but an anarchic wilderness of French Quarter hoi polloi who spill onto the set and into the flat as negligently as the pianissimo assai music from the bar well-nigh the corner. There does not seem to be anywhere to go to evade the intrusiveness and the violence when the flat erupts, as it does on the poker night, Stanleys tirade sends Stella and Blanche upstairs to Steve and Eunice, the landlords with, of course, an unlimited run of the kinsfolk (We own this place so I can let you in 48 ), whose goings-on are equally idle and uncontained. Stella jokes, You know that o ne upstairs? more laughter One era express mirth the plaster laughing cracked (294). The violence is not an isolated climax, but a insistent pattern of the action, a state of being it does not resolve anything BLANCHE Im not used to such MITCH Naw, its a shame this had to happen when you dear got here. But dont take it serious. BLANCHE Violence Is so MITCH Set down on the steps and contrive a cigarette with e. (308) Anxiety and conflict abide become perpetual and unresolvable, inconclusive. It is not clear what, if anything, they mean. Unlike realistic drama, which produces clashes in order to herd the action forward, Streetcar disallows its events a clarity of function, an orderliness. The ordering of events, which constitutes the temporality of realism, is thus no less arbitrary in Streetcar than the ordering of nigga the outside keeps becoming the inside, and vice versa.Williams has done more to relativize space in Streetcar than he did in The Glass Menagerie, where he pictured the fourth wall here the outer wall appears and disappears more than a half-dozen times, often in the middle of a scene, couching attention to the spatial illusion rather than making its boundaries absolute. The effect on spatial metaphor is that we are not allowed to forget that it is metaphor and consequently capable of limitless extensions and retractions.As we might expect, then, struggle over territory between Stanley and Blanche (Hey, stalker bird Toots Get OUT of the BATHROOM 367 ) which indeed results in Stanleys reasserting the male as mogul (37I6 and pushing Blanche offstage, punished and defeated is utterly unanalytical and unsubtle Shell go Period. P. S. Shell go Tuesday (367). enchantment the expressionist sequence beginning in Scene Six with Blanches memory of The Grey oy (355) relativizes space and time, evoking Blanches memories, it also seems to drain her expressive business office. By the time Stanley is about to rape her she mouths the kinds of things Williams put on screens in The Glass Menagerie In desperate, desperate circumstances Help me Caught in a trap (400). She is establishing her emotions like sign-posts Stay back I warn you, dont, Im in danger (40I). What had seemed a way into Blanches character has had the effect of externalizing her feelings so few(prenominal) that they become impersonal.In Streetcar, space does not provide, as it does in realistic drama, an target mooring for a characters psychological systemal science it keeps wrenching inside out, obliterating the spatial distinctions that had helped to define the realistic character as whateverone whose inner life drove the action. Now the driving puff of emotion replaces the subtlety of expectation, leaving character out in space, hanging There isnt time to be Blanche explains into the phone (399) faced with a great(p) proximity, she phones long-distance, and forgets to hang up. The expressionist techniques of the latter half of he play cr eep the individual from the milieu, and emotion begins to dominate the representation of events. In Scene Ten, where Blanche and Stanley agree their most ruffianly and erotic confrontation, the play loses all sense of boundary. The front of the house is already transparent but now Williams also dissolves the provide wall, so that beyond the scene with Blanche and Stanley we can see what is happening on the next street A prostitute has rolled a drunkard. He pursues her along the walk, overtakes her and then is a struggle. A policemans whistle breaks it up.The figures disappear. Some results after the Negro Woman appears around the corner with a sequined bagful which the prostitute had dropped on the walk. She is rooting excitedly through it. (399) The mise en scene exposes more of the realistic world than before, since now we see the outside as well as the inside of the house at in one case, and yet the effect is one of intense general paranoia the threat of violence is real, no t remembered and it is all(prenominal)where. The walls gather in become spaces along which frightening, sinuous shadows weave lurid, grotesque and menacing (398-99).The parameters of Blanches presence are unstable images of threatening flames of desire, and this sense of sexual danger seems to draw the action toward itself. So it is as though Blanche somehow call downs rape to Stanley it is already in the air, we can see it being given to him as if it were a thought You think Ill interfere with you? Ha-ha Come to think of it maybe you wouldnt be bad to interfere with (40I). The inner-outer distinctions of both realistic and expressionistic representation are shown coming together here.Williams makes no effort to pop the oppugn that the lurid expressionistic images in Scene Ten are all in Blanches mind, as cinematic point-of-view would the world outside the house is the realistic world of urban poverty and violence. But it is also the domain of the brutes, whose in mankin d jungle voices climb up up (40I) as Stanley, snakelike, tongue between his teeth, closes in. The play seems to swivel on this aftermath, when the logic of appearance and sum of money, the individual and the abstract, turns inside-out, like the set, seeming to occupy for once the aforementioned(prenominal) space.It is either the demolition of realistic objectivity or the transition-point at which realism takes over some new territory. At this juncture objective vision becomes an outside seen from inside for the abstraction that allows realism to represent trueness objectively cannot itself be explained as objectivity. The surface in Scene Ten seems to be disclosing, without our having to look too deeply, a static primal indorsement beneath the immediacy of the action the sexual taboo underneath realistic discourse BLANCHE Stay back Dont you come toward me some other tep or Ill STANLEY What? BLANCHE Some severe thing willing happen It will STANLEY What are you putting on no w? They are now both inside the bedroom BLANCHE I warn you, dont, Im in danger (40I) What will happen in the bedroom does not claim a name, or even an agency. The incestuous relation lies beyond the moral and fond order of marriage and the family, adaptation and eugenics, not to mention (as Williams minds us here) the fact that it is unmentionable. Whatever words Blanche uses to describe it scarcely matter.As Stella says, I couldnt think her story and go on living with Stanley (405). The rape in Streetcar thus seems familiar and inevitable, even to its characters, who lose the shape of characters and become violent antagonists as if on cue Oh So you want some roughhouse only right, lets drive some roughhouse (402). When Blanche sinks to her knees, it is as if the action is an acknowledgment. Stanley holds Blanche, who has become inert he carries her to the bed. She is not only silent but crumpled, immobile, while he takes over control and agency.He literally places her on the s et. But Williams does not suggest that Stanley is conscious and autonomous on the contrary the scene is constructed so as to make him as unindividuated as Blanche they seem, at this crucial point, more than ever part of an allegorical landscape. In a way, it is the impersonality of the rape that is most singing the loss of individuality and the spatial distinctions that allow for character are effected in a scene that expressionistically dissolves character into an overwhelming mise en scene that, itself, seems to make things happen.The meaning of the rape is assigned by the play, denying Stanley and Blanche any emotion. Thus, the rape scene ends without words and without conflict the scene has become the conflict, and its image the emotion. mayhap Streetcar and Williams present fusss for those interested in Pirandellian metatheatre. Metatheatre assumes a self- intelligence of the form but Williams makes the form everything. It is not arbitrary, or stifling. Stanley and Blanche cannot be reimagined or, put another way, they cannot be imagined to reimagine themselves as other people, in other circumstances entirely. compositors case is the expression of the form it is not accidental, or originary. Like Brecht, Williams does not see character as a humanist impulse raging against calamitous abstractions. (In a play like The Good Person of Setzuan, for example, Brecht makes a kind of comedy of this tragic notion which is of course the notion of tragedy. ) Plays are about things other than people they are about what people think, and feel, and yet they transmit these things to a distance, towards the representation of thoughts and feelings, which is something else again.If this seems to suggest that the rape in Streetcar is something other than a rape, and so not a rape, it also suggests that it is as much a rape as it is possible for it to be it includes the understanding that comes from exposing the essence of appearances, as Williams says, seeing from ou tside what we cannot see from within. At the aforesaid(prenominal) time, and with the same motion, the scene exposes its own scenic limitations for dramatizing that which essential(prenominal) inevitably remain outside the scene namely, the act it represents.Both the surface street scene and the jungle antecedents of social order are visible in the rape scene, well violating the norms of realisms analytical space. When Stanley springs at Blanche, overturning he table, it is clear that a last obstacle has been broken down, and now there is no space outside the jungle. Weve had this get word with each other from the beginning We own regressed to some awful zero-point (or hour) of our beginning. (A fetid deluge, succession critic Louis Kronenberger said of Williams plays, by way of description. (7) We are also back at the heart of civilization, at its root, the incest taboo, and the center of sexuality, which is oddly enough also the center of realism the family, where sexua lity is incestuous from the promoteert. (8) At the border of civilization and the swamp is the sexual transgression whose stifling is the source of all coercive order. with allegory, Williams makes obvious what realistic discourse obscures, forcing the sexuality that propels discourse into the inwardness of the scene. The destruction of spatial oundaries visualizes the restless discourse of desire, that uncontainable movement between inside and outside. Desire, Williams writes in his short story Desire and the Black Masseur (I942-46), is something that is make to occupy a larger space than that which is afforded by the individual being. (9) The individual being is only the measure of a measurelessness that goes far out into space. Desire derives from the Latin sidus, star (Stella for Star 250, 25I ) an archaic sense is to feel the loss of the ndividual is a sign of incompleteness, not self-sufficiency, whose defining gesture is an indication of the void beyond the visible, not its closure. The consciousness of desire as a void without satisfaction is the rejection of realisms virtual space, which tried and true to suggest that its fractured space implied an unseen totality. Realisms objectivity covered up its literariness, as if the play were not created from nothing, but evolved out of a ready-made logic, a reality one had but to look to see.But literature answers the desire for a fullness that remains unfulfilled it never intersects reality, never completes a trajectory, it remains in orbit. The nothing from which literature springs, whole, cannot be penetrated by a vision, even a hypothetical one, and no time can be found for its beginning. As Paul de Man reasons in his discussion of Levi-Strauss metaphor of virtual focus, logical sight-lines may be imaginary, but they are not fiction, any more than fiction can be explained as logic The virtual focus is a quasi-objective social system osited to give rational faithfulness to a process that exists in dependently of the self. The subject merely fills in, with the dotted line of geometrical construction, what natural reason had not bothered to make explicit it has a passive and unproblematic role. The virtual focus is, strictly speaking, a nothing, but its nothingness concerns us very lowly, since a mere act of reason suffices to give it a mode of being that leaves the rational order unchallenged. The same is not true of the imaginary source of fiction.Here the human self has experienced the void within itself and the invented fiction, far from tilling the void, asserts itself as pure nothingness, our nothingness stated and restated by a subject that is the operator of its own instability. (I9) Nothingness, then, the impulse of fiction, is not the result of a supposed originary act of transgression, a mere historical lapse at the origin of invoice that can be traced or filled in by a language of logic and analysis on the contrary fiction is the electric arc of a pure conscious ness of desire as unsatisfied yearning, a space without boundaries.Yet we come back to Blanches rape by her brother-in-law, which seems visibly to re-seal the laws of constraint, to justify that Freudian logic of lost beginnings. Reenacting the traumatic incestuous moment enables tarradiddle to begin over again, while the suppression of inordinate desire resumes the order of sanity Stella is silenced Blanche is incarcerated. And if there is some ambivalence about her alienation and her elision it is subsumed in an argument for order and a lusty re-direction of desire. In the last stage direction, Stanleys groping fingers discover the opening of Stellas blouse.The nett set-up feels inevitable after all, the game is yet Seven-card stud, and arent we going to have to go on by playing it? The plays turn to realistic logic seems assured, and Williams is still renouncing worlds. He points to the closure of the analytical reading with deft disingenuousness. Closure was always just ne xt door to entrapment Williams seems to be erasing their boundary-lines. Madness, the brand of exclusion, objectifies Blanche and enables her to be analyse and confined as the embodiment of non-being, an expression of something beyond us and so incorporate in language.As Stanley puts it, There isnt a goddam thing but imagination And lies and conceit and tricks (398). Foucault has argued, in Madness and Civilization, that the containment of desires excess through the exclusion of madness creates a conscience on the perimeters of society, setting up a boundary between inside and outside The harum-scarum is put into the interior of the exterior, and inversely (II). (I0) Blanche is allegorically a reminder that liberty if taken too far can also be captivity, just as her libertinage coincides with her desire for death (her satin robe is a passionate red, she calls Stanley her executioner, etc. . And Blanche senses early on the threat of confinement she keeps trying perversely) to end the play I have to plan for us both, to get us both out she tells Stella, after the fight with Stanley that seems, to Blanche, so nett (320). But in the end the play itself seems to have some trouble letting go of Blanche. Having created its moving boundary line, it no longer knows where to put her what space does her madness occupy? As the chat suggests, she has to go somewhere she has become excessive. Yet she keeps coming back Im not preferably ready. Yes Yes, I forgot something (4I2 4I4). Again, as in the rape scene, she is chased around the bedroom, this time by the Matron, while The Varsouviana is filtered into a weird distortion, accompanied by the cries and noises of the jungle, the lurid, sinuous reflections on the walls (4I4). The Matrons lines are echoed by other mysterious voices (4I5) somewhere beyond the scene she sounds like a firebell (4I5). Matron and dilute enter the play expressionistically, as functional agents, and Blanches paranoia is now hers alone the street is not visible.The walls do not disintegrate, they come alive. Blanche is inside her own madness, self-imprisoned her madness is precisely her enclosure within the image. (II) In her paranoid state, Blanche really cannot get out, because there no longer is an outside madness transgresses and transforms boundaries, as Foucault notes, forming an act of undetermined content (94). It thus negates the image while imprisoned within it the boundaries of the scene are not helping to define Blanche but reflecting her back to herself. Blanches power is not easy to suppress she is a eminder that beneath the appearance of order something anon. has been lost Whats happened here? I want an explanation of whats happened here. she says, with sudden furiousness (407-8). It is a reasonable request that cannot be sensibly answered. This was also Williams problem at the end of The Glass Menagerie how to escape from the image when it seems to have been given too much control, when its reason is absolute? Expressionism threatens the reason of realistic mise en scene by taking it perhaps too far, stint the imagination beyond limits toward an absoluteness of the image, a desire of desire.The mimetic reflect now becomes the symbol of madness the image no longer plain reflects desire (desire of, desire for), but subsumes the mirror itself into the language of desire. When Blanche shatters her mirror (39I) she (like Richard II) shows that her individuation has already been fractured what she sees in the mirror is not an image, it is indistinguishable from herself. And she cries out when the lantern is snap off the lightbulb, because there is no longer a space between the violence she experiences and the image of that violence.The inner and the outer worlds fuse, the reflecting power of the image is destroy as it becomes fully self-reflective. The passion of madness exists somewhere in between determinism and expression, which at this point actually form only one and the same movement which cannot be dissociated except after the fact. (I2) But realism, that omnivorous discourse, can subsume even the loss of the subjective-objective distinction when determinism equals expression and return to some quasi-objective perspective.Thus at the very moment when all space seems to have been conquered, filled in and opened up, there is a need to dowery it out again into clearly distinguishable territories. Analysis imprisons desire. At the end of A Streetcar Named Desire, there is a little drama. Blanches wild expressionistic images are patronized and pacified by theatricality I just told her that wed made arrangements for her to rest in the country. Shes got it mixed in her mind with Shep Huntleigh (404-5). Her family plays along with Blanches delusions, even to costuming her in her turquoise seahorse pin and her artificial violets.The Matron tries to subdue her with forcible violence, but Blanche is only really overcome by the Doctors politeness. Form erly an expressionistic type, having the intelligible aura of the state institution with its cynical detachment (4II), the Doctor takes off his hat and now he becomes personalized. The unhuman quality goes. His voice is gentle and reassuring s he crosses to Blanche and crouches in front of her. As he speaks her name, her terror subsides a little. The lurid reflections fade from the walls, the inhuman cries and noises die our and her own hoarse crying is calmed. 4I7) Blanches expressionistic fit is contained by the Doctors realistic transformation he is particularized, he can play the role of gentleman caller. Jacket, Doctor? the Matron asks him. He smiles It wont be necessary (4I7-I8). As they exit, Blanches visionary excesses have clearly been surrendered to him She allows him to lead her as if she were blind. Stylistically, he, realism replaces expressionism at the exact moment when expressionisms pure subjectivity seems ready to annihilate the subject, to result in her viol ent subjugation.At this point the intersubjective dialogue returns, clearly masqueradeing indeed glary the subjective disorder with a assuring form. If madness is perceived as a kind of social failure,(I3) social success is to be its antidote. Of course field of force is a cure for madness by dramatizing or literalizing the image one destroys it. Such theatricality might risk its own confinement in the image, and for an instant there may be a real struggle in the drama between the image and the effort to contain it. But the power of realism over expressionism makes this a rare occasion.For the ruse, Foucault writes, incessantly confirming the aberration , does not bind it to its own truth without at the same time linking it to the necessity for its own suppression (I89). Using illusion to destroy illusion requires a forgetting of the leap of reason and of the trick it plays on optics. To establish order, the theatrical device repeats the ordering principle it learns from thea ter, the representational ranch between nature and language, a gap it has to deny The artificial reconstitution of delirium constitutes the real distance in which the sufferer recovers his liberty (I90).In fact there is no return to intersubjectivity, just a kind of formal recognition of it Whoever you are I have always depended on the liberality of strangers. Streetcar makes the return to normality gentle and theatrical, while revealing much more explicitly than The Glass Menagerie the violence that is thereby suppressed. This violence is not reality, but yet another theater underneath the theater of ruse the cure of illusion is ironically effected by the suppression of theater (I9I). The realistic containment at the end of Streetcar hus does not quite make it back all the way to realisms seamlessly objective historical truth. History, structured as it is by relations of power, not relations of meaning,(I4) sometimes assumes the power of reality itself, the platonic Form behind realism, so to speak, When it becomes the language of ascendance, fib also assumes the authority of language, rather naively trusting language to be the reality it represents. The bloody wars and strategic battles are soon forgotten into language, the past tense, the fait accompli.Useless to struggle against the truth that is past register is the waste of time and the corresponding conquest of space, and realism is the already conquered territory, the belated time with the unmistakable stamp of authenticity. It gets applause simply by being plausible it forgets that it is literature. To read literature, de Man says, we ought to remember what we have learned from it that the expression and the expressed can never entirely coincide, that no single observation point is creditworthy (I0-II).Streetcars powerful explosion of allegorical language and expressionistic images keeps its vantage point on the move, at a remove. Every plot is untied. Realism rewards analysis, and Williams i nvites it, perversely, but any analysis results in dissection. To provide Streetcar with an exegesis seems like free destruction, deliberate cruelty. Perhaps no other American writer since Dickinson has seemed so easy to crush. And this consideration ought to give the writer who has defined Blanches madness some pause. Even the critical wittingness of her muscular incarceration makes for too tidy a criticism.In Derridas analysis of Foucaults Madness and Civilization, he questions the possibility of historicizing something that does not exist outside of the imprisonment of history, of speech madness simply says the other of each determined form of the word of honor. (I5) Madness, Derrida proposes, is a hyperbole out of which finite-thought, that is to say, history establishes its reign by the disguised internment, humiliation, fettering and mockery of the madman within us, of the madman who can only be a fool of a logos which is father, master and king (60-6I).Philosophy arises from the confessed terror of going mad (62) it is the scotch embrace of madness (6I-62) To me then Williams play seems to end quite reasonably with a struggle, at the point in the play at which structure and coherence must assert themselves (by seeming to) that is, the end of the play. The end must look back, regress, so as to sum up and define. It has no other choice. The theatrical ending always becomes, in fact, the real ending. It cannot remain metaphorically an end And what is visible at the end is Blanche in trouble, trapped, mad.She is acting as though she believed in a set of events Shep Huntleighs rescue of her that the other characters, by their very encouragement, show to be unreal. There is a fine but perhaps important line here Blanches acting is no more convincing than theirs but and this is a point Derrida makes about madness she is mentation things before they can be historicized, that is, before they have happened or even have been shown to be likely or poss ible (reasonable). Is not what is called finitude possibility as crisis? Derrida asks (62). The other characters, who behave as if what Blanche is saying were real, tensione her absurdity precisely by invoking reality. Blanches relations to history and to structural authority are laid bare by this forced ending, in which she repeatedly questions the meaning of meaning What has happened here? This question implies the relativity of space and moment, and so of events and their meanings, which are at-this point impossible to separate.That is why it is important that the rape suggest an overthrow of meaning, not only through a stylized emphasis on its own representation, but also through its strongly relativized temporality. (Blanche warns against what will happen, while Stanley says the event is the future, the fulfillment of a date or closedown in time promised from the beginning. ) Indeed, the problem of madness lies precisely in this gap between past and future, in the structu ral slippage between the temporal and the ontological.For if madness, as Derrida suggests, can exist at all outside of opposition (to reason), it must exist in hyperbole, in the excess prior to its incarceration in structure, meaning, time, and coherence. A truly mad person would not objectify madness would not, that is, define and locate it. That is why all discussions of madness tend to essentialize it, by insisting, like Blanches fellow characters at the end of Streetcar, that it is real, that it exists.And the final stroke of logic, the final absurdity, is that in order to insist that madness exists, to objectify and define and associate to it, it is necessary to deny it any history. Of course madness is not at all amenable to history, to structure, causality, rationality, recognizable though But this denial of the history of madness has to come from within history itself, from within the language of structure and meaning. Blanches demand to know what has happened here her i nsistence that something has happened, however one takes it has to be unanswerable.It cannot go any further. In theatrical terms, the belief that would make that take chances of meaning possible has to be denied, shut down. But this theatrical secrete is not purifying on the contrary, it has got up close to the plague, to the point at which reason and belief contaminate each other the possibility of thought madly. Reason and madness can cohabitate with nothing but a thin curtain between. And curtains are not walls, they do not provide immobile protection. (I6) Submitting Williams allegorical language to ealistic analysis, then, brings you to conclusions the imprisonment of madness, the loss of desire. The moral meaning smooths things over. training to open up Streetcar for the film version with outside scenes and flashbacks, dear Kazan found it would not work he ended up making the walls movable so they could actually close in more with every scene. (I7) The sense of entrapme nt was fundamental Williams dramatic language is itself too free, too wanton, it is a trap, it is asking to be analyzed, it lies down on the couch.Kazan saw this perverse desire in the play he thought Streetcar was about Williams cruising for bonnet customers The reference to the kind of life Tennessee was leading rear the time was clear. Williams was aware of the dangers he was inviting when he cruised he knew that sooner or later hed be beaten up. And he was. (35I) But Kazan undervalues the risk Williams is willing to take. It is not just violence that cruising invites, but death. And that is a desire that cannot be realized.Since there is really no way to get what you want, you have to put yourself in a position where you do not always want what you get. Pursuing desire requires a heroic vulnerability. At the end of Desire and the Black Masseur the little masochistic artist/saint, Anthony Burns, is cannibalized by the masseur, who has already beaten him to a pulp. Burns, who is thus consumed by his desire, makes up for what Williams calls his incompletion. Violence, or submission to violence, is analogous to art, for Williams both mask the inadequacies of form. Yes, it is perfect, thinks the masseur, whose manipulations have tortured Bums to death. It is now completed(I8) NOTBS I Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire, in The Theatre of Tennessee Williams, vol. I (New York, I97I), 246. Subsequent references are to this edition and rear nod by page number in the text. 2 See Conversations with Tennessee Williams, ed. Albert J. Devlin (Jackson, Miss. , I986). 3 Paul de Man, Blindness and Insight Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism, second ed. , revised (Minneapolis, I983), I2. See de Man, Blindness and Insight, I87ff, where he outlines the critical movements in Hesperian Europe and the U. S. that have thus openly raise d the question of the intentionality of rhetorical figures (I88). Among the critics he cites are Walter Benjamin, Roland Barthes, and Michel Foucault (to whose work I will turn later in this essay). Subsequent references to Blindness and Insight are observe by page number in the text. 5 Tennessee Williams, The Gloss Menagerie (New York, I97I). 6 Stanley is quoting Huey Long. 7 See Gore Vidals Introduction to TennesseeWilliams calm short circuit Stories (New York, I985) xxv. 8 Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, vol. I An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley (New York, I978), I08-9. 9. Tennessee Williams, Desire and the Black Masseur, in Collected Stories (New York, I985), 2I7. I0 Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization A History of Insanity in the while of Reason, trans. Richard Howard (New York, I965). II. Ibid. , 94. I2 Ibid. , 88. I3 Ibid. , 259-60. Subsequent references are noted by page number in the text. I4 Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge Selected