Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Battle Of The Bulge

Since the time that war, military and military men have existed, there has also existed a parallel class of strategist, philosophers, military, practitioners, philosophers and historians who have invested their lifetime of effort comprehending the complexities of warfare.These efforts have produced both long, complicated documents that have looked in entire social and economic aspects associated with warfare, and also condensed records and quick lessons into strategy of war that practitioners of the military art could use to guide the conduct of warfare (Johnsen et al.1995). The efforts to chronicle war details and related documents is also taken in earnest effort by every nation, in order to create a perspective on war and establish a set of workable principles that can be followed in the course of any armed struggle. However, mere compilation and study of principles would certainly account as a very limited effort in evolving a contemporary and updated approach towards warfare.Whil e the principles may have been thoroughly scrutinized at the tactical and operational levels of warfare, their applicability and suitability at the practical level of implementation may be less than exhaustive. For examples, the principle and lessons of war from Napoleonic warfare, although revealing from the strategic point of view, may have little operational significance from the standpoint of 20th century techniques and necessities (Reid, 1993).It is important therefore for these principles to apply at the strategic level of war under the conditions of rapid technological change, and remain in accordance of military needs of the time. Contrary to ocular perception that associates war as purely a military enterprise, one that is conducted entirely on battlefields, the reality is that war is an intellectual accomplishment and creative exercise, and hence many of its finer details are perfected at the strategic board and discussion rooms.The intellectual framework required to accom plish this complex procedure requires a theoretical structure that is provided by Principle of war (Johnsen et al. 1995). Meanwhile, theories and principles are just one of the side of a full-fledged war, as they have their own limits and it’s the balanced of combination of principles along with ability to transform them in practice that ensures victories in armed engagements.It is also important to remember that war strategies and principles applied in a particular battle essentially bear the stamp of their time. Although they may appear out of place, or seem overtly simple from vantage point of time, they reflect the best wisdom and experience of the age (Murdock, 2002). It is from this understanding and insight that this paper looks into the important Battle of Bulge, fought between German and US forces towards end of the Second World War and that is universally recognized as the bloodiest battle faced by US in the War.Modern Principles of War The two world events that hav e profoundly affected war strategies and principles have been the First and Second World War. The scale and range of military strategy and operations seen in each of the war had been hitherto unprecedented, and with introduction of motorized units, battletanks and aircrafts, the very core of military strategy changed for forever (Johnsen et al. 1995).The lead military thinkers and strategists of the day were forced to undergo a total revision of their approach towards conducting battles that no longer comprised of charging cavalrymen and open field combat, and brought in their consideration the role of bombers and fighter aircrafts- such modern tools of warfare that had never been used by any army through the course of human history (Reid, 1993).However, though acutely aware of the fact that pre-World War I operational strategies and principles of battles no longer hold any applicability or relevance for modern context, the strategists included some cardinal ethics in revising and p reparing the new principles of war. Some of the outstanding principles of war, as promulgated from time to time by lead military thinkers and strategists have been Originality, Economy of Force, Strategy of Indirect Approach, Objective, Offensive, Military Security, Concentration, and Co-Operation (Reid, 1993; Murdock, 2002).The first among these was Originality. By its very definition, originality does not conform to any specified set of rules, procedures or antecedent governing conduct of war. It is always a fresh take on situation, borne purely out of context of the battle. Military strategists attributes following characteristics to originality (Reid, 1993): 1. Originality is the product of an original mind. 2 An original idea or plan, by its definition, presents novel insights and its not an obvious one; further it can not be known in advance to originator themselves.Original ideas are likely to be unconventional and they happen to be product of an unorthodox approach. 3 Origin al approach and ideas generated will posses varying degree of originality and situation specific approach that may come with built in elements of context based improvisation and ideas. However, the ability to conceive original ideas does not translate to ability of selecting the most appropriate course of action. 4 Originality comes from active imagination. 5. Every one participating in an action is capable of coming out with original ideas.There are several noted contributions of originality in military field that are historically famous and have been marked as legend. The use of elephants by Hannibal, the retreat plot deployed by Normans at the battle of Hastings, and the spectacular success achieved by German Blitzkrieg are all too famous and taught across all the military schools in world (Reid, 1993). Surprise, as it can be noted, formed the crux of the originality and with further maturation of military doctrine, surprise and initial advance emerged as separate principles of w ar that were followed to the hilt by many military leaders.The remarkable successes of Germany in the initial period of the Second World War and in the Operation Barbarossa against Russia and the deadly Japanese strike at Pearl Harbor were all result of a military strategy strictly woven around the cardinal principle of surprise and initial advance(Reid, 1993). Despite the obvious advantage of originality and the elements of surprise, flexibility and initiative introduced by it, the stress on originality alone do not form the full crux of war principles.Economy of Force: Economy of Force, as a military principle was a central theme of British Military Doctrine post World War I. Economy of Force is traditionally defined as a commander’s ability to identify the area to concentrate the main thrust of the force for decisive result corollary of concentration of force (Murdock, 2002). It is well recognized that it impossible to be strong everywhere and if decisive victory is to be achieved then it is imperative that strength is directed at the critical time and place, while ensuring that reduce the wasteful expenditure of effort.It also involves a commander’s ability to take calculated risk, planning for balanced development and providential deployment of available resources (Murdock, 2002). Strategy of Indirect Approach: Strategy of Indirect Approach is aimed at minimizing blood loss at battlefronts, both in friendly and enemy’s camp. Developed as opposite to war of attrition, it is a purely philosophical approach that is aims to strike strategically at enemy’s point of weakness instead of the main force. The areas identified for this purpose are lines of supply, lines of communication, factory and industrial installations and power centers (Murdock, 2002).Strategic bombing against these vulnerable but highly sensitive channels is likely to effectively cripple enemy’s ability to conduct warfare, leading to capitulation by its main body with minimum of blood loss. Battle of Bulge The Battle of Bulge, known in Army circles as Battle of Ardennes, resulted from German offensive in the last phase of the World War II and it took place from 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945. After the Normandy Landing of 6th June, 1944, Allied forces had liberated almost whole of the Europe from Nazi occupation and cornered German forces to their own territories (Astor, 1999).Allied Forces had taken the strategic position in the rough terrains of Ardennes, that occupied areas of Belgium and France. Although the forests and hills of the region made it an apparently impregnable region, the history defied this notion as the region constituted the main path taken by German forces in both 1st and 2nd World War to mount surprise attack on Belgium and France (Astor, 1999). The region had already seen a major confrontation in the beginning of Second World War when German forces launched their blitzkrieg on France using the same path.Now, with tides of battle turned, Allied forces had parked themselves in the same region, preparing to use it against launching their major offensive against German mainland. The emotions in Allied Armies ran high at this juncture. They had successfully liberated almost all of the Western Europe from Nazi occupation and at the beginning of December, 1944 they were standing at the threshold of the door of Nazi regime, the cause of momentous suffering and unparalleled loss of life for millions of people.The heavy Nazi defeat in USSR, resulting in almost total decimation of over half a million Nazi force had further created a positive mood of victory. It was not surprising that many of the army men and military officers were looking forward to end of War by 1st January, 1945. However, hopes of a quick victory took a setback as US intelligence gathered rumors mentioning a massive German counter attack. Prisoners captured and deserters from German army mentioned of large scale congregation o f German military machine and personnel.By 9th December, there were unconfirmed reports in Allied camps of an impending German maneuver, but there was hardly any decisive or concrete information available on which to base the response. For a short time the Army generals believed the military amassment to be of defensive in nature, aimed at protecting German borders (Astor, 1999). Meanwhile, around 12th of December, in several cases of interrogation of bordering civilians, Allied soldiers learned of heavy movement of military equipments as well as arrival of hardcore Nazi troops –Wafen SS from Italy (Astor, 1999).The reports created a scene of impending offensive assault. However, the report took more than a day in making its way to Army headquarters. As a matter of fact, riding on their feats of victory over Nazi Army in recent battles, American army had dangerously dropped its guard and slumbered in a zone of complacency. German spies reported that American guards manned the ir post for an hour after dark and then returned to base to emerge at the dawn.This was in total disregard to the alert and caution required at the time of ongoing war situation. As confirmed by American commander of 106 division, before bulge, they were a nine to five army in Ardennes. The Nazi Ardennes offensive was prepared by Hitler himself and it was based on standard German strategy of achieving maximum damage through surprise. Towards this purpose, German forces maintained total radio silence, putting Allied forces completely in dark on the movements and intentions of their enemies.While Allied armies rested through first half of December, German panzer divisions, supported by large number of infantry troops were stealthily filtering through forests of Ardennes to catch Americans unprepared and off guard (Astor, 1999). Germany had indeed the plan well laid out for they had deliberately selected the most vulnerable section of American division for the first salvo. German batte ries opened fire on the early morning of 16th December, 1945. The sixth panzer division showered 99th division with heavy mortars and shells, severely destroying Allied communication lines (Astor, 1999).The Fifth Panzer division, supported by Seventh Army, tore into Allied forces, virtually annihilating the opposition out of way. The attack was so intense that it literally cut down large number of trees surrounding the Allied camps, and falling tree trunks became another mortal hazard for the soldiers scrambling for cover and their life. Allied forces soon galvanized their response and within an hour of initiating attack, the 277th division found itself facing a barrage of shots and ammunition from Allied forces, and especially American soldiers.In fact at many places German forces suffered heavy casualty. However, German preparations were fairly elaborate and troops stationed near Sauer River and Sauer town witnessed the amazing scene of searchlights reflected through low hanging c louds, illuminating long stretches of path for German forces while providing little guidance to Allied troops of the location or position of their formidable adversaries (Astor, 1999). The adversaries indeed proved too formidable and they incessantly and mercilessly poured down heavy shells, bombs and fire on a force caught completely off balance.The impact of the German affront forced American divisions to move back; they hoped to assemble at a safe place and then mount an effective counter strike. But the rapidly advancing tanks units of German Army stripped the retreating American troops of any assemblage point inflicting waves after waves of massive casualty. To support the army motorized units, approximately thousand planes of Luftwaffe hovered over the scene, dropping paratroopers, reconnaissance and when the opportunity presented, strike the visible American targets.The swift German attack had also been successful in creating wedge between First and Third Army, and separated British forces from American units. The German armies continued their rampant attack for three full days, causing heavy casualties on Allied forces. Meanwhile, the Allied generals, under leadership of General Eisenhower and command of General Patton were already planning counteroffensive against German divisions. Eisenhower and the Allied command well understood the fact that German were counting on their success upon same speed and thrust that had achieved in the initial years of wars (Astor, 1999).However, Ardennes presented a different topography that was too rough and too uneven for quick, breezy movements. Further, the time of year being December, the entire area was covered with snow and it considerably slowed down German Operations. The principle aim of advancing German army was to cross the Meuse River, using the cover of surprise and stealth for their infantry to cut through Allied lines. Behind them Panzer divisions would coast easily, mowing down remaining resistance and cross the River.Once across the river, they would turn and head for the crucial port of Antwerp that they aimed to capture in order to cut off Allied supplies and force them to capitulation. However, German forces, in all their haste to advance, could not discount the natural adversities of fog, snow, inclement weather and hostile terrain. The Allied armies used these natural disadvantages well against advancing German battalions to halt them in their track and in the process cause severe damage to their resources. The Allied high command also sent quick reinforcement to flanks under pressure of heavy enemy fire thereby negating the German success.The resolute stand by Allied armies and their refusal to submit to overwhelming German armor virtually stalled the German advances (Astor, 1999). By December 18, from the strategy point of view the German High Command had known that their operation was destined towards failure. If they continued to pursue it, it was done with the hope to i nflict heavy damage on allied force and seize the initiative from them. The German fought desperately more because they knew that Antwerp presented them their only chance of survival, however slim it may be. In defense lay their total ruin (Astor, 1999; Smith, 1995)).However, as US generals later estimated, Germany faced total ruin in either of the situation. It was essentially stripped of the substance to reverse balance of power in Europe. With Allied forces pressing it from the West, and Russian forces blowing it from East, the German defeat had become a certainty that even most optimistic of Nazi generals knew. If anything, the battle of Bulge brought their ruin sooner than later. By 20th of December, Allied generals had taken complete stock of the situation and prepared their counter plan with the aim to completely neutralize the Nazi striking potential (Smith, 1995;Cooper, 1998).By 22nd of December, Allied airplanes, comprising of bombers and fighters, started to wreck havoc o n German armored units. Although Luftwaffe tried to counter the Allied airplanes, but it was outnumbered and beaten out of contest. By December 24, Allied bombing of German rail movements, their communication line, their armored divisions and their supply lines created a condition of virtual siege for German army, that starved in absence of supplies, ammunition and fuel (Smith, 1995). Nazi units were severely short of fuel, that had, for all the practical purpose, rendered them cripple and worthless from battle point of view (Smith, 1995).From Christmas of 1944, the definitive allied ground counterstrike began against defeated and retreating German armies. German encirclement of town of Bastogne was broken down by January 3 and by January 10 the two division of advancing Allied forces from two directions were at a distance of mere 10 km from each other, allowing the Nazi forces a very narrow corridor to ensure their escape (Smith, 1995). It had taken exactly a month to turn German p osition into a hopeless one, from where almost no escape was possible. By January 16 the combined allied forces were rapidly closing down on them.The severe damages suffered by Nazi forces that included 1,20,000 casualties (wounded and dead), loss of 600 tanks, 1600 planes, complete disruption of their communication lines and exhaustion of their fuel supply, had irrevocably broke their back. The offensive came to an end by January 25, resulting in an another major and decisive allied victory (Smith, 1995). Reference Cooper, B. Y. 1998. Death Traps: The Survival of an American Armored Division in World War II. Presidio Press, Astor, G. 1999. The Greatest War: Americans in Combat, 1941-1945; Presidio Press.Smith, W. B. 1995. Eisenhower's Six Great Decisions: Europe, 1944-1945; Longmans, Green. Houston, D. E. 1995. Hell on Wheels: The 2d Armored Division;; Presidio Press, 1995 Johnsen, W. T. , Johnson, D. V. , Kievit, J. O, Lovelace Jr. D. C. Metz, S. 1995. The Principles of War in the 21st Century: Strategic Considerations; Strategic Studies Institute, 1995 Reid, B. R. 1993. The Science of War: Back to First Principles. Routledge, Murdock, P. 2002. Principles of War on the Network-Centric Battlefield: Mass and Economy of Force; Parameters, Vol. 32, 2002

Write about the different sociological perspectives and different theories on suicide, family, and health and medicine

In sociology there are many different perspectives. The perspectives are split up into two different group's macro sociology and micro sociology. Macro sociology detriments the individuals behaviour e.g. society shapes the person you are going to be. Micro sociology means a way of looking at things, people who believe in micro believe the individuals who live in it construct the society. Marxist and functionalist believe in macro sociology, interactions and feminist believe in micro sociology. A functionalist looks at society like a biologist looks at a human body. A functionalist sees everything in the world as a function and a meaning e.g. we need the environment we live in to start a family, and a family needs a education which leads to your economical status, which makes us have a good or bad environment. Functionalist use methods to get our statistics by using questionnaires, survey and structured interviews. Every society has basic needs and it needs to be organised so people can face them basic needs. Functionalist say there is to be order in every society if a society is going to exist. Durkheim's theory of suicide was based on the idea that it was the degree of social solidarity that explained variations in suicide rate by social solidarity he ment the bonds that hold people together. If the bonds were to loose then people would feel weakly connected to society and was more likely to commit suicide. If the bond were to tight then this could also lead to suicide as a person could loose their sense of self-preservation. Rates of suicide were consistent within society but varied between patterns e.g. catholic countries have low rates of suicide because they wont admit to people committing suicide they put it down to accidental death. Also in catholic countries there is different places people can go so they can feel closer together e.g. church. Functionalists believe family is important for reproduction, love and support they believe that the mother is there to love and take care of the children. Parson's theory of the development of the family is a general theory. He argues that the nuclear form of the family was well suited to the economy. Within this unit roles were specialised that one adult should be earning money from a paid job and the other should be at home with the children. In the eighteenth century adults were expected to take part in activities such as producting craftwork, collecting wood or arranging the food. I believe personally that family is important to get you through day to day activities, I feel that if I didn't have my family for love and support then I would feel weakly connected to society, this could lead to depression or suicide. In contrast interactionists see the world in different methods they see suicide in a different way than a functionalist, they see it as a micro sociology (which means a way of looking at things) they believe that individuals construct the society they live in. Douglas sees suicide in a different way then durkheime, he points out that the decision to weather a sudden death is suicide is made by a coroner and this is influenced by friends and family etc. Douglas suggests that if a person commits suicide family and friends may try to hide the fact that it is suicide and blame it on accidental death, because they believe it is there sense of responsibility to try and cover it up. Douglas points out that different cultures have different meanings of suicides, it is best to interview the person who knew them well. Atkinson doses not except that suicide exists as something waiting to be discovered. He feels that if sociologists believe this then they will seek facts that have nothing to do with social reality. He says society is part of the social world and if a death is unnatural then the officials will believe it is a suicide (themes and perspectives). Coroner's theory of suicide contains explanations if a person is brought up in broken homes, care or as suffered from nervous breakdowns then they are more likely to commit suicide than if a person as a normal up bringing. Also if a person as no family ties and feels alone in the world then they are also at high risk of feeling low and committing suicide. Radical psychiatrists explain the bad terms of being in a family. They say that a nuclear family is the prime area of emotional pressure and anxiety. In some families people can feel underpressure due to work or lack of sleep. It is known that a main factor in this development is caused by an illness called schizophrenia. This is well known illness that is associated with the term madness. Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain, the main disturbances are though thought process but this can extend to emotional and disturbing behaviour. The symptoms of this disease are hallucinations and delusions (positive) and apathy and withdrawal (negative). In some families adults have different rules for different family members. If a person as a mental illness in a family then it can be treated as a whole family unit. A Marxist is someone who believes that society is made up of two main groups, ruling class and working class. A ruling class person is someone who owns his or her own company or business. A working class person is someone who works for someone else. Power lies in the economic base. This determines dominant ideology through the media, religion, education and family. If someone is in trouble these people will deal with it, if the people in society don't listen then the court, army or mental insinuations (also known as the coroner) will deal with them. Marxist sees capitalism and its insinuations like family as oppressive, which means when the rich control the poor, or when a man controls a woman. Marxists believe that family is there to support the worker, they believe the worker should earn the money and the extended family should do the day to day activities e.g. cook clean wash etc. A feminist is someone who believes that society is also split in to two groups but they see the division between men and women. Many feminists argue that men have more power than women do. They have higher income and better-paid jobs. Feminists believe that all husbands don't oppress their wives but they are treated unequally in the workplace. There are 3 different types of feminism: Liberal feminism Socialist's feminism Radical feminism A liberal feminist is someone who believes in changing the law to give people equal opportunities in both work and the workplace. Socialist's feminist is someone who believes until capitalism no longer exists there will not be equality in society. Radical feminists believe that society should only exist as women. Feminists introduced the study of areas in family life e.g. housework and domestic violence in to sociology. Feminists challenge the view of male domination in families because they believe that men have greater benefits in families than others. Feminists argue that family life is based on co-operation, love, and shared interest, many feminists have questioned other feminists so that they can emphasise different experiences of women and see the different ways, which they are disadvantage in the workplace. Parson's functionalism looks at the role a sick person plays in society. Parsons stressed the motivation of being sick and getting better. Some people decide weather they are sick or not to withdrawal themselves from normal activities. Medicine is there to cure and control those who are sick so that they can return to their day-to-day activities and responsibilities. The sick role requires commitment to those who are unwell to return to normal as soon as they are well again. Doctors role is to act in the best interest of the patient, they have the right to look at the patient's body and take personal details from them. Functionalist believe that society is like a flow, if a person falls ill then it effects other people in society as they are unable to carry out roles around them. Symbolic interactionism looks at the idenity through interaction with others. Most studies show that a doctor as more power over a patient but if a patient consumes medicine from a market then they have the right to take it without doctor's consent. At a stage when a person is really sick the doctor as the right to say what happens however at a later stage the patient can become more involved as they are responsible for the management of there lives. Labelling is component in illness through the way people treat the ill person (doctors, friends, family) if a person as cancer than they are labelled a cancer patient even though they are still a person e.g. mother, friend etc. Marxist theory is more focused on the way money is structured in society to determine equality and power. Medicine as become a market product and can be brought and sold like any other product. Marxist claim that just because medicine is the organisation of health care, it doesn't mean it is free of capitalist influence. Marxist claim that most health problems are linked with unhappy and stressful work environments however rather than seeing the problems as individual's weakness Marxist see it as disadvantage of class and social construct. There is a pattern of unhealthy workers who work in industrial places linked with industrial substances; these substances are known to be responsible for 10% of male cancers. Over the past century feminists have male dominated medical professions they have medicalised events for women associated with pregnancy, menstruation and childbirth. Women themselves invented this medical invention and emerged medical professions to open a medicine market. In the 1950s pregnancy became a medical condition. Most women suffered from depression, anxiety and sleepiness. Most disorders that required motivation were linked with men. Feminists argue that only by breaking the main road with medicine women will gain control over their bodies. Most women who work with medicine are paramedics or nurses, these jobs are lower paid and they have less occupational status. Even though females attend the same medical school with the same attitude as their male friends they are still disadvantaged in the workplace.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

First Time in Church

Theological foundation 100 February 13, 2013 Reflection Paper #1 The content of the worship is very different from the way I am used to in Islamic mosques. The priests started by saying â€Å"We bless ourselves for prayer in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit† and the crowd responded with an Amen, and then a person started to read from the bible. Every time the priest or the person finished the reading, people said â€Å"The word of the Lord. † People kept repeating what the priest was saying until he started to read the Gospel.When he stared reading the Gospel, people crossed themselves on the forehead, the lips and the chest with their thumbs to show that Christ is on their mind. Then the priest started to bless the bread and wine, and every person got to drink and eat from them. Then the priest asked people to show a sign of peace by greeting people who are next to each other saying â€Å"Peace be with you. † At the end, the Priest blessed eve ryone and ended the Mass by telling people to go forth and spread the word, and the response was â€Å"Thanks be to God. Music was played for most of the time during the mass. The songs played were in fact really pleasant to listen to and reassuring. The orchestra was behind the stage, so it was almost impossible for people to see them playing the music, and I think it is the way it is just to prevent any distraction to people. I was not actually sure that the songs were in English because I did not understand what the crowd was saying although I had the notes I was given when I entered the church. I actually had a wonderful experience in the Catholic Church.Although I was so nervous and did not expect to be amazed by Christianity at all, there were several things that I really liked and wished that everyone even non-Christians considered to do as human beings. When the priest asked the people to show peace and great each other, everyone looked around him and started to hug the per son next to him saying â€Å"peace with you†. These three words have a great impact on any person who hears them, and makes him feel that he is loved by others and a part of a community.Although no one probably knew the other, they were ready to prove that they are united despite the differences between them. There were many times where I was confused and did not understand what other people were doing. First of all, I did not understand what everyone was singing nor the words repeated after the priest. The songs for some reason did not sound English at all; I wish I could understand them because they were really amazing. Secondly, I did not get the part of blessing the bread and wine. n other words, why would People wait in line just to get one piece of bread to eat? What is so special about it? Also, when getting the piece of bread, the priest was holding people’s heads and repeating some words, and then they crossed on their heads and chests, why is that and what ex actly did the priest say? Lastly, when people were on their way out of the church, they immersed their fingers in the water in the small fountain in front of the exit and crossed again on their head and chest.I did not know why people did that especially nothing seemed unique in the water. After everyone was gone, my friends and I interviewed the leader of the mass. Honestly, I do not know what his name was but he was such a nice person. The clothes he was wearing helped me to distinguish which one was the priest among the people even before the mass started. I expected the priest to be wearing a black dress because this is what I had seen priests wearing, but this priest was wearing a white dress and another green dress above it to distinct him from the other people.Amazingly, he was not wearing any hat like most priests in other churches do, which is a bit strange because I thought all priests wear hats. He was really nice and welcomed us to ask him any question him we had in mind . His broad definition of grace was â€Å"the undeserved love of God. ’’ It is the kindness from God we do not deserve; there is nothing we have done, nor can ever do to earn this favor. From interviewing two of my Christian friends, they both defined grace as the favor that God gave to humanity by sending Jesus Christ to die on a cross, and delivering eternal salvation.Finally, I could not ask the priest many questions because he seemed busy, and I actually was so nervous to keep the talking going. Instead, I just ask one of my friends to tell me about his experience with how god’s grace has changed his live. He said that God’s grace has helped him feel so much better about himself and made him feel strong, confident, and happy. He said that he always trusted god whenever he had troubles, and his life was transformed significantly. He did not know how exactly he overcomes his troubles and depression, but believed that god’s love and power always helped him.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Inventory Control System Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Inventory Control System - Dissertation Example Effective inventory control permits you to have the correct amount of inventory in the right place at the right time. It ensures that capital is not tied up unnecessarily, and protects production if problems arise with the supply chain. Organizational background: The organization which I will be writing my essay about is my father company. Majeed trading establishment started in 1974 as a sole proprietorship, he started the business by himself as a small shop in Manama dealing in tiles, sanitary ware and other building materials. In the year 1990 he inducted his brother Mohammed as a partner in the company so that they can grow the business more. In the year 2000 this partnership business has converted into a limited liability Company under the name of Majeed and Mohammed Company. This company is patronized under the leadership of Abdul Majeed Abbas as chairman of the organization and Mohammed Abbas "his brother" is the managing director, the chairman takes care of the administration and personal department activities, and the managing director takes care of the entire business operation, which together makes it as one the leading business house of the country. A legal form of business organization where two or more people trade together under the partnership act of 1890 (a - z business). It is usual for partnership to have unlimited liability which means each partner legally responsible for the debts of the other partner including their tax liability, they require a high degree of trust. Forming a partnerships allow more capital to be used in the business than in case of a sole trader. The principal trading activities are importing and retailing sanitary ware, ceramic tiles, marble, mixers, Jacuzzis, shower... In my point of view, I think the best system they have to use is the online system, it will make it easier for the employees to find the information they need and they will be updated in every transaction that the company will make. The problems will be less and it will benefit the company in a way that their problem will reduce and also will increase the sale of the company because there will be a reduction of mistakes from the employees about checking the quantity of the material stock. A system which can be easily shown the now – moving stock will help the company to get rid of the death stock and the organization must work on and tries to sell the materials which are hard to be sold. In conclusion, to run a success full inventory system data analysis is a very important task.The inventory software should have a powerful technique for analyzing the raw data to achieve the meaning full information. As we know the information is wealth, without information inventory is system is an absolute failure. With the Data analysis techniques only, the company can know the average movement of the stock and forecasting, so that they know how much stock in need to be clear up, and know about all the none, slow and fast moving items. This inventory valuation report is the important report to close the current fiscal year and open a new financial year. When we want to close the current financial year company should know how much profit has been made during the year, for that company needs how much stock is laying in the warehouse.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Statistics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Statistics - Research Paper Example In the study, the research establishes that there is no significant difference in the means for leukemia survivors of different gender. Hypothesis test is the process of evaluation of the truthfulness of a statement made regarding the parameters of research data, at a certain level of confidence. (Anderson, Burnham & Thomson p.913) present a hypothesis test on the mean, and attempt to demonstrate how the test has been misused. (Pearson & Bloom p.8) have used the standard z-test to describe the poll results of senate contest in 2002. They have diagrammatically represented the expected normal distribution of the results, and emphasized on the interpretation of these results based on the drafted hypothesis. Nahid, Reisi, Leila, Khalilian. â€Å"Comparison of Intelligence Quotient in Children surviving leukemia who Received Different Prophylactic Central Nervous System Treatments†. (2012). Web, 28 November 2012. Pearson, Elizabeth Jennie, Bloom, Joel David. â€Å"A Probability-Theory Based Test of the Reliability of Election Polls†. N.d. Web. 28 November 2012.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Use of Computers in Hotels Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Use of Computers in Hotels - Essay Example One of the trends he identified was the shift from an Industrial Society to an information society. The level of change involved is so fundamental yet so subtle that we tend not to see it or if we see it, we dismiss it as overly simplistic and thus we ignore itThe problem is that our thinking our attitudes, and consequently our decision-making have not caught up with the reality of things. Naisbitt further stated that Apple Computers, a pioneer in the field of personal computers, estimated that total sale of computers would grow at least 40 percent annually. On the other hand, scientific and technical information was increase 13 percent per year at the time of this study and was expected to increase to 40 percent per year thus creating the need for more powerful information systems and increasing the population of scientists. Naisbitt added that this level of information was clearly impossible to handle by present means. Information had become very important to modern society. In most business, demographic information about client was not readily available in the hotel industry however it was very easy to track down the demographic information of client because every guest or group must register when checking in. Goffe and Parker stated that computers can greatly simplify the task of managing large masses of information. Unfortunately at the time of this study the lodging industry in the world was about a decade behind other industries in incorporating computer techniques. Even in those hotels that were using computers their use was usually limited to the front office, and marketing applications were usually an after though if they were not neglected entirely. The problem of insufficient computer use in hotel marketing was discussed by several other experts in the hospitality industry Taylor (2006) stated that the sales and marketing function have always been deemed beyond the reach of available technique. Sales people still wrote booking in diaries instead of entering information in computers. With so many variables impacting upon hundreds of bookings, it was very easy to make costly mistakes for example salesmen might forget to log their room sales in diaries causing rooms to be overbooked. Insufficient computer use can also cause problems like delays in replying to customers about the availability of rooms because data is not immediately available to Goffe and Parker (2005:110); computer if utilized properly could bring many benefits to hotel marketers. They added that computers can be used for following things very easily. In Advertising, Sales promotion and Publicity areas: Measurement of the effectiveness of different advertising and commercials. Measurement of the effectiveness of different sales promotion. Preparing past clients mailing list. Monitoring of advertising budgets. Preparing publicity budget. O'Connor (2004) elucidates the different functions of computers for marketing purposes: In Sales and Sales Management: Preparation of market share analysis. Tracking and ranking how much business each geographic market brings. Preparing potential clients list. Tracking the reasons for cancelled

Friday, July 26, 2019

Healthcare and Health Policy in Spain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Healthcare and Health Policy in Spain - Essay Example Second, public insurance coverage of the general population is over 99.5% where only few groups of independent professionals and immigrants under special conditions are not covered by law. Third, is how the healthcare system financed In Spain it is financed through general taxation. The National Health Service started in the 1940's wherein it is originally funded by social security, over the years they needed additional funding and this came from the general taxation. And now it is clear that 98% of the funding in Spanish healthcare comes from general taxation. The healthcare and health policy in UK is somewhat different from Spain. The comparison between the two countries is enumerated below. In the conclusion the writer will analyze the significance of having a good healthcare system and policy. In healthcare Spain is said to be much better as compared with UK. Spain has a public health system which provides free or low cost health care for those contributing to the Spanish social security system and their families. The system also caters for retirees and includes those from other EU countries. The country has an excellent system of private medicine and this exists comfortably alongside the State system with both operated so as to complement each other. The Spanish health care system is rated ninth in the World by the World Health Organisation - far above that of the UK's. In Spain there are two types of hospitals operating, one private and one operated by the state. The private hospital offers immediate treatment with patients being accommodated in single rooms. The state hospital offers the same convenience. Both hospitals pool resources to the benefit of private and state patient alike. Because of the comprehensive policies in Spain the health services for patient such as CT scan or laboratories are 40-70% cheaper than in UK. To equality among its citizens Spain has passed a law called law of quality and health cohesion. It means that by law the citizens have the right to enjoy the same health services including pharmaceuticals with the same conditions regarding social participation, accessibility, time, information, security and quality independently of where they live. And according to the ministry of health, this is their first great law of healthcare since the 21st century. In Spain there is a pharmaceutical policy that is now being introduced in UK. This has been existed in Spain for many years; it is one of approaching the local pharmacist for minor ills. Pharmacists have an excellent reputation for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment and are able to issue all but controlled drugs. In no time at all they'll have you feeling better. In Spain there are several ways to contact a doctor or have an appointment if you are sick. You can just text the word "Urgencias" to the telephone number 5013 and you will be informed of the waiting time before your appointment. This is very convenient especially for the elders. Another way to consult the doctor is thru the web. Healthcare system and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Kuwait-Iraq War Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Kuwait-Iraq War - Research Paper Example The reasons which have gained worldwide acceptance are highlighted and scrutinized in this paper along with the horrifying socioeconomic and public harms sustained by Kuwait during and after the war. The discussion on this Iraqi invasion also revolves around the incredibly disparaging consequences Kuwait had to bear and the massive costs it paid as a result of this vicious war. The war did not die away on its own after some months, rather many countries had to step in this critical issue that was rapidly getting out of control. Some of those countries, the peaceful roles they played, and the facilitating measures taken by them to reestablish the Kuwaiti public also form a part of the discussion presented in this paper. 2. Introduction: The Kuwait-Iraq war has been the biggest conflict between Iraq and Kuwait yet and was based on a seven month long period that resulted in the loss of many lives and gigantic economic crisis. The Iraqi occupation on Kuwait ignited worldwide condemnation due to which Iraq had to face much resistance in making Kuwait one of its own states. Clear disapproval and fury was shown by all countries for Iraq and immediate removal of Iraqi forces was demanded. (, 2004). This brutal invasion was followed by military intervention by United States. Otherwise, there seemed to be no end to the Iraqi invasion which acquired complete control over Kuwait forcing the Kuwaiti forces to run away and find refuge in other countries. The relentless actions of Iraq on one hand, and the â€Å"brief and feeble resistance† displayed by Kuwait’s own forces made Kuwait all the more vulnerable, which led to increased ruthlessness practiced by the Iraqi forces. (Worldology, 2009). Initially, Iraq made an allegation on Kuwait that it was illegally stealing the Iraqi oil reserves through slant drilling so that it could invade Kuwait. (Patterson, 2010). Then, rumors came up that Iraq suddenly took the decision to invade Kuwait because it had no other hope for paying the loan it had previously taken for financing war with Iran. Kuwait is blessed with over-productivity of oil and this proved to be an enchanting delight for Iraq, which already needed some relief from the huge loan. (Kelly, 2011). Within a few days of the attack, Iraq declared Kuwait to be one of its provinces thus taking advantage of the weak defense by Kuwait. 3. Economic and geographical causes of the Kuwait-Iraq war: Conflict over the financial debt of Iraq: Iraq was under severe pressure of the huge loan it had to return, which was taken for financing the too long war with Iran. Too much money and resources had been wasted by Iraq to continue the war, so taking loan became an essential step. The Iraqi president, Hussein, had become too isolated politically and economically after war with Iran. (Simon & Harak, n.d.) mention that â€Å"He (Hussein) was some 60 billion dollars in debt from the war, and the West had cut off his credits after he ha d a British reporter executed as a spy.† This loan became a major hurdle in the path of progress later, due to which Iraq raised oil prices in order to repay the massive debts. In response to this strategy, Kuwait vigorously took steps that ensured over-productivity

Australian Macro-Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Australian Macro-Economy - Essay Example The macro-economic environment supporting the Australian micro-economic reforms have been satisfactory is some respects, but notably deficient in other areas. It is imperative to examine these developments briefly, since, if the major problem areas are not resolved, they have the potential to disrupt the genuinely significant achievements and frustrate the path towards an internationally oriented and efficient economy. The purpose of this section is to examine briefly the salient features of the macro-environment. This article also alludes to some of the effects of the reforms. It does not attempt to provide a comprehensive assessment, which would be beyond the scope of this chapter, and arguably premature. Fiscal Policy Throughout most of the reform period, fiscal policy was reasonably conservative. The Australian Labor administration inherited a large fiscal deficit in 1982/3, in consequence partly of a severe recession. The government proceeded to reduce this deficit progressively through the decade. By 1987/8 a modest surplus had been achieved, and was maintained for the next three years, before another serious recession forced a change in policy. For a short period, also, the administration reversed the post-war trend towards an ever-larger government presence in the economy. Economic growth remained quite buoyant during this period, although inflation continued to exceed that of major trading partners, while remaining below 10 per cent after 1983. The recession of the early 1990s was the major mistake in macro-economic management over this period.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Ethics Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Ethics Paper - Essay Example In the light of these, the following study explains the mandate of social responsibility and ethics in coming up with a strategic plan while considering the demands of stakeholders. Additionally, it provides an example of a company which did not consider ethical considerations and finally recommends the best means of preventing similar occurrences in future. A strategic plan refers to the overall defining term of an organization which highlights its decision-making, directions, and overall modes of operation. The reason why ethics and social responsibility are important when this organizational tool is being constructed is that the organization has to consider the principles of individuals as well as commit to its obligations to the wider society. Failure to meet these demands would mean the integrations of the organization in the society within which it is based would be ineffective. The result of such would be difficult or impossibility of conducting business, since the people would oppose or fail to support the organization’s presence. Ethics go a long way in defining the constituting elements of social responsibilities of an organization. Social responsibility in this term refers to the stakeholders who include clients, suppliers, partners, surrounding societies, and generally anyone who is affected by the organization in one way or another. One key element of social responsibility is that it should treat all the stakeholders equally. Again, the majorly considered aspects of stakeholders are social impacts and environmental effects emerging from the organization’s presence. In a nutshell, ethics should defend against the eruption of any kind of tension or conflict between the organization and all the affected stakeholders (Ferrell & Hartline, 2012). An organization which considers its ethical constitution emphasizes on, and inflicts transparency in all its activities.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Sheet Pile Design Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sheet Pile Design - Coursework Example The latter is caused by earth pressures reaching the limiting state on both side of a considered retaining structure, which thereafter moves towards the excavated area until the full-zone failure is reached. As movement can occur on the bottom part of the wall, the analysis of the structure will be taken as a free body. Thus there will be modified free earth support method (The free earth support revised method) and fixed earth support method. It is worth mentioning that both methods have assumed that active stress condition have been fully developed behind the retaining wall while the passive stress is right in front of the structure. This will allow for calculation using coulomb or Boussinesq theories that consider the actual stress distribution. 1. Modified free earth support method of analysis According to Clayton et al (1993, pp213-214), this method often gives the most economical design for retaining walls. For structure such as cantilever wall, the soil at the lower part of th e pile should be strong enough to resist overturning moments. As shown in the above figure, the passive zone should be adequate in order to prevent lateral deflection and rotation at the lower end of the wall. However, the main principle behind the modified free earth support method of analysis is the assumption that the embedment of the wall is allowed to move and this will be to a certain distance under the action of the applied lateral earth pressure; this will cause the occurrence of negative bending moments at the considered location. This results in a statically determinate structure, only stable under certain conditions. Therefore, if a cantilever wall is to be designed based on this analysis, only the external passive and active forces will be considered. For the fact that the former will not be sufficient to cancel out the latter, in case of large and tall retaining structures no equilibrium will be meet. This will be because no fixity has been assumed at the bottom of the pile, as a consequence the structure will be under mechanism. When the structure has a height greater than 3m, this will not be the ideal design as the negative moment at the bottom of the file will increase with respect to height (increase of the active stress). As a consequence, to achieve equilibrium, strut or anchor must be added in the design. The addition will placed at the top of the structure, as shown in the picture below, to cancel out the negative moment at the base. Hence, the number of anchor will be directly proportional to the height of the wall. (Delattre, 2001,p3) When anchor or tie is added, the bending moment diagram of the wall will be as shown in the picture below. It can be seen that when moment is created by the anchorage at the top, at the bottom of the pile, the negative moment has been cancelled out; this will be only if both are equal or the former is greater than the overturning moment. As a consequence equilibrium has been satisfied; a moment created by the tie is balanced by the active earth pressure above it. Lancellotta (1995, pp305) explained: â€Å"the failure mechanism envisaged in this case involves a rotation about the anchor†. Here, the rotation of moment at C (shown in the above picture) will enable for calculating the depth by which the pile has to be embedded to satisfy equilibrium against rotation; in other words, the shear strength of the soil is mobilised with respect to the depth of embedment. The equilibrium of horizontal translation gives then the force of the anchor as a high anchorage force will result in movement of the pile

Monday, July 22, 2019

History of Modern Painting Essay Example for Free

History of Modern Painting Essay The rise in popularity of primitivism can be united with two other prevalent forces in Europe during the late 19th century, theology and industrialization. Naturally dissatisfaction with European life increased, steeped in centuries of monarchies, wars, feudal wars, and multiple revolutions. Christ symbols, towering church steeples, and scads of spiritually historical iconography permeated nearly all of the Europe, even while its principles waned. Meanwhile, Europe began to feel the effects of its going industrial centers. In the 1860s, Paris radically rejuvenated itself under Napoleon III and Haussmann’s city restructuring. Apartments, streets, transportation, and commerce were all restructured, becoming new, uniform, sleek, and systemized. Conditionally, primitivism is understood as the ‘other’ through Western perception. This implies that outsiders to Europe are different inherently, and deserve special attention. While Europe idolizes themes of cleanliness, efficiency, and puritan values, the ‘other’ offered an escape into a world that was perceived as exotic, mystically spiritual, and entirely natural. In â€Å"Avant-Garde and Kitsch,† Clement Greenberg says that avant-garde criticism â€Å"has not confronted our present society with timeless utopias, but has soberly examined . . . the forms that lie at the heart of every society. † Vincent Van Gogh, in an attempt to recover simplified realism, focused on less urban subjects. He moved to south France and began painting provincial scenes using thick impasto paint application. Paul Gauguin joined Van Gogh to establish the Studio of the South in Arles in 1988; however, even this is not removed enough from modern Western values. Gauguin had â€Å"studied medieval art (sculpture, tapestries, and stained glass), Primitive woodcuts, and certain types of exotic art which he had seen at the World’s Fair of 1889. † Comparatively, the Western projection of art appeared to him dystopic, and he sought renewal in submersing himself in Tahitian culture. Warily, Gauguin traveled to a country under French rule at the time, guaranteeing him ‘safe’ primitivism than un-Colonized areas. In Tahiti, Gauguin painted with no shaded areas of depth and rounded, blunt features, loose applications of representative color, as seen Maternite II. All this, added with mythical looking mist and bare women give a sense of pastoral serenity of antiquity, while also remaining distinctly different than the European spectator who enjoyed the painting. The women are all dark-skinned and blissfully exposed, while engaging the viewing to partake of the serenity of the scene. Gauguin used Primitive representative techniques, by favoring simplified, unenlightened forms or expression. As Imperialism extended the relations between Europe and civilizations that were previously untouched by European ideology. Simplified, organic forms of nature and natural life were fluidly exposed to European culture, including Gauguin’s paintings. It was completely antithetical to anything appreciated in the West in form, staging, or perspective. Another feature of Westerners embracing primitivism can be found in Samuel Butler’s novel Erewhon. In the utopia/dystopia world of Erewhon there is a complete absence of machines, simply because any variety of them could prove potentially dangerous. This novel was published at a time when industrialized nations began relying more on machines in industry, and features an extreme alternative that demonstrates the allure of the Primitive who live the ‘other’ lifestyle. Those who see modern Western life as a dystopia can find its ultra alternative in the Primitive. Thus artists flee for simpler, idyllic or virginal locals, consequently implying that something is inherently wrong with the Europe, its industry, theology, and ideology. References: Greenberg, Clement. Art and Culture: Critical Essays. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. Read, Herbert. A Concise History of Modern Painting. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. , 1957. Schwartz, Robert . â€Å"France in the Age of Les Miserables. † Mount Holyoke College. 4/19/2009 http://www. mtholyoke. edu/courses/rschwart/hist255-s01/mapping-paris/Haussmann. html.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Importance Of Media In Sport

Importance Of Media In Sport The first ever televised football match was shown by the BBC 12 Months After the service was born. Viewers watched 12 months before the match purely through excitement of which the two teams were to play. On the 16th of September 1937, Arsenal and Arsenal Reserved played each other in the first ever televised match. The first ever televised International match was between Scotland and England on 9th April 1938. Through the years television viewers have increased along with the popularity of sport. More sporting channels are available to watch on the television as a variety of providers such as Sky and Virgin are constantly upgrading and adding a wider variety of sports channels which includes many different sports. Per person in Britain the average viewing time on television a week is 25 hours. Sports channel viewers increase every day which means more of the 25 hours watched are spent watching sport. There are two bodies in Britain responsible for television and these are: The British Broadcasting Corporation  (BBC), which broadcasts television and radio programmes; The Independent Television Commission  (ITC), which licences and regulates commercial television service including cable, satellite and independent teletext services; (1) Showing times and slots for programmes are decided by these bodies and most of the times are decided by the shows popularity with the viewers. Ofcom (Office of Communications) is a company which licences all television services across the UK. They have a broadcasting code which all broadcasters must stick to and follow. Viewers are entitled to watch certain sports events free of charge through the BBC such as the Olympics, The Ashes and World Cup matches in football. Snooker and Rugby events are also provided free of charge by the BBC. Sky and Virgin sports channels cost money as they are sold as a package deal but money is also generated through offering of extra sport channels such as ESPN and Extreme Sports. Pay per View channels provide special events in Boxing and other sports such as wrestling. These events cost money but the viewer has the option whether to watch or not. Radio On January 15th 1927, The Rugby Union was the very first sport to be broadcasted on the radio. The match was between Wales and England and it took place at Twickenham. The radio is very important when relating to sport as it gives live commentary of a wide range of sports around the world. During sporting events many members of the public may not have access to a television as they may be at work or travelling. A radio is very accessible for example cars and mobile phones provide connections to radio signals. In many careers today workplaces allow radios to be listened to during work time. Football matches and also many other sports can be tuned into when a television cant be accessed. BBC Radio 5 is a very popular station for Sporting action, news and updates. Continental AM is the most popular sports news radio station in the UK. In the United States ESPN is the most popular as it covers Americas most popular sports such as baseball and American football. Both of these radio stations are majorly popular partly due to that they broadcast the worlds biggest sporting event which is The World Cup. Many people own mp3 players and i pods which also have access to radio stations. This is very useful when travelling by train or bus. Airplanes also provide headphones to allow passengers to listen to radio stations. Depending on the time of travel many sports events can be tuned into. Newspapers/Press Before television was invented a newspaper was the main source for accessing sports news and updates. The New York Times was the first ever newspaper to include a sports section. This idea grew at a very fast rate and more newspapers around the world began designating an area in their paper purely for sporting context. Below is a list of the UKs most popular newspapers: Top 10 UK Daily Newspapers 1 The Sun  (2,955,957) 2 Daily Mail  (2,096,074) 3 Daily Mirror  (1,239,691) 4 Daily Star  (823,025) 5 Daily Telegraph  (683,220) 6 Daily Express  (665,731) 7 The Times  (506,997) 8 Financial Times  (386,590) 9 Daily Record  (328,183) 10 The Guardian  (288,917) (2) The Sun is the most popular newspaper as shown above and it also has a sports section at the back of the newspaper. The problem with this is that The Suns information is believed to be not entirely accurate. Each newspaper has many different journalists. Cadwick and Nancarrow are the main sports editors for The Sun and are considered as major press to sports performers and managers. When editors gather information it can be totally altered for production and viewers interest. The Daily Mail is another popular newspaper for sport and it provides news and results for the following sports: boxing, football, rugby, tennis, snooker, golf and horse racing. The content produced in these sports includes information on different levels for example school football results. Newspapers are printed daily which is beneficial for finding recent and up to date sports information. Internet In the past decade the internet has became the main source of communication as well as promoting sporting information and news updates. The internet itself is found on many devices today such as laptops and mobile phones. This makes the internet very accessible no matter where you are located. Every day more sports facts and information is added to the internet which can be discussed through email or chat rooms. For example Facebook is the worlds largest social network website with a substantial figure of more than 500 million users. Sports updates and results are posted on this website which means a huge amount of the public have access to them. As well as social interaction to discuss sport there are also individual websites which give information in depth on upcoming and present sports events and competitions. It can be argued that the internet has now taken over television and radio regarding recent news and worldwide updates. Therefore the most viewed sports channels are now con verted onto the internet which allows the public to access live sports action and results through their computer. For those interested in predicting the outcome of these events, several gambling websites regarding sport have been launched and are now available for internet users. This is extremely convenient and efficient as the public can play a part in the sporting action straight from their online device. Sports advertisement is escalating on the internet which promotes a variety of sports and gets online users interested. Developing role models Role models are a major part of promoting sport around the world. Performers at the peak of their individual sport become a role model to sports fans and inspire youths to try hard to better their personal ability. When most people think of a sports role model the majority of the public would say the name David Beckham. David is without a doubt a main role model figure in sport around the world as he promotes football through advertisements such as television adverts and internet advertisements. Scotland also has role models in a variety of sports such as tennis star Andrew Murray. This 23 year old athlete is currently ranked number 1 in Britain and number 5 in the world. Many young performers look up to Andrew and try to excel in sport as he has. Sponsorships play a huge role in promoting sport and role models are usually sponsored by main sports labels such as Adidas and Nike. Andrew Murray appears in Adidas adverts on television and the internet which promotes tennis and sporting activity. Being a major role model in sport also comes with a certain amount of pressure. Most of Scotland relies on performers such as Andrew Murray to succeed and represent their country. The performer stresses about winning as failure may ruin their role model reputation and decrease their national popularity. National Identity This is when the nation unites or comes together and supports a national team in a major sporting event such as The World Cup. Advertisements through television, radio and the internet promote national status and increase the nations interest and support. Scotland is a very patriotic country and when a major sport event arises everyone shows full support by gathering together to watch the event or uniting and chanting the national anthem. All over the nation the event will be discussed and a high number of supporters will where Scottish tartan or kilts to show their full support. The events stadium or venue will be guaranteed a full capacity to represent the whole nations support. Agencies such as the S.F.A promote Scotland in major competitions and the management team are put under a lot of pressure to live up to this positive promotion. Both managers and performers are pressured due to national identity as they dont want to let the whole nation down and look to be a disappointment. National support plays a massive part on sport success because it increases the players confidence and belief in their countries ability to succeed. Conclusion This report showed the importance of different forms of media and how they influence sport. Technology is constantly improving hopefully new forms of media will be produced. Each form has its own individual benefits and they all play a part in promoting sport and advertising events. As described, role models and national support promote and increase sport interest and involvement around the world.

The sociological theory of social constructionism

The sociological theory of social constructionism Social Constructionism essentially represents a sociological theory of knowledge that studies the development of various sociological phenomena in social contexts. A social construct, the anchor of this theory, refers to a concept that is the artefact of a specific group. Social constructs, to elaborate, dispense with take away from commonly accepted inherent qualities of items, concepts, or issues, and instead focus on their dependence upon, and the contingent and conditional rationale of, our social sense. They describe such issues and things are more easily described as the result of numerous human choices, rather than of natural laws or divine intention. The origins of present day social constructionist theories go back to the writings of Immanuel Kant. Kant argued for the existence of a world that was independent of human minds, thus implying that humans should not assert that they created the world. This world, he said, is without structure and is not divided into things and facts. Structure is imposed on the world by perceiving it and thinking of it in specific ways, as also and by the adoption of particular sets of beliefs, (rather than instead of others) about it. Vivine Burr (2003, p 2) argues that social constructionism enables individuals to adopt critical attitudes towards their conventional and traditional methods of perceiving and understanding the world and their own selves. It provides humans us with fresh ways on perceiving ideas and things that are considered to be commonplace and are unquestioningly accepted. Numerous things like for example money, newspapers or citizenship are socially constructed and. All of these t hings would not obviously have existed in the absence of society. Each of them furthermore could have well been constructed differently. Social constructionism encourages people to question the widely held perception that conventional and accepted knowledge has sprung has come about from objective and impartial examination of the world. It is as such opposed to the positivist epistemology of traditional science and spurs thinking individuals to constantly question their assumptions about the appearance of their environment and its various components. This short study deals with the implications of social constructionism for social workers and how its use can help them social workers to understand human behaviour. Specific emphasis has been given to the use of social constructionism in understanding commonly held perceptions and attitudes towards mental disorders. The Use of Social Constructionism by Social Workers to Understand Human Behaviour Social workers have two fundamental objectives, namely the strengthening of the ability of individuals and groups to cope with and overcome the many difficulties and challenges they confront in life, and the bringing about of improvements in various social and environmental circumstances areas, in order to improve the satisfaction of human needs; especially of people from underprivileged and oppressed social segments. Social workers plan and attempt their various interventions through their understanding of environmental circumstances, the various reasons for such these conditions, and the client system. Such understanding and knowledge and the consequent adoption of theoretic approaches significantly influence the point, the tool, and the nature of social work intervention. It becomes evident that adoption of theoretic preferences, based upon an understanding of the reality of the client environment, is crucial, both to social work theory and its practice. Theories of classical empiricism assert that the truth about the world is established and is independent of the individual. Social constructionism conversely puts forth argues that such truth is certainly not independent of individuals but is actually depends upon their thoughts, perceptions and beliefs. Social workers, by using social constructionism, will be able to understand the various dimensions of reality within such individual thoughts, perceptions and beliefs. Constructionists state that reality cannot be known separately from our elucidation of it. Social constructionism works on the principle that reality is constructed socially and places emphasis on language as a critical route for interpretation of experience. Whilst objectivists state that individuals make discoveries and find out about the reality of the world through the construction and testing of hypotheses via the actions of neutral observers, constructionists debunk such assumptions arguing that the interests and values of observers can never be separated from their observations and are thus bound to influence the final construction of common perceptions about world realities. Gergen (1985, p 270), states that generation of ideas of reality is initiated by social, rather than individual, processes and that the touted objective reality of the positivist approach is actually the result of various social construction processes that are influenced by historical, political, cultural and economic conditions. With such knowledge being essentially constructed, it can change over time and diverge across cultural groups that embrace different perceptions and beliefs about human nature and development. Considering that the norms, beliefs, valu es, traditions, attitudes and practices of different cultural groups vary from each other, the social construction of their knowledge is also likely to differ significantly. An understanding of this fundamental principle can help social workers in their realisation of the different perceptions, attitudes and behaviours of different individuals towards similar social phenomena or stimuli. Social constructionism helps social workers in adopting critical stances towards established assumptions on regarding the social world that reinforce the interests of powerful and dominant social groups and assists them in realising that the world has come about because of historical processes of communication and negotiation between groups and individuals. Gergen (1985, p 266), states that people see the world through the eyes of their particular communities and cultures and respond accordingly. Established assumptions, understandings and behaviours of people are sustained by social, political, economic and moral institutions. Payne (1997), states that reality, according to social constructionism, can be stated to be the guidance of behaviour by individual perceptions of knowledge and reality. Individuals arrive at shared perceptions of reality through the sharing of their knowledge via different social processes that first organise such knowledge and thereafter establish it by making it objective. Social and individual activity thus becomes habitual with individuals sharing their assumptions about their perceptions of reality. People behave in line with social conventions that are based on such shared knowledge. These conventions are furthermore institutionalised because of the agreement of many people on such understandings on different aspects of society. Such realisations and accords become legitimised by processes that integrate these ideas about reality into ordered and believable systems. Social workers need to realise that social understanding is finally the combined result of various human understandings through the operation of circular processes, wherein individuals contribute to the construction of social meaning within social structures of societies through processes of institutionalisation and legitimisation. Societies consequently create conventions through the participation of individuals in their structures, which, in turn influences the behaviours of people. Spirals of constantly moving influences build and rebuild the conventions that people adopt and by which they live. Berger and Luckmann, (1966), state that individuals experience the world to be an objective reality, comprising of persons and events that exist separately of individuals perceptions. Language provides the means through which individuals make sense of their environment, classify persons and events, and interpret new experiences. The shared reality of everyday life by different individuals distinguishes it from individual realities, (like dreams). Language helps individuals in sharing their experiences and making it available to others. Such sharing of reality leads to institutionalisation and thereafter to habitual ways of working. Habitualism makes the behaviour of different individuals predictable, facilitates joint activity and perpetuates social control mechanisms. Knowledge is as such institutionalised within sub-groups, or at social levels, and significantly influences the behaviour of people. Social constructionism allows social workers to question dominant structures of knowledge and understand the impact of culture and history. Social workers by and large understand the requirements of humans through the interplay of different ideological, ethical, political and economic factors. An understanding of social constructionism can help them in understanding the responses behind the actions of both dominant and vulnerable groups of society and decide upon the adoption of the best suited routes for bringing about social change. Social Constructionism and Mental Illness Much of modern day societys perceptions about mental ailments are influenced by the medical and psychological models, which state that medical illnesses are real; they concern disturbances in thoughts, experiences, and emotions and can be serious enough to cause functional impairment in individuals. Such ailments make it difficult for individuals to sustain interpersonal relationships and conduct their jobs. They can also sometimes result in self destructive actions, including suicides. The more serious of such illnesses, like extreme depression and schizophrenia, can often be chronic and lead to serious disability. The social constructionist approach states that such much of modern day perceptions about mental ailments are caused by the specifically constructed vocabularies of medical and psychological models, replete with their elaborate terminologies for mental disorders and focused their focus on deficits. Social constructionism can help social workers in understanding the socially constructive and destructive illusions that have been created put up by existing medical and psychological models and deficit based language. Walker (2006), states that vocabularies of medical and psychological models, including the concept of mental illness itself, are essentially social constructions. They are made up of vocabularies that describe deficits and diseases and perceive human beings as things that can be examined, diagnosed and treated, much in the manner of machines. Such perceptions (a) lead to obsessions with compliance, (b) distinguish between normal and pathological states, and (c) position prac titioners as experts, even as clients are represented built up determined as passive and obedient recipients of treatment. Recommended treatments focus on elimination of symptoms, support established paternalistic roles, and are not focused on actual client needs. Examined from the perspective of linguistics, reified categories like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia appear to be defined by clusters termed as symptoms; schizophrenia for example is concerned with the occurrence of audio hallucinations. Such terms, it is evident exists only because of the creation of consensus among the dominant groups of doctors and psychologists and persist because of convention. Mental illnesses are often described akin to physical ailments like diabetes, where individuals are required to manage their lives with specific medications. Such comparisons are used to explain the working of medications and to make the diagnosis and recommended treatment for mental ailments acceptable to clients. Such analogies however breakdown completely considering if it is realised that discussions about thoughts and feelings of individuals concern their identities and not their bodies. Social workers need to understand that the vocabularies of medical and psychological models essentially position clinicians as the most suitable interpreters of client experiences. Even apparently harmless terms like clinical or treatment plans establish contexts where clients are perceived to be abnormal or having pathologies, even as clinicians are established as authorities with abilities to perform interventions for assisting clients in overcoming their pathologies. With the power of definition lying with clinicians, the labelling of people as mentally ill pushes them to the borders of society and takes away from them their intrinsic rights and privileges. Social constructionism helps social workers in understanding that whilst political and human pressure has helped in eliminating the incarceration of the mentally ill in mental hospitals, the distinction created by vocabulary on mental illness leads to the movement of centres of power to clinicians and undermines efforts for self determination and community integration. Such medical and psychological vocabularies constitute obstacles to more inclusive mental health programmes and undermine social understanding of people with mental disorders.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Tea Time Commercials: A Western Advertisement Essay -- setting, traditi

Tea Time Marketing Assignment Commercials Western †¢ A man drinks Lipton ice tea and begins to perform a dance number along with the staff and the guests. After traveling around the hotel he then sits down again and order another Lipton ice tea. Traditional †¢ The mother and daughter in law. Have a conversation which shows how close they are. This leads to them drinking Red Label tea; which is followed by the daughter lovingly fixing the mothers hair. Why is it western? There are multiple reason in why this commercial can be considered a western advertisement. These include the setting, actions, actors. †¢ The setting within this movie is a large hotel. Which is usually associated with modern culture. It is a place that is known to be connected with western business men. †¢ The setting also has many luxuries which would not be seen in a more traditional commercial. Which includes business attire instead of traditional clothing. The design of the building is also very modern. It does not show the culture of the country or anything that may have been considered traditional. Moving on the objects within the movie are westernized. This can be seen through the attire of the staff. They are not wearing traditional clothing, which should be worn by Japanese inn keepers. Finally the setting is also westernized due to the bedding the maids display. The bedding which they display is not the one which would be used on a traditional Japanese futon. †¢ It can also include the food. The food being prepared within the kitchen is more western and modern, rather than traditional. ( Foods such as takoyaki and yokisoba were not shown). The product itself was pre-packaged, while a traditional tea would have been prepared fresh. The way in wh... ...n traditional inns. †¢ The clothing choices are also very different therefore they will be unable to differentiate between the clothing they use to represent employees and the business attire. †¢ They will be unable to relate to the advertisement †¢ They will not know the actor therefore will not be easily influenced by him †¢ Language could also be an influence Traditional Advertisement/Western Audience †¢ The viewers will not be able to relate to the advertisement because many western people do not live with their in laws. They will also not understand the significance of tea within the Indian household. †¢ They will not understand the clothing choices and may find them unappealing †¢ They will not know the celebrities endorsing the product, which may lead to confusion †¢ Language barriers may exist †¢ They will not be able to understand this family environment

Friday, July 19, 2019

Edna Pontellier’s Solution in Kate Chopins The Awakening :: Chopin Awakening Essays

Edna’s Solution in The Awakening This is a look at "The Awakening" by Kate Chopin. When you first look at the life of Edna you think there is not much to discuss. Edna is a married woman who at first seems vaguely satisfied with her life--"she grew fond of her husband, realizing with some unaccountable satisfaction that no trace of passion or excessive and fictitious warmth colored her affection, thereby threatening its dissolution." (Chopin, 558). Edna doesn't know what she wants from life. It is evident from the way she tries to change her life to make it better, that she wants her own happiness. She refuses to stay home on Tuesdays, which she is expected to do to satisfy the social conventions of the time. She spends more time on her art. She goes to races and parties all the time. All of this doesn't seem to help her maintain happiness all the time. There were days when she was very happy without knowing why. She was happy to be alive and breathing, when her whole being seemed to be one with the sunlight, the color, the odors, the luxuriant warmth of some perfect Southern day. There were days when she was unhappy, she did not know why, when it did not seem worth while to be glad or sorry, to be dead or alive; when life appeared to her like a grotesque Pandemonium and humanity like worms struggling blindly toward inevitable annihilation. (Chopin, 588) Edna struggled to make her life more fulfilling. Edna wanted what? Passion, excitement? She states to the Doctor, "But I don't want anything but my own way. That is wanting a good deal, of course, when you have to trample upon the lives, the hearts, the prejudices of others--but no matter--still, I shouldn't want to trample upon the little lives." (Chopin, 629). In the title of "The Awakening" I get the impression of someone waking up and deciding that their life is not what they want. Edna goes from being reasonably happy in her life to very unhappy with her life and tries to change it to make it better. The ways she goes about it are not necessarily the right ways, but at least she tries to change it to make it better. The acceptable behaviors of the time in which she lived worked against her. Edna stays married because divorce was unheard of in those days. She wants to marry Robert, but he will not because it will disgrace her to leave her husband. She exceeds the social boundaries of the day by going her own way and

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Hates Irrational Justification :: essays research papers

Hate’s Irrational Justification On Sept. 6, 2001, Richard Baumhammers, â€Å"a 36 year-old immigration lawyer, received five death sentences plus 112  ½ to 225 years in prison for a mass shooting rampage in April 2000 that killed his Jewish neighbor, two Asian men, and Indian man and a black man.† (â€Å"For the Record†) This incident was classified as a â€Å"hate crime† (a crime motivated solely on hate). Hatred is an extreme, on-going outburst powerful resentment and dislike of something or someone. How can something so powerful, such as hate, fulfill the minds of so many people? The odd thing about it, also, is that, hate does not cloud the minds of certain people only, the range of people is too great to be able to even start classifying them. Hate, like human feeling, is not rational but it has its reasons. Hate is irrational. Hate is created when people lose their ability to properly reason with anyone or with themselves for that matter. Hate is felt when someone feels trapped, unable to find another way of finding a solution to something that does not sit well in their minds. The Ku Klux Klan, who openly demonstrate hate towards African Americans, for example was compiled of middle to lower class white citizens that felt like their families, jobs, and lives were being threatened by the increase of African Americans living in the United States (Office Copy: Hate). As a result of this feeling of hopelessness and fear, they lynched and attacked African Americans for many years. Even till this day they have not completely seized harassment. Many people will agree that this is not a suitable solution for anything. Nothing was done to peacefully solve this conflict or mediate, instead, the KKK resorted to violence and open hatred. Another example is the Neo-nazi formation in the U.S. (Intel ligence report magazine) The Nazi party headed by Hitler in the nineteen thirties and forties hated Jews and anyone not part of the, so-called â€Å"Aryan nation† because they also felt threatened. As a so-called, â€Å"solution† to their insecurities they persecuted Jews. So why would Americans adopt this now, in the twenty-first century? According to William Pierce. Leader of the National Alliance, â€Å"†¦American people permitting the Jews to run their government and use American strength to advance Jews’ interests†¦ †(Published Interview) What Jewish interests? Pierce fails to say exactly what. No sense is being made.

Dialectical Journal Essay

Montag is confused of the fact that they are standing in front of his house, going to burn it, he understands why this is happening to him, but he doesn’t understand who told Captain Beatty about the books that Montag had in his possession, he thought about Mildred, and her friends that he had read the poem to, and he was correct. â€Å"What a dreadful surprise,† said Beatty. â€Å"For everyone nowadays knows, absolutely is certain, that nothing will ever happen to me. Others die, I go on. There are no consequences and no responsibilities. Except that there are. But let’s not talk about them, eh? By the time the consequences catch up with you, it’s too late, isn’t it, Montag?† (115). Captain Beatty is explaining that people never think that they will be caught, that it could never happen to me, and then it does, and then the consequences that come after their actions don’t matter to him, and that they shouldn’t think about what’s going to happen to Montag after they’re done burning his house, and all of his things. â€Å"It was pretty silly, quoting poetry around free and easy like that. It was the act of a silly damn snob. Give a man a few lines of verse and he thinks he’s the Lord of all Creation. You think you can walk on water with your books. Well, the world can get by just fine without them† (117-118). People that you have given little intelligence over the rest of society find themselves omnipotent to everyone and everything else, and that the world would be better off without these people living, so burn the books that give you knowledge, and there are no people to stand-up/stand out against society in any matter. â€Å"watch for a man running †¦ watch for the running man . . . watch for a man alone, on foot . . . watch†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (124). Shows that the police are after Montag, he’s on foot, and alone, but this has  not description of him, so the Police will stop a lot of people on their route of finding him, and that they need another way of singling him out from the rest of society. They would have killed me, thought Montag, swaying, the air still torn and stirring about him in dust, touching his bruised cheek. For no reason at all in the world they would have killed me. â€Å"Mechanical Hound never fails. Never since its first use in tracking quarry has this incredible invention made a mistake. Tonight, this network is proud to have the opportunity to follow the Hound by camera helicopter as it starts on its way to the target†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (133). (Thinking that Beatty would’ve killed him, with no second thought about it, the hound was programmed never to make a mistake, and if Montag didn’t intervene than he would be dead, and in a body bag by now, and no one would’ve cared, and for no good reason he would be dead) The force has no sent another hound after him, to hunt him down, seize him, and them kill him in as little time as possible, this shows that no one questions why they are doing this, and they just want a good show. Would he have time for a speech? As the Hound seized him, in view of ten or twenty or thirty million people, mightn’t he sum up his entire life in the last week in one single phrase or a word that would stay with them long after the Hound had turned, clenching him in its metal-plier jaws, and trotted off in darkness, while the camera remained stationary, watching the creature dwindle in the distance— a splendid fade-out! What could he say in a single word, a few words, that would sear all their faces and wake them up?(135). He is thinking that if he was caught, would he have time for the last words anyone will ever hear him speak? If he did what would he say, how would he say it? Would anyone care after t he hound is done with it’s brutal job that is being streamed on 30 million televisions, could he say something that could get the society think about what the people with more power are doing, right now, no one is, but later will someone. â€Å"And he was surprised to learn how certain he suddenly was of a single fact he could not prove. Once, long ago, Clarisse had walked here, where he was walking now† (145). He couldn’t prove that Clarisse had been on these exact railroad tracks, but he is certain she has been in this situation before, a loner, on the outside looking in, getting away from the people that want to harm you, leaving everything you’ve ever had or known behind, as Montag was doing now. â€Å"They’re faking. You threw them off at the river. They can’t admit it. They know they can hold their audience only so long. The show’s got to have a snap ending, quick! If they started searching the whole damn river it might take all night. So they’re sniffing for a scape-goat to end things with a bang. Watch. They’ll catch Montag in the next five minutes!† (148). Granger is saying that the newscasters that are pursuing Montag have already located him, and they are trying to make it suspenseful for the audience to watch, so that the show will have a quick, effective ending that leaves everyone is a good mood, and happy with their entertainment. â€Å"Right now, some poor fellow is out for a walk. A rarity. An odd one. Don’t think the police don’t know the habits of queer ducks like that, men who walk mornings for the hell of it, or for reasons of insomnia. Anyway, the police have had him charted for months, years. Never know when that sort of information might be handy. And today, it turns out, it’s very usable indeed† (148). A poor man, a peculiar man, that is not Montag is being persued, instead of the actual Montag, he has been tracked for years without his knowledge, and the police know everything about him, that can be used to frame him, and be portrayed as Montag, and now’s he’s dead, taking the place of Montag death to be shown on national television. The search is over, Montag is dead; a crime against society has been avenged.  (149) â€Å"They didn’t show the man’s face in focus. Did you notice? The newscasters are lying about Montag’s death, he is still alive and about, and people know, due to the un focused view that the camera has put on his face, so while the news chase comes to an end, Montag is still alive and breathing, and in Granger’s care, where he is safe and â€Å"dead†. Even your best friends couldn’t tell if it was you. They scrambled it just enough to let the imagination take over. â€Å"Hell,† he whispered. â€Å"Hell.† (149-150) Shows that the news has scrambled the image of Montag’s fake body on the television to where even the people that are very close to Montag cannot recognize him, so that no one asks question about who that actually is, and why is Montag still living, and Granger wants people to know that Montag is not dead, so that the people know that the media are frauds. Walk carefully. Guard your health. If anything should happen to Harris, you are the Book of Ecclesiastes. (151) Shows how important Montag had become in the last minute of conversation, and that Montag will be safe with the band of â€Å"ex-professors† that have taken him under their wing, and shows that they represent the book nation, and will help restore through the knowledge of books that everyone once knew. â€Å"The most important single thing we had to pound into ourselves is that we were not important†(153). Shows that their clan needs to remember that they can’t feel superior to any one in the world, that they need to be nothing more than dust jackets for books, and of no significance otherwise when passing on their teaching to the rest of the world. â€Å"It’s strange, I don’t miss her, it’s strange, I don’t feel much of anything†(155). Shows that even though his ex-wife will die in the next few hours, he doesn’t feel emotions, no emotions of pain or love, he doesn’t feel anything towards the death of people, and the feeling of being alone when no one else is. The first bomb struck. â€Å"Mildred!†(159). When the jets flying above them drop the first bomb on the city behind them and levels it, he is thinking about Mildred, he saw the walls go dark on Millie’s face, he heard her screaming in his mind, the million of tons of bricks, metal, plaster and wood to meet the other people in the hive below. He thought about no more Mildred.