Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Sui Dynasty Essay Example for Free

Sui Dynasty Essay China is known for its diversity of dynasties which occur within history. Although China’s dynasties do not last forever, many of them have presented impressive advances in government, military, agriculture and economy. However, one dynasty in particular, the Sui Dynasty, remarks its significance with its accomplishments within such a short period of time. By the end of China’s northern and southern dynasties (386-589 C. E. ), the nation was left unified. In 581, Yang Jian, a prime minister of northern Zhou Dynasty, replaced the dynasty with Sui and appointed himself Emperor Wen. Therefore, Yang Jian’s replacement marked the beginning of the Sui Dynasty. Many historians and students claim that the Sui Dynasty was not a significant dynasty due to only lasting a brief thirty-eight years. Nevertheless, the new dynasty is rather extraordinary. Soon after the Sui Dynasty was founded, eight years later, the Sui court defeated the remaining southern dynasty of Chen and finally reunited the whole nation for once. This was not however the end of their actions. The Sui Dynasty developed a unique political system which executed organization within the citizens. Three Departments and Six Ministries were created; the first ever in Chinese history. The Three Departments could be compared to the division of the United States government with the separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers (Chinese Sui Dynasty). Such departments are known as the Secretariat, the Chancellery, and the Department of State Affairs or the Zhongshu Sheng, Menxia Sheng and Shangshu Sheng. To illustrate, the job of Zhongshu Sheng is â€Å"transmitting the emperors intention, overseeing confidential files, and issuing government orders. † according to travelchinaguide. com. Meanwhile, the Menxia Sheng choose whether to keep or veto orders and Shangshu Sheng carried out orders from the previous departments. On the other hand, the Six ministries included: Ministry for Personnel (Li4 Bu), Revenue (Hu Bu), Rites (Li3 Bu), War (Bing Bu), Justice (Xing Bu) and Works (Gong Bu). For example, the Li4 Bu handled human resources like â€Å"appointing, dismissing, promoting, demoting, selecting, and evaluating state servants. † On the contrary, â€Å"Bing Bu chiefly took charge of the weapons and the books on strategies available for military officials and was also in charge of announcing military orders. (Chinese Sui Dynasty). In addition, these ministries under the Three Department branch of Shangshu Sheng, each controlled four additional departments called Si. In order to improve the selection of political office, the Jiupin Zhongzheng Hierarchical System was replaced with the Imperial Examination System that implemented studying, talent and political examinations. Unquestionably, the innovations injected organization and increased royal power with the limitations the political systems provided. Furthermore, to promote prosperity throughout the dynasty, the Sui developed two new polices known as the Juntian and Zutio System. In attempt to lower the gap between the rich and poor, the Juntian System provided equal divisions of fields depending on the number of people in each home (Sui Dynasty (581-618)). Pursuing this further, the Zutio System increased its governmental income through tax moderation. The changes promoted social economy likewise to agriculture growth. Similarly, advances in ship building helped agriculture rise too. To create a unifying ideology for the state, Emperor Wen introduced Buddhism and Daoism, although Confucianism had been already established. Wen even appointed Buddhist monks to high positions like political advisers (Duiker Spielvogel 256). Emperor Wen’s decision benefited the dynasty with cultural exchange among other nations. By the same time, Emperor Wen started the construction of a 1,400 mile canal known as the Grand Canal. Sui Yangdi, Wen’s son, finished it to set up a communication system within the north and south. Centering Luoyang, the auxiliary capital of the Sui Dynasty, the canal served multiple purposes like transportation, cultural exchange and economical purposes. The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal continues to benefit people all over China† (Sui Dynasty (581-618)). In the light of advances, there is no doubt art took a toll of its own. During the Sui Dynasty, a stone arch bridge called Zhao Zhou Bridge was built by Li Chun which initiated the look on bridges for the future years to come. Also, Buddhist sculptures were well adored along with great the beginning of the porcelain industry. The combinations of all these aspects served as tools for the well-being of the dynasty. The Sui Dynasty lasted only thirty-eight short years. Emperor Wen’s unexpected death in 604 lead to second monarch, Yangguang taking the throne. Historically known as emperor Yang and a typical tyrant, he drove his own dynasty to an end with his ambition for power. Along with overworking the citizens and extreme shortage of food, one specific project of Yang’s destroyed the productive dynasty. Emperor Yang pressured war against Gaoli (modern day Korea) only to fill his own desire of success. Forcing men out of their farmland, families were destroyed and the agriculture and economy of the dynasty plummeted. After being defeated by Gaoli, the Sui Dynasty was left more unstable than ever before. As a result, the regime of the Sui Dynasty became rather unstable and in 618, when Emperor Yang was strangled by one of his subordinates, it completely collapsed. †(Chinese Sui Dynasty) Overall, the Sui Dynasty presented many accomplishments that either took longer to conquer or were never achieved by past dynasties. Improvements in agriculture, creation of economical polices, a new political system and the building of a communicational canal were some of the many projects that were impressively executed by the Sui Dynasty. This statement verifies that even though the Sui lasted less than forty years, the dynasty was by far significant.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Prohibition was Ineffective :: American History

Thirteen Years That Damaged America I have always taken an interest in the Roaring Twenties and that is why I decided to write my English term paper on an event that occurred in the 1920s. What follows is my term paper which concentrates on prohibition and why it was not effective, namely because of lack of enforcement, growth of crime, and the increase in the drinking rate. I hope this may be of some help to you. "Prohibition did not achieve its goals. Instead, it added to the problems it was intended to solve" (Thorton, 15). On Midnight of January 16, 1920, one of the personal habits and customs of most Americans suddenly came to a halt. The Eighteenth Amendment was put into effect and all importing, exporting, transporting, selling, and manufacturing of intoxicating liquor was put to an end. Shortly following the enactment of the Eighteenth Amendment, the National Prohibition Act, or the Volstead Act, as it was called because of its author, Andrew J. Volstead, was put into effect. This determined intoxicating liquor as anything having an alcoholic content of anything more than 0.5 percent, omitting alcohol used for medicinal and sacramental purposes. This act also set up guidelines for enforcement (Bowen, 154). Prohibition was meant to reduce the consumption of alcohol, seen by some as the devil's advocate, and thereby reduce crime, poverty, death rates, and improve the economy and the qual ity of life. "National prohibition of alcohol -- the 'noble experiment' -- was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve health and hygiene in America" (Thorton, 1). This, however, was undoubtedly to no avail. The Prohibition amendment of the 1920s was ineffective because it was unenforceable, it caused the explosive growth of crime, and it increased the amount of alcohol consumption. "It is impossible to tell whether prohibition is a good thing or a bad thing. It has never been enforced in this country" (LaGuardia). After the Volstead Act was put into place to determine specific laws and methods of enforcement, the Federal Prohibition Bureau was formulated in order to see that the Volstead Act was enforced. Nevertheless, these laws were flagrantly violated by bootleggers and alike. Bootleggers smuggled liquor from oversees and Canada,commoners stole it from government warehouses, and produc ed their own. Many people hid their liquor in hip flasks, false books, hollow canes, and anything else they could find (Bowen, 159).

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Static Ram and Dynamic Ram

What is the difference between static RAM and dynamic RAM in my computer? Your computer probably uses both static RAM and dynamic RAM at the same time, but it uses them for different reasons because of the cost difference between the two types. If you understand how dynamic RAM and static RAM chips work inside, it is easy to see why the cost difference is there, and you can also understand the names. Dynamic RAM is the most common type of memory in use today. Inside a dynamic RAM chip, each memory cell holds one bit of information and is made up of two parts: a transistor and a capacitor.These are, of course, extremely small transistors and capacitors so that millions of them can fit on a single memory chip. The capacitor holds the bit of information — a 0 or a 1 (see How Bits and Bytes Work for information on bits). The transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the memory chip read the capacitor or change its state. A capacitor is like a small bucket that is able to store electrons. To store a 1 in the memory cell, the bucket is filled with electrons. To store a 0, it is emptied. The problem with the capacitor's bucket is that it has a leak.In a matter of a few milliseconds a full bucket becomes empty. Therefore, for dynamic memory to work, either the CPU or the memory controller has to come along and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge. To do this, the memory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second. This refresh operation is where dynamic RAM gets its name. Dynamic RAM has to be dynamically refreshed all of the time or it forgets what it is holding.The downside of all of this refreshing is that it takes time and slows down the memory. Static RAM uses a completely different technology. In static RAM, a form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory (see How Boolean Gates Work for detail on flip-flops). A flip-flop f or a memory cell takes 4 or 6 transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM significantly faster than dynamic RAM. However, because it has more parts, a static memory cell takes a lot more space on a chip than a dynamic memory cell.Therefore you get less memory per chip, and that makes static RAM a lot more expensive. So static RAM is fast and expensive, and dynamic RAM is less expensive and slower. Therefore static RAM is used to create the CPU's speed-sensitive cache, while dynamic RAM forms the larger system RAM space Inside This Article 1. Introduction to How Caching Works 2. A Simple Example: Before Cache 3. A Simple Example: After Cache 4. Computer Caches 5. Caching Subsystems 6. Cache Technology 7. Locality of Reference 8. Lots More Information |[pic] |If you have been shopping for a computer, then you have heard the word â€Å"cache. † Modern computers have both L1 and L2 caches, and many now also have L3 cache. You may also have gotten advice on the topic from well-meaning friends, perhaps something like â€Å"Don't buy that Celeron chip, it doesn't have any cache in it! † It turns out that caching is an important computer-science process that appears on every computer in a variety of forms. There are memory caches, hardware and software disk caches, page caches and more. Virtual memory is even a form of caching.In this article, we will explore caching so you can understand why it is so important. A Simple Example: Before Cache Caching is a technology based on the memory subsystem of your computer. The main purpose of a cache is to accelerate your computer while keeping the price of the computer low. Caching allows you to do your computer tasks more rapidly. To understand the basic idea behind a cache system, let's start with a super-simple example that uses a librarian to demonstrate caching concepts. Let's imagine a librarian behind his desk. He is there to give you the books you ask for.For t he sake of simplicity, let's say you can't get the books yourself — you have to ask the librarian for any book you want to read, and he fetches it for you from a set of stacks in a storeroom (the library of congress in Washington, D. C. , is set up this way). First, let's start with a librarian without cache. The first customer arrives. He asks for the book Moby Dick. The librarian goes into the storeroom, gets the book, returns to the counter and gives the book to the customer. Later, the client comes back to return the book. The librarian takes the book and returns it to the storeroom.He then returns to his counter waiting for another customer. Let's say the next customer asks for Moby Dick (you saw it coming†¦ ). The librarian then has to return to the storeroom to get the book he recently handled and give it to the client. Under this model, the librarian has to make a complete round trip to fetch every book — even very popular ones that are requested frequentl y. Is there a way to improve the performance of the librarian? Yes, there's a way — we can put a cache on the librarian. In the next section, we'll look at this same example but this time, the librarian will use a caching system.A Simple Example: After Cache Let's give the librarian a backpack into which he will be able to store 10 books (in computer terms, the librarian now has a 10-book cache). In this backpack, he will put the books the clients return to him, up to a maximum of 10. Let's use the prior example, but now with our new-and-improved caching librarian. The day starts. The backpack of the librarian is empty. Our first client arrives and asks for Moby Dick. No magic here — the librarian has to go to the storeroom to get the book. He gives it to the client. Later, the client returns and gives the book back to the librarian.Instead of returning to the storeroom to return the book, the librarian puts the book in his backpack and stands there (he checks first to see if the bag is full — more on that later). Another client arrives and asks for Moby Dick. Before going to the storeroom, the librarian checks to see if this title is in his backpack. He finds it! All he has to do is take the book from the backpack and give it to the client. There's no journey into the storeroom, so the client is served more efficiently. What if the client asked for a title not in the cache (the backpack)?In this case, the librarian is less efficient with a cache than without one, because the librarian takes the time to look for the book in his backpack first. One of the challenges of cache design is to minimize the impact of cache searches, and modern hardware has reduced this time delay to practically zero. Even in our simple librarian example, the latency time (the waiting time) of searching the cache is so small compared to the time to walk back to the storeroom that it is irrelevant. The cache is small (10 books), and the time it takes to notice a mis s is only a tiny fraction of the time that a journey to the storeroom takes.From this example you can see several important facts about caching: †¢ Cache technology is the use of a faster but smaller memory type to accelerate a slower but larger memory type. †¢ When using a cache, you must check the cache to see if an item is in there. If it is there, it's called a cache hit. If not, it is called a cache miss and the computer must wait for a round trip from the larger, slower memory area. †¢ A cache has some maximum size that is much Computer Caches A computer is a machine in which we measure time in very small increments.When the microprocessor accesses the main memory (RAM), it does it in about 60 nanoseconds (60 billionths of a second). That's pretty fast, but it is much slower than the typical microprocessor. Microprocessors can have cycle times as short as 2 nanoseconds, so to a microprocessor 60 nanoseconds seems like an eternity. What if we build a special memo ry bank in the motherboard, small but very fast (around 30 nanoseconds)? That's already two times faster than the main memory access. That's called a level 2 cache or an L2 cache. What if we build an even smaller but faster memory system directly into the microprocessor's chip?That way, this memory will be accessed at the speed of the microprocessor and not the speed of the memory bus. That's an L1 cache, which on a 233-megahertz (MHz) Pentium is 3. 5 times faster than the L2 cache, which is two times faster than the access to main memory. Some microprocessors have two levels of cache built right into the chip. In this case, the motherboard cache — the cache that exists between the microprocessor and main system memory — becomes level 3, or L3 cache. There are a lot of subsystems in a computer; you can put cache between many f them to improve performance. Here's an example. We have the microprocessor (the fastest thing in the computer). Then there's the L1 cache that c aches the L2 cache that caches the main memory which can be used (and is often used) as a cache for even slower peripherals like hard disks and CD-ROMs. The hard disks are also used to cache an even slower medium — your Internet connection The computer you are using to read this page uses a microprocessor to do its work. The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer, whether it is a desktop machine, a server or a laptop.The microprocessor you are using might be a Pentium, a K6, a PowerPC, a Sparc or any of the many other brands and types of microprocessors, but they all do approximately the same thing in approximately the same way. If you have ever wondered what the microprocessor in your computer is doing, or if you have ever wondered about the differences between types of microprocessors, then read on. In this article, you will learn how fairly simple digital logic techniques allow a computer to do its job, whether its playing a game or spell checking a document!A microprocessor — also known as a CPU or central processing unit — is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful — all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. Prior to the 4004, engineers built computers either from collections of chips or from discrete components (transistors wired one at a time). The 4004 powered one of the first portable electronic calculators. [pic] | |Intel 8080 | The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080, a complete 8-bit computer on one chip, introduced in 1974. The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982). If you are familiar with the PC market and its history, you know that the PC market moved from the 8088 to the 80286 to the 80386 to the 80486 to the Pentium to the Pentium II to the Pentium III to the Pentium 4.All of these microprocessors are made by Intel and all of them are improvements on the basic design of the 8088. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088, but it does it about 5,000 times faster! Microprocessor Progression: Intel The following table helps you to understand the differences between the different processors that Intel has introduced over the years. Name |Date |Transistors |Microns |Clock speed |Data | |Microprocessor Progression: Intel The following table helps you to understand the differences between the different processors that Intel has introduced over the years.Name |Date |Transistors |Microns |Clock speed |Data width |MIPS | |8080 |1974 |6,000 |6 |2 MHz |8 bits |0. 64 | |8088 |1979 |29,000 |3 |5 MHz |16 bits 8-bit bus |0. 33 | |80286 |1982 |134,000 |1. 5 |6 MHz |16 bits |1 | |80386 |1985 |275, 000 |1. 5 |16 MHz |32 bits |5 | |80486 |1989 |1,200,000 |1 |25 MHz |32 bits |20 | |Pentium |1993 |3,100,000 |0. 8 |60 MHz |32 bits 64-bit bus |100 | |Pentium II |1997 |7,500,000 |0. 35 |233 MHz |32 bits 64-bit bus |~300 | |Pentium III |1999 |9,500,000 |0. 25 |450 MHz |32 bits 64-bit bus |~510 | |Pentium 4 |2000 |42,000,000 |0. 8 |1. 5 GHz |32 bits 64-bit bus |~1,700 | |Pentium 4 â€Å"Prescott† |2004 |125,000,000 |0. 09 |3. 6 GHz |32 bits 64-bit bus |~7,000 | | Compiled from The Intel Microprocessor Quick Reference Guide and TSCP Benchmark Scores Information about this table: †¢ . †¢ rises. †¢ Clock speed is the maximum rate that the chip can be clocked at. Clock speed will make more sense in the next section. †¢ Data Width is the width of the ALU. An 8-bit ALU can add/subtract/multiply/etc. two 8-bit numbers, while a 32-bit ALU can manipulate 32-bit numbers.An 8-bit ALU would have to execute four instructions to add two 32-bit numbers, while a 32-bit ALU can do it in one instruction. In many cases, the external data bus is the same width as the ALU, but not always. The 8088 had a 16-bit ALU and an 8-bit bus, while the modern Pentiums fetch data 64 bits at a time for their 32-bit ALUs. †¢ MIPS stands for â€Å"millions of instructions per second† and is a rough measure of the performance of a CPU. Modern CPUs can do so many different things that MIPS ratings lose a lot of their meaning, but you can get a general sense of the relative power of the CPUs from this column.From this table you can see that, in general, there is a relationship between clock speed and MIPS. The maximum clock speed is a function of the manufacturing process and delays within the chip. There is also a relationship between the number of transistors and MIPS. For example, the 8088 clocked at 5 MHz but only executed at 0. 33 MIPS (about one instruction per 15 clock cycles). Modern processors can often execute at a rate of two instructions per clock cy cle. That improvement is directly related to the number of transistors on the chip and will make more sense in the next section.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Taking a Look at the Gettysburg Address - 507 Words

The Gettysburg Address - Abraham Lincoln 1863 The Gettysburg speech was short, sharp, powerful and one to remember. Still to this day it remains to a well known, well respected speech. Lets start with something obvious, the author and audience. The Gettysburg address delivered by the American, president Abraham Lincoln. The reason behind giving the speech was given was to dedicate the ground at, Gettysburg, as a Cemetery and to honor the men who died in Battle. We also need to keep in mind that the federal election was coming up, and America wanted to hear from the president about the war. Over 10,000 people had gathered at the cemetery to listen to his speech. Yet lincons speech was addressed to many more than just that. It was dedicated to people all over America, about what will happen in the upcoming year, and who will lead the country. It was delivered on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, It only took Abraham a couple of minutes to deliver the Gettysburg address, yet there is so much, packed into it. The Gettysburg address was not so much focused on an issue or debate. When Lincoln started writing this speech, its intention was to be in memory, devotion and honor to those who died, and also to declare the ground as a cemetery. He says â€Å"We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation mightShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address981 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Fourscore and seven years ago†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is the statement in which Abraham Lincoln started â€Å"The Gettysburg Address†.152 years ago, Lincoln delivered this well-known speech in front of an audience who was searching for help during a time of war. Some may believe it was not an inspiration why others will say it was. To some Americans, it might have even brought faith. Just like any other work, this essay was composed of a rhetorical situation and rhetorical devices; which can be broken down into specific factorsRead MoreThe Gettysburg Address By Johnathon Hennessey936 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Four Score and Seven Years Ago† is one of the most famously well-known statements in American History. This was the opening line to The Gettysburg Address given by Abraham Lincoln on November 9th in 1863. This speech was given during the Civil War, with the Unionists on one side and the Secessionists on the other. America was one of the very few countries in which slavery was still legal. The Unionists (northern states), were supporters of the United States federal government and wanted to abolishRead MoreEssay The Battle of Gettysburg1242 Words   |  5 PagesThe Battle of Gettysburg was the most important battle of the civil war. 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C.: With malice toward none; with charityRead MoreRebuilding the Government: United States History1998 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Critical Essay One Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president, was one of the most decorated commander-in-chiefs in American History, due to his never-ending push to mend our broken nation and move to the beginning. Nevertheless, many African Americans were forced to come to America to be sold into slavery in 1619. While the treatment of slaves was very unfair and, in many cases, inhumane, and was plagued with a lifetimeRead MoreCivil War And Its Greatest Moral, Constitutional, And Political Crisis1248 Words   |  5 Pagesidea, saying that he will suffer death before he consent ... to any concession or compromise, which looks like buying the privilege to take possession of this government to which they have a constitutional right. 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On June 29th, the newly appointed Commander ordered his army to pursue General Lee. They would later meet at Gettysburg. Gettysburg was a point of strategic importance, many roads concentrated there. An army could easily converge or diverge from this point. The day before the battle began, Confederate troops managed to reach Gettysburg before Union troops. They had taken up positions to the north west of town. Union troops arriving from the south of town sent scoutsRead MoreWhat Was The Civil War?1490 Words   |  6 Pagesof armed hostilities were the culmination of decades of growing sectional friction over slavery.† At the time of the Civil War Abraham Lincoln was serving as our president. One famous piece of literature to come out of the war was Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. So did men, women, or both serve in the war? The answer to that question is that both men and women fought side by side in the war. There were actually many ways that women contributed to the war. Furthermore, women were a substantial part